7 1500s-1700s England, France, Holland, Portugal, and Spain Wars over colonies
8 INTERLUDE – LATE 1700s-LATE 1800s Europeans were preoccupied with happenings on the European continent and in the existing European colonies.American RevolutionFrench RevolutionNapoleonic WarsLatin American Wars for IndependenceGrowth of NationalismIndustrial Revolution
9 ImperialismImperialism is the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region“Old Imperialism”…Europeans gained cultural dominance in the Americas (Spanish, British and French colonies)Europeans only gained toeholds in Africa, India and China
10 Imperialism “New Imperialism”….1800’s Western powers were stronger politically and economicallyEuropeans begin an aggressive expansion worldwide, not just in the Americas
11 Causes of the New Imperialism Economic InterestsIndustrial Revolution created needs for natural resourcesSources of raw materialsEgypt – cottonMalaya – rubber and tinMiddle East – oilManufacturers hoped for new marketsColonies offered an outlet for expanding populationWhat other options did countries like Britain, who had very few natural resources, have to gain the materials they needed for their industries?When a country like France gained a colony in Africa, it would quickly be surrounded by countries like Germany and Britain to keep it from expanding too far.
12 Political and Military Interests Steam powered merchant/naval vessels needed bases to take on coal and suppliesBritish naval bases: Aden, Alexandria,Cyprus, Hong Kong, SingaporeManpowerBritish – Indian sepoysFrench – north African troopsNationalism led European powers to compete for similar regionsEuropeans believed ruling a global empire increased a nation’s prestige
13 Causes of the New Imperialism Humanitarian GoalsEuropeans felt they had a duty to spread what they saw as the “blessings of western civilization”Social DarwinismGrowing sense in the West of racial superiorityEuropean races, they argued, were superior to all others and imperial conquest and destruction of weaker races were simply nature’s way of improving the human species“Survival of the fittest”Surplus population: Japanese in Korea, Italians in AfricaWhat is a humanitarian?Is a country who feels they are doing good, truly in the wrong?What are some of the “blessings of western civilization?”
14 JUSTIFICATIONS Social Darwinism Interpreted Darwin’s evolutionary theory in terms of powerful nations“Only the strong survive”Powerful nations able to develop areas and resources being “wasted” by native peoplesRacismIncreased feelings of white superiorityIncreased feelings of Japanese superiorityEugenics developed as a branch of science
16 RELIGIOUS MOTIVES Conversion to Christianity End-of-the-century crusading spiritMissionaries in Africa, Asia, Hawaii, etc.
17 Reasons for Success Weakness of Nonwestern States Western Advantages Older civilizations were in decline (Ottomans, Mughal India and Qing China)West Africa was experiencing wars due to effects of the slave tradeWestern AdvantagesStrong economies, well-organized governments and powerful armies/naviesSuperior technology and medical knowledgeQuinine, Maxim machine guns, repeating rifles, steam-driven warshipsWhere will the “new imperialism” focus according the the weak states above?Summarize how Europeans were able to colonize so easily.
18 CONCESSION IMPERIALISM Economic privileges and rights given for a specific purposeU.S. and British oil concessions throughout the Middle EastOttoman Turks granted Germany permission to build Berlin-to-Baghdad Railroad
19 SPHERE OF INFLUENCE IMPERIALISM Exclusive or special control over an area.ExamplesBritish trading rights in China’s Yangtze valleyFrench trading rights in southeastern ChinaJapanese trading rights in Korea
20 LEASEHOLD IMPERIALISM Lease over an areaSuez Canal CorporationSuez Canal built by French in 1860sControlled by British shortly thereafter until 1968Panama CanalUnited StatesGermans in KiaochowFrench in KwangchowBritish in WeihaiweiPlan of Suez Canal as envisioned in 1881.
