Chapter 9, Section Essential Questions! How did monarchs gain power over nobles and the Church? What traditions of government developed under John and later English monarchs? How did strong monarchs succeed in unifying France? 1
Chapter 9, Section Monarchs, Nobles, and the Church During feudal times, monarchs in Europe stood at the head of society but had limited power. Nobles and the Church had as much—or more—power than the monarchs. 1
Chapter 9, Section In order to expand their power, monarchs: set up royal courts organized government bureaucracies developed systems of taxation built standing armies strengthened ties with the middle class
Chapter 9, Section In this way, little by little over many centuries, these monarchs built the framework for modern- day nation states.
Chapter 9, Section Evolution of English Government
Chapter 9, Section Evolution of English Government 1 1066 Norman Conquest = William Duke of Normandy defeats Anglo-Saxons at Hastings.
Chapter 9, Section Now called William the Conqueror, he assumes the Crown of England. Over time the French and Saxons blend cultures that we now know as English culture.
Chapter 9, Section William exerts very strict control over his area. Grants many fiefs and DEMANDS loyalty from Lords and vassals. Required allegiance first to him before anyone else.
Chapter 9, Section To learn about his kingdom William orders a complete census taken of the kingdom.
Chapter 9, Section 1086 Domesday Book = William I uses this survey as a basis for taxation.
Chapter 9, Section William’s successors continued to increase royal authority and collect taxes. Created royal exchequer, or treasury, and collected vast wealth for the Crown.
Chapter 9, Section 1160s–1180s Common Law = Henry II lays foundation for English legal system.
Chapter 9, Section Common Law is a legal system based on custom and court rulings. Unlike feudal law that applied only to the area of the feudal Lord in charge, it applies to ALL of England
Chapter 9, Section King Henry II also develops a jury system. A jury is a group of men sworn to speak the truth. Their job was to decide which cases should be brought to trial like our Grand Juries of today.
Chapter 9, Section All these changes led to bitter disputes between the King and the Church. Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury, opposed the strengthening of the king’s power.
Chapter 9, Section Becket gets murdered in the Church! Henry denies any association with the murder.
Chapter 9, Section Henry’s son John comes to power. Clever Cruel Greedy Untrustworthy
Chapter 9, Section He goes to war with Phillip II in Spain! Loses English land in Spain
Chapter 9, Section Then he tangled with Pope Leo III over the new Archbishop of Canterbury. This was NOT good! The Pope threatens to excommunicate John and place an interdict on England.
Chapter 9, Section To save himself and the Crown he is forced to consider England a fief and pay a yearly fee to Rome! See how powerful that interdict threat is??
Chapter 9, Section Now the feudal Lords go after John! They want to restrict is power and limit his ability to tax as well.
Chapter 9, Section 1215 Magna Carta = John signs this document limiting royal power and extending rights of feudal Lords, townspeople and some rights for the Church.
Chapter 9, Section The most important restriction? A clause protecting every free man from arbitrary arrest, imprisonment, and other legal actions except by “legal judgment of his peer or by the law of the land.” This is the basis of “due process of law” today!
Chapter 9, Section Important precedents of the Magna Carta: 1. Nobles had certain rights in England that eventually applied to all English citizens. 2. Even government rulers must obey the law!
Chapter 9, Section 1295 Model Parliament = Edward I summons Parliament, which includes representatives of common people to approve taxes for a war.
Chapter 9, Section His thought: What affects all should be approved by all !
Chapter 9, Section Royal Lands in France, 987-1328 1
Chapter 9, Section Successful Monarchs in France Monarchs in France did not rule over a unified kingdom. However, under strong Capetian kings, such as Philip II and Louis IX, they slowly increased royal power. 1
Chapter 9, Section Feudal Lords chose Hugh Capet to rule in 987. Chosen because he was considered weak
Chapter 9, Section Changes under Capet Made throne hereditary (Capetians rule for over 300 years) Won the favor of the Church Played feudal Lords against each other and added to their land = $ = power!
Chapter 9, Section Most importantly, created bureaucracy to centralize government. They collected taxes, imposed royal order and added to their prestige.
