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MIGUEL ÁNGEL MAYA ÁLVAREZ

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1 MIGUEL ÁNGEL MAYA ÁLVAREZ

2 The New Imperialism XX Century
Europeans extend their culture, government and economy.

3 A Western-Dominated World
Explain the causes of the “new imperialism.” Identify multiple reasons to explain why imperialism was successful. Define the different types of colonial rule.

4 COLONIALISM Age of Exploration ↓ Europeans raced for overseas colonies
Growth of European commerce and trade worldwide Commercial Revolution

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7 1500s-1700s England, France, Holland, Portugal, and Spain
Wars over colonies

8 INTERLUDE – LATE 1700s-LATE 1800s
Europeans were preoccupied with happenings on the European continent and in the existing European colonies. American Revolution French Revolution Napoleonic Wars Latin American Wars for Independence Growth of Nationalism Industrial Revolution

9 Imperialism Imperialism is the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region “Old Imperialism”… Europeans gained cultural dominance in the Americas (Spanish, British and French colonies) Europeans only gained toeholds in Africa, India and China

10 Imperialism “New Imperialism”….1800’s
Western powers were stronger politically and economically Europeans begin an aggressive expansion worldwide, not just in the Americas

11 Causes of the New Imperialism
Economic Interests Industrial Revolution created needs for natural resources Sources of raw materials Egypt – cotton Malaya – rubber and tin Middle East – oil Manufacturers hoped for new markets Colonies offered an outlet for expanding population What other options did countries like Britain, who had very few natural resources, have to gain the materials they needed for their industries? When a country like France gained a colony in Africa, it would quickly be surrounded by countries like Germany and Britain to keep it from expanding too far.

12 Political and Military Interests
Steam powered merchant/naval vessels needed bases to take on coal and supplies British naval bases: Aden, Alexandria, Cyprus, Hong Kong, Singapore Manpower British – Indian sepoys French – north African troops Nationalism led European powers to compete for similar regions Europeans believed ruling a global empire increased a nation’s prestige

13 Causes of the New Imperialism
Humanitarian Goals Europeans felt they had a duty to spread what they saw as the “blessings of western civilization” Social Darwinism Growing sense in the West of racial superiority European races, they argued, were superior to all others and imperial conquest and destruction of weaker races were simply nature’s way of improving the human species “Survival of the fittest” Surplus population: Japanese in Korea, Italians in Africa What is a humanitarian? Is a country who feels they are doing good, truly in the wrong? What are some of the “blessings of western civilization?”

14 JUSTIFICATIONS Social Darwinism
Interpreted Darwin’s evolutionary theory in terms of powerful nations “Only the strong survive” Powerful nations able to develop areas and resources being “wasted” by native peoples Racism Increased feelings of white superiority Increased feelings of Japanese superiority Eugenics developed as a branch of science

15 CONCEPT OF “RACES” CIRCA 1900

16 RELIGIOUS MOTIVES Conversion to Christianity
End-of-the-century crusading spirit Missionaries in Africa, Asia, Hawaii, etc.

17 Reasons for Success Weakness of Nonwestern States Western Advantages
Older civilizations were in decline (Ottomans, Mughal India and Qing China) West Africa was experiencing wars due to effects of the slave trade Western Advantages Strong economies, well-organized governments and powerful armies/navies Superior technology and medical knowledge Quinine, Maxim machine guns, repeating rifles, steam-driven warships Where will the “new imperialism” focus according the the weak states above? Summarize how Europeans were able to colonize so easily.

18 CONCESSION IMPERIALISM
Economic privileges and rights given for a specific purpose U.S. and British oil concessions throughout the Middle East Ottoman Turks granted Germany permission to build Berlin-to-Baghdad Railroad

19 SPHERE OF INFLUENCE IMPERIALISM
Exclusive or special control over an area. Examples British trading rights in China’s Yangtze valley French trading rights in southeastern China Japanese trading rights in Korea

20 LEASEHOLD IMPERIALISM
Lease over an area Suez Canal Corporation Suez Canal built by French in 1860s Controlled by British shortly thereafter until 1968 Panama Canal United States Germans in Kiaochow French in Kwangchow British in Weihaiwei Plan of Suez Canal as envisioned in 1881.