21 Setbacks to Imperialism ResistanceAfricans and Asians strongly opposed western expansion into their landsNationalism movements rose to expel imperialistsCriticism at HomeSome Europeans believed colonialism was a tool of the richArgument: Westerners were moving toward greater democracy at home but imposing undemocratic rule on other peopleWhat would supporters of imperialism say to those Europeans who made the argument above?
22 Forms of Imperial Rule Imperial rule took many forms. Colonial Rule: Direct Rule: Sending officials and soldiers to administer colony. Impose nation’s culture on their colonies and turn them into provincesIndirect Rule: Use local rulers to govern colonies. Encourages children of ruling class to get imperial nation’s education creating a new “westernized” generation of leaders and spread imperial country’s civilization.France utilized direct rule, Britain utilized indirect.Which form of colonial rule seems the most fair? Why?
23 ANNEXATION IMPERIALISM Territory annexed and turned into a colony under the complete control of a foreign powerGerman colonies in east and southwest Africa – until 1918 and the end of World War IFrench Indochine (Vietnam) – until 1955British Burma – until 1948
24 MANDATE IMPERIALISMVictors of World War I gained control over German possessions under mandates granted by the League of NationsGerman East Africa → Great BritainPacific islands north of the equator → JapanSyria → France
25 Forms of Imperial Rule2) Protectorates: Local rulers left in place but were expected to follow advice of European advisers on issues such as trade or missionary activity. native “puppet” rulersFrench – Morocco ( ) British – Egypt ( )3) Spheres of Influence: An area in which an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges.Protectorates cost less to run than a colony.Europeans carved spheres of influence in China, the US had a sphere in Latin AmericaFrance utilized direct rule, Britain utilized indirect.Which form of colonial rule seems the most fair? Why?
26 The Partition of Africa 2The Partition of AfricaWhat forces were shaping Africa in the early 1800s?How did European contact with Africa increase?How did Leopold II start a scramble for colonies?How did Africans resist imperialism?
27 Africa in the Early 1800s2To understand the impact of European domination, we must look at Africa in the early 1800s, before the scramble for colonies began.NORTH AFRICAWEST AFRICARegion had close ties to the Muslim world and remained under the rule of the declining Ottoman empire.The Asante controlled smaller states, who were ready to turn to Europeans to help them defeat their Asante rulers.SOUTH AFRICAEAST AFRICAZulu aggression caused mass migrations and wars and created chaos across much of the region.Islam had long influenced the coast, where a profitable slave trade was carried on.
28 European Contacts Increased 2From the 1500s through the 1700s, difficult geography and disease prevented European traders from reaching the interior of Africa.Medical advances and river steamships changed all that in the 1800s.EXPLORERSMISSIONARIESExplorers were fascinated by African geography but had little understanding of the people they met.Most famous European explorer was Dr. LivingstoneCatholic and Protestantmissionaries sought to win people to Christianity. Most took a paternalistic view of Africans. They urged Africans to reject their own traditions infavor of western civilization.Best known explorer-missionary was Dr. Livingstone.
29 King Leopold II of Belgium sent explorers to the Congo River basin to arrange trade treaties with African leaders.2Scramble for ColoniesKing Leopold’s activities in the Congo set off a scrambleamong other European nations. Before long, Britain, France,and Germany were pressing for rival claims to the region.At the Berlin Conference, European powers agreed on how they could claim African territory without fighting amongst themselves.Berlin Conference pg322To avoid bloodshed, European powers met at an international conference but did NOT include any African leaders.A European power could not claim any part of Africa unless it had set up a government office there.European powers partitioned almost the entire African continent.