Chapter 9, Section Capetians made the throne hereditary added to their lands by playing rival nobles against each other won the support of the Church built an effective bureaucracy
Chapter 9, Section Philip II Granted charters to new towns Introduced a standing army Filled government positions with loyal middle-class officials Introduced new national tax Quadrupled land holdings
Chapter 9, Section Louis IX 1226 Checked up on local officials Expanded royal courts Outlawed private wars. Ended serfdom in his lands Left France an efficient, centralized monarchy
Chapter 9, Section Philip IV Ruthless; tried to collect new taxes from the clergy Upsets Pope Boniface VIII who told Philip NO WAY! Leads to war between the two- Pope injured and eventually dies.
Chapter 9, Section A Frenchman is elected Pope! Yes you read that correctly…A French pope!! He moves the papacy to Avignon ensuring future French leaders could control religion within their kingdom.
Chapter 9, Section Philip also sets up the Estates General (1302) Representatives from all three classes of society But was never as powerful as Parliament in England was.
Chapter 9, Section Section 1 Assessment How was the Domesday Book used? a) Monarchs used it as a basis for taxation. b) Royal officials used it to keep track of deaths in the empire. c) Monarchs used it to keep track of their vassals. d) The Church used it to list the names of citizens who had been excommunicated. Which French monarch ended serfdom in his lands? a) Philip II b)Hugh Capet c) Louis IX d) Philip IV 1 Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.Click Here.
Chapter 9, Section Section 1 Assessment 1 How was the Domesday Book used? a) Monarchs used it as a basis for taxation. b) Royal officials used it to keep track of deaths in the empire. c) Monarchs used it to keep track of their vassals. d) The Church used it to list the names of citizens who had been excommunicated. Which French monarch ended serfdom in his lands? a) Philip II b)Hugh Capet c) Louis IX d) Philip IV Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.Click Here.
Chapter 9, Section The Holy Roman Empire and the Church Why did Holy Roman emperors fail to build a unified state in Germany? How did power struggles and rivalry in Italy affect popes and emperors? What powers did the Church have at its height? 2
Chapter 9, Section The Holy Roman Empire After the death of Charlemagne, the Holy Roman Empire dissolved into a number of separate states. German emperors claimed authority over much of central and eastern Europe and parts of France and Italy. The hundreds of nobles and Church officials, who were the emperor’s vassals, held the real power. With secular and religious rulers advancing rival claims to power, explosive conflicts erupted between monarchs and the Church. 2
Chapter 9, Section The Struggle Over Investiture The Holy Roman emperors and other monarchs often appointed the Church officials within their realm. This practice was known as lay investiture. Popes, such as Gregory VII, tried to end lay investiture, which they saw as outside interference from secular rulers. The struggle over investiture dragged on for almost 50 years. Finally, in 1122, both sides accepted a treaty known as the Concordat of Worms. It stated that only the Church could appoint bishops, but that the emperor had the right to invest them with fiefs. 2
Chapter 9, Section German Emperors in Italy During the 1100s and 1200s, ambitious German emperors struggled with powerful popes as they tried to gain control of Italy. While the emperors were involved in Italy, German nobles grew more independent. As a result, Germany did not achieve unity for another 600 years. In Italy, the popes asked the French to help them overthrow the German emperors. Power struggles in Italy and Sicily led to 200 years of chaos in that region. 2
Chapter 9, Section The Height of Church Power “The pope stands between God and man, lower than God, but higher than men, who judges all and is judged by no one.” —Pope Innocent III Pope Innocent III claimed supremacy over all other rulers. He used the tools of excommunication and interdict to punish monarchs who challenged his power. After Innocent’s death, popes continued to press their claims for supremacy. However, English and French monarchies were becoming stronger. The papacy soon entered a period of decline. 2
Chapter 9, Section Section 2 Assessment The Concordat of Worms established that a) only emperors could appoint Church officials. b) only popes could appoint Church officials. c) both emperors and popes could appoint Church officials. d) only popes could invest bishops with fiefs. While German emperors were involved in Italy, a) German nobles lost most of their power. b) Germany quickly achieved unity. c) German nobles grew more independent. d) the French invaded and conquered Germany. 2 Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.Click Here.
Chapter 9, Section Section 2 Assessment 2 The Concordat of Worms established that a) only emperors could appoint Church officials. b) only popes could appoint Church officials. c) both emperors and popes could appoint Church officials. d) only popes could invest bishops with fiefs. While German emperors were involved in Italy, a) German nobles lost most of their power. b) Germany quickly achieved unity. c) German nobles grew more independent. d) the French invaded and conquered Germany. Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.Click Here.