21 Setbacks to Imperialism
Resistance Africans and Asians strongly opposed western expansion into their lands Nationalism movements rose to expel imperialists Criticism at Home Some Europeans believed colonialism was a tool of the rich Argument: Westerners were moving toward greater democracy at home but imposing undemocratic rule on other people What would supporters of imperialism say to those Europeans who made the argument above?

22 Forms of Imperial Rule Imperial rule took many forms. Colonial Rule:
Direct Rule: Sending officials and soldiers to administer colony. Impose nation’s culture on their colonies and turn them into provinces Indirect Rule: Use local rulers to govern colonies. Encourages children of ruling class to get imperial nation’s education creating a new “westernized” generation of leaders and spread imperial country’s civilization. France utilized direct rule, Britain utilized indirect. Which form of colonial rule seems the most fair? Why?

23 ANNEXATION IMPERIALISM
Territory annexed and turned into a colony under the complete control of a foreign power German colonies in east and southwest Africa – until 1918 and the end of World War I French Indochine (Vietnam) – until 1955 British Burma – until 1948

24 MANDATE IMPERIALISM Victors of World War I gained control over German possessions under mandates granted by the League of Nations German East Africa → Great Britain Pacific islands north of the equator → Japan Syria → France

25 Forms of Imperial Rule 2) Protectorates: Local rulers left in place but were expected to follow advice of European advisers on issues such as trade or missionary activity. native “puppet” rulers French – Morocco ( ) British – Egypt ( ) 3) Spheres of Influence: An area in which an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges. Protectorates cost less to run than a colony. Europeans carved spheres of influence in China, the US had a sphere in Latin America France utilized direct rule, Britain utilized indirect. Which form of colonial rule seems the most fair? Why?

26 The Partition of Africa
2 The Partition of Africa What forces were shaping Africa in the early 1800s? How did European contact with Africa increase? How did Leopold II start a scramble for colonies? How did Africans resist imperialism?

27 Africa in the Early 1800s 2 To understand the impact of European domination, we must look at Africa in the early 1800s, before the scramble for colonies began. NORTH AFRICA WEST AFRICA Region had close ties to the Muslim world and remained under the rule of the declining Ottoman empire. The Asante controlled smaller states, who were ready to turn to Europeans to help them defeat their Asante rulers. SOUTH AFRICA EAST AFRICA Zulu aggression caused mass migrations and wars and created chaos across much of the region. Islam had long influenced the coast, where a profitable slave trade was carried on.

28 European Contacts Increased
2 From the 1500s through the 1700s, difficult geography and disease prevented European traders from reaching the interior of Africa. Medical advances and river steamships changed all that in the 1800s. EXPLORERS MISSIONARIES Explorers were fascinated by African geography but had little understanding of the people they met. Most famous European explorer was Dr. Livingstone Catholic and Protestant missionaries sought to win people to Christianity. Most took a paternalistic view of Africans. They urged Africans to reject their own traditions in favor of western civilization. Best known explorer-missionary was Dr. Livingstone.

29 King Leopold II of Belgium sent explorers to the Congo
River basin to arrange trade treaties with African leaders. 2 Scramble for Colonies King Leopold’s activities in the Congo set off a scramble among other European nations. Before long, Britain, France, and Germany were pressing for rival claims to the region. At the Berlin Conference, European powers agreed on how they could claim African territory without fighting amongst themselves. Berlin Conference pg322 To avoid bloodshed, European powers met at an international conference but did NOT include any African leaders. A European power could not claim any part of Africa unless it had set up a government office there. European powers partitioned almost the entire African continent.