31 Imperialism in Africa to 1914 2Horrors in the Congo….exploiting Africans, using them as laborersFrance’s share of Africa was about the size of the United StatesBritain had scattered holdings but those were rich in resources
33 Late 1800’s: Boers find gold and diamonds in their new republics Boer War2British clash with Boers….descendents of the Dutch who had controlled Cape ColonyWhen Britain takes control of Cape Colony in 1815, the Boers flee north.Late 1800’s: Boers find gold and diamonds in their new republicsConflict develops between British and Boers1910: British unite Cape Colony and former Boer republicsNew Constitution set up a government run by whites and laid the foundation for a system of complete racial segregation that would remain in force until 1993
34 Boer WarWhat was the main reason the British and Boers clashed in Africa?The British coveted the riches the Boers had found in their new republics
35 2African ResistanceEuropeans met armed resistance across the continent.Algerians battled the French for years.The Zulus in southern Africa and the Asante in West Africa battled the British.East Africans fought wars against the Germans.When Italy invaded, Ethiopia was prepared. Ethiopia was the only nation, aside from Liberia, to preserve its independence.Ethiopia was an ancient Christian kingdom. Menelik II was a reforming ruler who used modern European technologies and tactics
36 European Challenges to the Muslim World 3European Challenges to the Muslim WorldWhat were sources of stress in the Muslim world?What problems did the Ottoman empire face?How did Egypt seek to modernize?Why were European powers interested in Iran?
37 What Were Sources of Stress in the Muslim World? 3By the 1700s, all three Muslim empires were in decline.In the 1700s and early 1800s, reform movements stressed religious piety and strict rules of behavior.The old Muslim empires faced western imperialism.The three Muslim empires were: the Ottoman Empire, the Mughal Empire in India and the Safavids in Iran
38 The Ottoman Empire3By the early 1800s, the Ottoman empire faced serious challenges.As ideas of nationalism spread from Western Europe, internal revolts weakened the multiethnic Ottoman empire.European states sought to benefit from the weakening of the Ottoman empire by claiming lands under Ottoman control.Nationalist tensions triggered a brutal genocide of the Armenians, a Christian people in the eastern mountains of the empire.
39 Iran and the European Powers 3Russia wanted to protect its southern frontier and expand into Central Asia.Britain was concerned about protecting its interests in India.For a time, Russia and Britain each set up their own spheres of influence, Russia in the north and Britain in the south.The discovery of oil in the region in the early 1900s heightened foreign interest in the region.Russia and Britain persuaded the Iranian government to grant them concessions, or special economic rights given to foreign powers.
40 The British Take Over India 4The British Take Over IndiaWhat were the causes and effects of the Sepoy Rebellion?How did British rule affect India?How did Indians view western culture?What were the origins of Indian nationalism?
41 The Sepoy Rebellion: Causes and Effects 4CAUSESEFFECTSThe British East India Company:Undermined and violated Hindu beliefsrequired sepoys, or Indian soldiers in its service, to serve anywhere, including overseasallowing Hindu widows to marryordered the sepoys to bite off cartridges made of animal fat when loading their riflesThe sepoys brutally massacred British men, women, and children.The British took terrible revengeBoth sides were left with a bitter legacy of fear, hatred, and mistrust.The British put India directly under British rule, sent more troops to India, and taxed Indians to pay for the cost of the occupying forces.
42 After 1858, Parliament set up a system of colonial rule in India. British Colonial Rule4After 1858, Parliament set up a system of colonial rule in India.The British built roads and an impressive railroad network.The British flooded India with machine-made textiles, ruining India’s once-prosperous hand-weaving industry.Britain transformed Indian agriculture.Better health care and increased food production led to rapid population growth. Over-population led to terrible famines.The British revised the Indian legal system.British rule brought peace and order to the countryside.Upper-class Indians sent their sons to British schools.
44 Different Views on Culture 4During the Age of Imperialism, Indians and British developed different views of each other’s culture.INDIAN ATTITUDESBRITISH ATTITUDESSome educated Indians were impressed by British power and technology and urged India to follow a western model of progress.Other Indians felt the answer to change lay with their own Hindu or Muslim cultures.Most British knew little about Indian achievements and dismissed Indian culture with contempt.A few British admired Indian theology and philosophy and respected India’s ancient heritage.