Chapter 9, Section Europeans Look Outward What advanced civilizations flourished around the world in 1050? What were the causes and effects of the Crusades? How did Christians in Spain carry out the Reconquista? 3
Chapter 9, Section The World in 1050 Scholars studied Greek and Roman writings. Merchants mingled with traders from the Italian states. Mayas cleared rain forests to build cities. Native Americans in Peru built empires. The Sonike people built the great trading empire of Ghana. Merchants traded gold all over the world. Culture flourished under Tang and Song dynasties. Chinese made advances in technology. Cities thrived, despite political division. Hinduism and Buddhism flourished. Islamic civilization spread from Spain to India. Islamic traders went as far as West Africa. As Western Europe was just emerging from a period of isolation, civilizations were thriving elsewhere. ISLAMIC EMPIREINDIA CHINA WEST AFRICAAMERICASBYZANTINE EMPIRE 3
Chapter 9, Section The Crusades Turks invade Palestine and attack Christian pilgrims. Crusaders were motivated by religious zeal and the desire to win wealth and land. Pope Urban hopes to heal the schism, or split, between Roman and Byzantine churches and increase papal power. Religious hatred grows. Trade increases. Europe develops a money economy, which helps undermine serfdom. Power of feudal monarchs increases. Europeans become curious about the world. CAUSES EFFECTS 3
Chapter 9, Section Western Europe Emerges From Isolation 3 Population growth End of feudalism Centralized monarchies Growth of Italian trading centers Increased productivity Renaissance Age of Exploration Scientific Revolution Western European colonies in Asia, Africa, and the Americas Immediate Effects Long-Term Effects
Chapter 9, Section The Reconquista After 1492 – Isabella ended the tradition of religious toleration established by the Muslims and launched a brutal crusade against Jews and Muslims. 1492 – Christians, under Isabella and Ferdinand, recaptured Grenada. The Reconquista was complete. 1469 – Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon, uniting two powerful kingdoms. 1300 – Christians gained control of the entire Iberian peninsula, with the exception of Grenada. 1085 – Christians recaptured the city of Toledo. 700s – Muslims conquered most of Spain. Christians began efforts to drive the Muslims out. The campaign to drive the Muslims from Spain became known as the Reconquista, or “reconquest.” 3
Chapter 9, Section Section 3 Assessment Which of the following was not an effect of the Crusades on Europe? a) increased religious tolerance b) growth of a money economy c) curiosity about the world d) an increase in the power of feudal monarchs After the Reconquista, Jews and Muslims in Spain a) won important government positions. b) were persecuted. c) were forced to convert to Christianity. d) were allowed to continue to worship as they pleased. 3 Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.Click Here.
Chapter 9, Section Section 3 Assessment 3 Which of the following was not an effect of the Crusades on Europe? a) increased religious tolerance b) growth of a money economy c) curiosity about the world d) an increase in the power of feudal monarchs After the Reconquista, Jews and Muslims in Spain a) won important government positions. b) were persecuted. c) were forced to convert to Christianity. d) were allowed to continue to worship as they pleased. Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.Click Here.
Chapter 9, Section Learning, Literature, and the Arts How did medieval universities advance learning? How did “new” learning affect medieval thought? What styles of literature, architecture, and art developed in the High Middle Ages? 4
Chapter 9, Section Medieval Universities By the 1100s, schools to train the clergy had sprung up around the great cathedrals. Some of these cathedral schools evolved into the first universities. The first universities were in Salerno and Bologna in Italy, and then in Oxford and Paris. The curriculum covered the seven liberal arts: arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music, grammar, rhetoric, and logic. Women were not allowed to attend the universities. As economic and political conditions improved, the need for education expanded. 4
Chapter 9, Section “New Learning” and Medieval Thought An explosion of knowledge reached Europe in the High Middle Ages. Many of the new ideas were based on logic and reason, and posed a challenge to Christian thought, which was based on faith. Christian scholars, known as scholastics, tried to resolve the conflict between faith and reason. Scholasticism used logic to support Christian beliefs. The scholastic Thomas Aquinas concluded that faith and reason existed in harmony. Both led to the same truth, that God ruled over an orderly universe. Science made little progress in the Middle Ages because most scholars still believed that all true knowledge must fit with Church teachings. 4
Chapter 9, Section Literature, Architecture, and Art Sculptors portrayed religious themes. Stained-glass windows added to the splendor of Gothic churches. The Gothic style was applied to painting and illumination, the artistic decoration of books. Towering stone cathedrals symbolized wealth and religious devotion. The Romanesque style reflected Roman influences. The Gothic Style was characterized by flying buttresses, or stone supports that stood outside the church. New writings in the vernacular, or language of everyday people, captured the spirit of the times. The epic Song of Roland (France) Dante’s Divine Comedy (Italy) Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales (England) ART ARCHITECTURE LITERATURE As economic and political conditions improved, Europeans made notable achievements in literature and the arts. 4
Chapter 9, Section Section 4 Assessment What did the scholastics believe? a) that logic and faith could co-exist b) that logic and faith could never co-exist c) that logic should win out over faith d) that faith should win out over logic What were the two main architectural styles of the High Middle Ages? a) Romanesque and scholastic b) Romanesque and Gothic c) Gothic and illuminated d) Gothic and vernacular 4 Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.Click Here.