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31 Imperialism in Africa to 1914
2 Horrors in the Congo….exploiting Africans, using them as laborers France’s share of Africa was about the size of the United States Britain had scattered holdings but those were rich in resources

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33 Late 1800’s: Boers find gold and diamonds in their new republics
Boer War 2 British clash with Boers….descendents of the Dutch who had controlled Cape Colony When Britain takes control of Cape Colony in 1815, the Boers flee north. Late 1800’s: Boers find gold and diamonds in their new republics Conflict develops between British and Boers 1910: British unite Cape Colony and former Boer republics New Constitution set up a government run by whites and laid the foundation for a system of complete racial segregation that would remain in force until 1993

34 Boer War What was the main reason the British and Boers clashed in Africa? The British coveted the riches the Boers had found in their new republics

35 2 African Resistance Europeans met armed resistance across the continent. Algerians battled the French for years. The Zulus in southern Africa and the Asante in West Africa battled the British. East Africans fought wars against the Germans. When Italy invaded, Ethiopia was prepared. Ethiopia was the only nation, aside from Liberia, to preserve its independence. Ethiopia was an ancient Christian kingdom. Menelik II was a reforming ruler who used modern European technologies and tactics

36 European Challenges to the Muslim World
3 European Challenges to the Muslim World What were sources of stress in the Muslim world? What problems did the Ottoman empire face? How did Egypt seek to modernize? Why were European powers interested in Iran?

37 What Were Sources of Stress in the Muslim World?
3 By the 1700s, all three Muslim empires were in decline. In the 1700s and early 1800s, reform movements stressed religious piety and strict rules of behavior. The old Muslim empires faced western imperialism. The three Muslim empires were: the Ottoman Empire, the Mughal Empire in India and the Safavids in Iran

38 The Ottoman Empire 3 By the early 1800s, the Ottoman empire faced serious challenges. As ideas of nationalism spread from Western Europe, internal revolts weakened the multiethnic Ottoman empire. European states sought to benefit from the weakening of the Ottoman empire by claiming lands under Ottoman control. Nationalist tensions triggered a brutal genocide of the Armenians, a Christian people in the eastern mountains of the empire.

39 Iran and the European Powers
3 Russia wanted to protect its southern frontier and expand into Central Asia. Britain was concerned about protecting its interests in India. For a time, Russia and Britain each set up their own spheres of influence, Russia in the north and Britain in the south. The discovery of oil in the region in the early 1900s heightened foreign interest in the region. Russia and Britain persuaded the Iranian government to grant them concessions, or special economic rights given to foreign powers.

40 The British Take Over India
4 The British Take Over India What were the causes and effects of the Sepoy Rebellion? How did British rule affect India? How did Indians view western culture? What were the origins of Indian nationalism?

41 The Sepoy Rebellion: Causes and Effects
4 CAUSES EFFECTS The British East India Company: Undermined and violated Hindu beliefs required sepoys, or Indian soldiers in its service, to serve anywhere, including overseas allowing Hindu widows to marry ordered the sepoys to bite off cartridges made of animal fat when loading their rifles The sepoys brutally massacred British men, women, and children. The British took terrible revenge Both sides were left with a bitter legacy of fear, hatred, and mistrust. The British put India directly under British rule, sent more troops to India, and taxed Indians to pay for the cost of the occupying forces.

42 After 1858, Parliament set up a system of colonial rule in India.
British Colonial Rule 4 After 1858, Parliament set up a system of colonial rule in India. The British built roads and an impressive railroad network. The British flooded India with machine-made textiles, ruining India’s once-prosperous hand-weaving industry. Britain transformed Indian agriculture. Better health care and increased food production led to rapid population growth. Over-population led to terrible famines. The British revised the Indian legal system. British rule brought peace and order to the countryside. Upper-class Indians sent their sons to British schools.

43 Imperialism in India to 1858
4

44 Different Views on Culture
4 During the Age of Imperialism, Indians and British developed different views of each other’s culture. INDIAN ATTITUDES BRITISH ATTITUDES Some educated Indians were impressed by British power and technology and urged India to follow a western model of progress. Other Indians felt the answer to change lay with their own Hindu or Muslim cultures. Most British knew little about Indian achievements and dismissed Indian culture with contempt. A few British admired Indian theology and philosophy and respected India’s ancient heritage.

45 Indian Nationalism 4 The British believed that western-educated Indians would form an elite class which would bolster British rule. As it turned out, exposure to European ideas had the opposite effect. By the late 1800s, western-educated Indians were spearheading a nationalist movement. In 1885, nationalist leaders organized the Indian National Congress. Its members looked forward to eventual self-rule, but supported western-style modernization. In 1906, Muslims formed the Muslim League to pursue their own goals, including a separate Muslim state.