45 Indian Nationalism4The British believed that western-educated Indians would form an elite class which would bolster British rule.As it turned out, exposure to European ideas had the opposite effect. By the late 1800s, western-educated Indians were spearheading a nationalist movement.In 1885, nationalist leaders organized the Indian National Congress. Its members looked forward to eventual self-rule, but supported western-style modernization.In 1906, Muslims formed the Muslim League to pursue their own goals, including a separate Muslim state.
46 British Rule in India Review 4In response to the Sepoy Rebellion, the British did all of the following excepta) place India directly under British rule.b) send more troops to India.c) give into Indian demands for greater self-rule.d) tax Indians to pay for an increased British military presence.Which of the following is true of the Indian National Congress?a) Its members wanted to establish a separate Muslim state.b) Its members favored continued British rulec) Its members supported western-style modernization.d) Its members favored immediate overthrow of the British.
47 Imperialism in ChinaSince the mid 17th century, Chinese rulers had refused to adopt western waysAs a result, Chinese technology began to fall behind that of the Europeans who will begin to challenge the Middle Kingdom
48 The Opium WarDesperate to end the drain of British silver into Chinese pockets, British merchants began to trade opium in China in the late 18th centuryChina tried to halt imports of the highly addictive drugIn 1839, to keep trade open, the British fought with the Chinese in a conflict called THE OPIUM WARBritain’s superior military and industrial strength led to a quick victory
50 Treaty of NanjingIn 1842, Britain forced China to agree to the harsh terms of the Treaty of NanjingChina had to pay for Britain’s war costs, open ports to British trade and give Britain the island of Hong KongThe western powers carved out spheres of influence, areas in which an outside power claimed exclusive trade privileges including the right to build roads, railroads and factories
52 Chinese Reaction to Imperialism The Taiping Rebellion- from , angry impoverished peasants revolted against Qing officials. Millions were killed and China suffered.Boxer Rebellion – in 1900, a group known as the Boxers assaulted foreign communities across China. Armies from the west and Japan crushed the rebellion and forced the Chinese to give foreign powers even more influence in China.
53 The Chinese Revolution In the early 1900’s Chinese nationalism grew in reaction to the increased western presence in ChinaSun Yat-sen led the movement to create a new government and replace the Qing Dynasty
54 Sun Yat-sen’s Three Goals To end foreign dominationTo form a representative governmentTo create economic securityIn 1911, workers, peasants and warlords toppled the monarchy. Yat-sen was named president of the Chinese Republic.
55 Japan Modernizes5How did discontent in Japanese society and the opening of Japan lead to the Meiji Restoration?What were the main reforms under the Meiji?How did Japanese military strength promote imperialism?
56 Discontent in Tokugawa Japan 5After the Tokugawa shoguns gained power in 1600, the reimposed centralized feudalism, closed Japan to foreigners and forbade Japanese to travel overseas.The Japanese had limited trade with the Dutch in the port of Nagasaki.By the 1800’s:Shoguns were no longer strong leadersDaimyo suffered financial hardshipSamurai were no longer fightersMerchants had no political powerPeasants suffered under heavy taxes
57 Opening Up Japan5July 1853: American Commodore Matthew Perry persuades the Japanese give the U.S. trading rights:Extraterritoriality“Most Favored Nation”Japanese resented unequal treaties, found them humiliating1867: Discontented daimyo and samurai “restored” the 15-year-old emperor to power and moved the capital to Tokyo.
58 Meiji Restoration5Period lasting from 1868 to 1912.Meiji means “enlightened rule.”Goal: “A rich country, a strong military”New leaders set out to study western ways, adapt them to Japanese needs and beat westerners at their own game.
59 Reforms under the Meiji 5Strong Central Government based on German system:Constitution said all citizens equal before lawGave emperor autocratic powerLimited voting rightsEnded special privileges of samurai and subjected all men to military serviceEconomic Reforms:Industrialized using technologies of the westSocial Change:Ended legal distinctions between classesOpened educational opportunitiesWomen still had secondary rolesOverall, the Meiji Restoration reforms were very successful. Japan modernized and became a world power.