Chapter 9, Section Section 4 Assessment 4 What did the scholastics believe? a) that logic and faith could co-exist b) that logic and faith could never co-exist c) that logic should win out over faith d) that faith should win out over logic What were the two main architectural styles of the High Middle Ages? a) Romanesque and scholastic b) Romanesque and Gothic c) Gothic and illuminated d) Gothic and vernacular Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.Click Here.
Chapter 9, Section A Time of Crisis How did the Black Death cause social and economic decline? What problems afflicted the Church in the late Middle Ages? What were the causes, turning points, and effects of the Hundred Years’ War? 5
Chapter 9, Section Spread of the Black Death By 1347, the bubonic plague had spread to Europe. Before it had finished taking its toll, one in three Europeans had died. 5
Chapter 9, Section The Black Death Caused Social and Economic Decline. Some people turned to magic and witchcraft for cures. Others believed they were being punished by God. Some people turned to wild pleasure, believing the end was inevitable. Normal life broke down. Individuals turned away from neighbors and relatives to avoid contagion. Christians blamed and persecuted Jews. As workers died, production declined. Surviving workers demanded higher wages. As the cost of labor soared, inflation, or rising prices, broke out. Landowners abandoned farming, forcing villagers to look for work in the towns. Unable to find work, peasants revolted. Social Effects Economic Effects 5
Chapter 9, Section Upheaval in the Church Many priests and monks died during the plague. Plague survivors questioned why God had spared some and killed others. The Church could not provide strong leadership in desperate times. The papal court was moved to Avignon, during a period known as the Babylonian Captivity. Popes lived in luxury. Popular preachers challenged the power of the Church. The late Middle Ages brought spiritual crisis, scandal, and division to the Roman Catholic Church. 5
Chapter 9, Section Hundred Years’ War, 1337–1453 5
Chapter 9, Section The Hundred Years’ War English rulers wanted to keep the French lands of their Norman ancestors. French kings wanted to extend their own power in France. In 1337, Edward III claimed the French crown. Once fighting started, economic rivalry and a growing sense of national pride made it difficult for either side to give up. In France, national feeling grew and kings expanded their power. In England, Parliament gained the “power of the purse,” and kings began looking at trading ventures overseas. The longbow and cannon made soldiers more important and knights less valuable. Castles and knights became obsolete. Monarchs came to need large armies instead of feudal vassals. Between 1337 and 1453, England and France fought a series of conflicts, known as the Hundred Years’ War. CAUSES EFFECTS 5
Chapter 9, Section Turning Points of the Hundred Years’ War 5 Longbow During the early years of the war, English armies equipped with the longbow overpowered their French counterparts equipped with the crossbow. An English archer could shoot three arrows in the time it took a French archer to shoot one. Joan of Arc From 1429 to 1431, Joan’s successes in battle rallied the French forces to victory. French armies continued to win even after she was executed by the English. Cannon The cannon helped the French to capture English-held castles and defeat England’s armies. French cannons were instrumental in defeating English forces in Normandy.
Chapter 9, Section How many Europeans died from the Black Death? a) one in three b) one in fifty c) one in one thousand d) one in one hundred Which was not an effect of the Hundred Years’ War? a) Knights and castles became more important. b) Knights and castles became obsolete. c) The English Parliament gained “power of the purse.” d) French kings expanded their power. Section 5 Assessment 5 Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.Click Here.
Chapter 9, Section 5 How many Europeans died from the Black Death? a) one in three b) one in fifty c) one in one thousand d) one in one hundred Which was not an effect of the Hundred Years’ War? a) Knights and castles became more important. b) Knights and castles became obsolete. c) The English Parliament gained “power of the purse.” d) French kings expanded their power. Section 5 Assessment Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.Click Here.