46 British Rule in India Review
4 In response to the Sepoy Rebellion, the British did all of the following except a) place India directly under British rule. b) send more troops to India. c) give into Indian demands for greater self-rule. d) tax Indians to pay for an increased British military presence. Which of the following is true of the Indian National Congress? a) Its members wanted to establish a separate Muslim state. b) Its members favored continued British rule c) Its members supported western-style modernization. d) Its members favored immediate overthrow of the British.

47 Imperialism in China Since the mid 17th century, Chinese rulers had refused to adopt western ways As a result, Chinese technology began to fall behind that of the Europeans who will begin to challenge the Middle Kingdom

48 The Opium War Desperate to end the drain of British silver into Chinese pockets, British merchants began to trade opium in China in the late 18th century China tried to halt imports of the highly addictive drug In 1839, to keep trade open, the British fought with the Chinese in a conflict called THE OPIUM WAR Britain’s superior military and industrial strength led to a quick victory

49 The Opium War

50 Treaty of Nanjing In 1842, Britain forced China to agree to the harsh terms of the Treaty of Nanjing China had to pay for Britain’s war costs, open ports to British trade and give Britain the island of Hong Kong The western powers carved out spheres of influence, areas in which an outside power claimed exclusive trade privileges including the right to build roads, railroads and factories

51 Spheres of Influence

52 Chinese Reaction to Imperialism
The Taiping Rebellion- from , angry impoverished peasants revolted against Qing officials. Millions were killed and China suffered. Boxer Rebellion – in 1900, a group known as the Boxers assaulted foreign communities across China. Armies from the west and Japan crushed the rebellion and forced the Chinese to give foreign powers even more influence in China.

53 The Chinese Revolution
In the early 1900’s Chinese nationalism grew in reaction to the increased western presence in China Sun Yat-sen led the movement to create a new government and replace the Qing Dynasty

54 Sun Yat-sen’s Three Goals
To end foreign domination To form a representative government To create economic security In 1911, workers, peasants and warlords toppled the monarchy. Yat-sen was named president of the Chinese Republic.

55 Japan Modernizes 5 How did discontent in Japanese society and the opening of Japan lead to the Meiji Restoration? What were the main reforms under the Meiji? How did Japanese military strength promote imperialism?

56 Discontent in Tokugawa Japan
5 After the Tokugawa shoguns gained power in 1600, the reimposed centralized feudalism, closed Japan to foreigners and forbade Japanese to travel overseas. The Japanese had limited trade with the Dutch in the port of Nagasaki. By the 1800’s: Shoguns were no longer strong leaders Daimyo suffered financial hardship Samurai were no longer fighters Merchants had no political power Peasants suffered under heavy taxes

57 Opening Up Japan 5 July 1853: American Commodore Matthew Perry persuades the Japanese give the U.S. trading rights: Extraterritoriality “Most Favored Nation” Japanese resented unequal treaties, found them humiliating 1867: Discontented daimyo and samurai “restored” the 15-year-old emperor to power and moved the capital to Tokyo.

58 Meiji Restoration 5 Period lasting from 1868 to 1912. Meiji means “enlightened rule.” Goal: “A rich country, a strong military” New leaders set out to study western ways, adapt them to Japanese needs and beat westerners at their own game.

59 Reforms under the Meiji
5 Strong Central Government based on German system: Constitution said all citizens equal before law Gave emperor autocratic power Limited voting rights Ended special privileges of samurai and subjected all men to military service Economic Reforms: Industrialized using technologies of the west Social Change: Ended legal distinctions between classes Opened educational opportunities Women still had secondary roles Overall, the Meiji Restoration reforms were very successful. Japan modernized and became a world power.

60 Growing Military Strength
5 As a small island nation, Japan had few resources essential to industrial growth. Spurred by nationalism and imperialism, Japan built an empire. 1894:Sino-Japanese War Though outnumbered, Japan defeated China with their modern technology. 1904: Russo-Japanese War Japan’s armies defeated Russia in Manchuria. Japanese navy almost destroyed a Russian fleet 1905 Treaty of Portsmouth: Japan gains control of Manchuria and Korea Japanese Rule Korea 1910: Japan annexes Korea Japan modernizes Korea but profits went to Japanese Imposed harsh rule on Koreans Korean rebels created nationalist groups

61 Naval Power in the late 1800’s
5 Jul. 24, 1894 — A party of 50 Sailors and Marines under Captain George Fielding Elliott, USMC, was sent from the cruiser USS Baltimore (C 3) to guard the American legation at Seoul, Korea, during the Sino-Japanese War. The Japanese had just landed troops in Korea.