60 Growing Military Strength 5As a small island nation, Japan had few resources essential to industrial growth.Spurred by nationalism and imperialism, Japan built an empire.1894:Sino-Japanese WarThough outnumbered, Japan defeated China with their modern technology.1904: Russo-Japanese WarJapan’s armies defeated Russia in Manchuria.Japanese navy almost destroyed a Russian fleet1905 Treaty of Portsmouth: Japan gains control of Manchuria and KoreaJapanese Rule Korea1910: Japan annexes KoreaJapan modernizes Korea but profits went to JapaneseImposed harsh rule on KoreansKorean rebels created nationalist groups
61 Naval Power in the late 1800’s 5Jul. 24, 1894 — A party of 50 Sailors and Marines under Captain George Fielding Elliott, USMC, was sent from the cruiser USS Baltimore (C 3) to guard the American legation at Seoul, Korea, during the Sino-Japanese War. The Japanese had just landed troops in Korea.
62 Japanese Power in the late 1800’s 5Sino-Japanese War “Japanese Warships Fire on the Enemy near Haiyang Island” by Mizuno Toshikata, September 1894Battle of Pung-do, Sinking of the Kowshing July 25, 1894
63 Japanese Power in the late 1800’s 5Sino-Japanese WarChinese Surrender“After the Fall of Weihaiwei, the Commander of the Chinese Beiyang Fleet, Admiral Ding Juchang, Surrenders” by Mizuno Toshikata, November 1895 (above, with details). [ ] Sharf Collection, Museum of Fine Arts, BostonThis woodblock print is an almost perfect example of how the Japanese (left detail) saw themselves as totally different from the Chinese and fundamentally similar to the Westerners, seen here in the figures of Western advisors (right detail) standing behind the Chinese.
64 Southeast Asia and the Pacific 2Southeast Asia and the PacificWhat impact did European colonization have on Southeast Asia?How did imperialism spread to the Philippines and other Pacific islands?
65 Imperialism in Southeast Asia and the Pacific, 1900 2
66 Colonization of Southeast Asia 2Colonization of Southeast AsiaIn their relentless race for raw materials, new markets, and Christian converts, western industrial powers gobbled up Southeast Asia.By the 1890s, Europeans controlled most of Southeast Asia. They:introduced modern technologyexpanded commerce and industryset up new enterprises to mine tin and harvest rubberbrought in new crops of corn and cassavabuilt harbors and railroadsThese changes benefited Europeans far more than the people of Southeast Asia.
67 Imperial Powers in the Pacific In the 1800s, the industrial powers began to take an interest in the islands of the Pacific.In 1878, the United States secured an unequal treaty from Samoa. Later, the United States, Germany, and Britain agreed to a triple protectorate over Samoa.From the mid-1800s, American sugar growers pressed for power in Hawaii. In 1898, the United States annexed Hawaii.At the conclusion of the Spanish-American War, the Philippines was placed under American control. The United States promised Filipinos self-rule some time in the future.
68 Economic Imperialism in Latin America 4Economic Imperialism in Latin AmericaWhat political and economic problems faced new Latin American nations?How did Mexico struggle for stability?How did the United States influence Latin America?
69 Political Problems4During the 1800s, most Latin American nations were plagued by revolts, civil war, and dictatorships.Many problems had their origins in colonial rule, as independence barely changed the existing social and political hierarchy.With few roads and no traditions of unity, the new nations were weakened by regionalism, loyalty to a local area.
70 The Economics of Dependence 4Economic dependence occurs when:less-developed nations export raw materials and commodities to industrial nations and import manufactured goods, capital, and technological know-how.The relationship is unequal because the more developed — and wealthier nation — can control prices and terms of trade.Under colonial rule, mercantilist policies made Latin America economically dependent on Spain and Portugal.After independence, this pattern changed very little. The region remained as economically dependent as before.
71 The Influence of the United States 4In 1823, the United States issued the Monroe Doctrine:stated that the American continents were no longer open to colonization by any European powers.In 1904, the United States issued the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine:Under this policy, the United States claimed “international police power” in the Western Hemisphere.In the next decade, the United States frequently intervened militarily in Latin American nations to protect American lives and investments.In 1903, the United States backed the Panamanians in a revolt against Colombia in order to gain land to build the Panama Canal.
72 Imperialism in the Caribbean and South America, 1898–1917 4
73 Impact of Imperialism5How did imperialism lead to new economic patterns?What was the cultural impact of imperialism?How did political tensions develop as the result of imperialism?
74 New Economic Patterns5A truly global economy emerged, dominated by the United States, Britain, France, and Germany.Colonial rulers introduced a money economy that replaced the old barter system.Mass-produced goods from the industrialized world further disrupted traditional economies.Local economies that had once been self-sufficient became dependent on the industrial powers.
75 Cultural Impact5As westerners conquered other lands, they pressed subject people to accept “modern” ways. By this, they meant western ideas, government, technology, and culture.Many non-westerners, especially in conquered lands, came to accept a belief in western superiority.The overwhelming successes of the western imperialist nations sapped people’s confidence in their own leaders and cultures.Western culture spread around the world.
76 New Political Tensions 5By the early 1900s, western-educated elites in Africa and Asia were organizing nationalist movements to end colonial rule.The competition for imperial power was fueling tensions among western nations.
78 China and the New Imperialism 5China and the New ImperialismWhat trade rights did westerners seek in China?How did the Qing dynasty come to an end?
79 The Trade Issue5Prior to the 1800s, Chinese rulers placed strict limits on foreign traders.China enjoyed a trade surplus, exporting more than it imported.Westerners had a trade deficit with China, buying more from the Chinese than they sold to them.In 1842, Britain made China accept the Treaty of Nanjing, the first in a series of “unequal treaties” that forced China to make concessions to western powers.-China paid a huge indemnity to Britain.-The British gained the island of Hong Kong.-China had to open five ports to foreign trade and grant British citizens in China extraterritoriality.
80 Internal Problems5By the 1800s, the Qing dynasty was in decline.Irrigation systems and canals were poorly maintained, leading to massive flooding of the Huang He valley.The population explosion that had begun a century earlier created a terrible hardship for China’s peasants.An extravagant court, tax evasion by the rich, and widespread official corruption added to the peasants’ burden.The civil service system was rocked by bribery scandals.Between 1850 and 1864, peasants took part in the Taiping Rebellion, the most devastating revolt in history.
82 Fall of the Qing Dynasty 5As the century ended, anger grew against foreigners in China.1) European countries were splitting China into spheres of influence.2) Britain’s opium trade with China led to the Opium Wars3) The United States forced an Open Door Policy which kept Chinese trade open to ALL nations.In the Boxer Rebellion, angry Chinese attacked foreigners across China. In response, western powers and Japan crushed the Boxers.Defeat at the hands of foreigners led China to embark on a rush of reforms.
83 Fall of the Qing Dynasty 5Chinese nationalists called for a constitutional monarchy or a republic.When Empress Ci Xi died in 1908, China slipped into chaos.In 1911, the Qing dynasty was toppled.Sun Yixian was named president of the new Chinese republic. Sun wanted to rebuild China on “Three Principles of the People”: nationalism, democracy, and economic security for all Chinese.The time period from 1911 to 1949 was a period of instability in China
84 China and the New Imperialism Review 5Which of the following is not true of Chinese trade relations with the West?a) Before the 1800s, China enjoyed a trade surplus.b) Before the 1800s, China had a trade deficit with the West.c) In 1842, China was forced to open up five ports to foreign trade.d) Before the 1800s, China strictly limited foreign trade.
85 China and the New Imperialism Review 5What happened in the Boxer Rebellion?a) Angry Chinese attacked foreigners in China.b) The Chinese started a war with Japan.c) Western imperialists attacked Chinese peasants.d) Chinese peasants rose up against the government.