62 Japanese Power in the late 1800’s
5 Sino-Japanese War    “Japanese Warships Fire on the Enemy near Haiyang Island” by Mizuno Toshikata, September 1894 Battle of Pung-do, Sinking of the Kowshing  July 25, 1894

63 Japanese Power in the late 1800’s
5 Sino-Japanese War Chinese Surrender “After the Fall of Weihaiwei, the Commander of the Chinese Beiyang Fleet, Admiral Ding Juchang, Surrenders” by Mizuno Toshikata, November 1895 (above, with details). [ ] Sharf Collection, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston This woodblock print is an almost perfect example of how the Japanese (left detail) saw themselves as totally different from the Chinese and fundamentally similar to the Westerners, seen here in the figures of Western advisors (right detail) standing behind the Chinese.

64 Southeast Asia and the Pacific
2 Southeast Asia and the Pacific What impact did European colonization have on Southeast Asia? How did imperialism spread to the Philippines and other Pacific islands?

65 Imperialism in Southeast Asia and the Pacific, 1900
2

66 Colonization of Southeast Asia
2 Colonization of Southeast Asia In their relentless race for raw materials, new markets, and Christian converts, western industrial powers gobbled up Southeast Asia. By the 1890s, Europeans controlled most of Southeast Asia. They: introduced modern technology expanded commerce and industry set up new enterprises to mine tin and harvest rubber brought in new crops of corn and cassava built harbors and railroads These changes benefited Europeans far more than the people of Southeast Asia.

67 Imperial Powers in the Pacific
In the 1800s, the industrial powers began to take an interest in the islands of the Pacific. In 1878, the United States secured an unequal treaty from Samoa. Later, the United States, Germany, and Britain agreed to a triple protectorate over Samoa. From the mid-1800s, American sugar growers pressed for power in Hawaii. In 1898, the United States annexed Hawaii. At the conclusion of the Spanish-American War, the Philippines was placed under American control. The United States promised Filipinos self-rule some time in the future.

68 Economic Imperialism in Latin America
4 Economic Imperialism in Latin America What political and economic problems faced new Latin American nations? How did Mexico struggle for stability? How did the United States influence Latin America?

69 Political Problems 4 During the 1800s, most Latin American nations were plagued by revolts, civil war, and dictatorships. Many problems had their origins in colonial rule, as independence barely changed the existing social and political hierarchy. With few roads and no traditions of unity, the new nations were weakened by regionalism, loyalty to a local area.

70 The Economics of Dependence
4 Economic dependence occurs when: less-developed nations export raw materials and commodities to industrial nations and import manufactured goods, capital, and technological know-how. The relationship is unequal because the more developed — and wealthier nation — can control prices and terms of trade. Under colonial rule, mercantilist policies made Latin America economically dependent on Spain and Portugal. After independence, this pattern changed very little. The region remained as economically dependent as before.

71 The Influence of the United States
4 In 1823, the United States issued the Monroe Doctrine: stated that the American continents were no longer open to colonization by any European powers. In 1904, the United States issued the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: Under this policy, the United States claimed “international police power” in the Western Hemisphere. In the next decade, the United States frequently intervened militarily in Latin American nations to protect American lives and investments. In 1903, the United States backed the Panamanians in a revolt against Colombia in order to gain land to build the Panama Canal.

72 Imperialism in the Caribbean and South America, 1898–1917
4

73 Impact of Imperialism 5 How did imperialism lead to new economic patterns? What was the cultural impact of imperialism? How did political tensions develop as the result of imperialism?

74 New Economic Patterns 5 A truly global economy emerged, dominated by the United States, Britain, France, and Germany. Colonial rulers introduced a money economy that replaced the old barter system. Mass-produced goods from the industrialized world further disrupted traditional economies. Local economies that had once been self-sufficient became dependent on the industrial powers.

75 Cultural Impact 5 As westerners conquered other lands, they pressed subject people to accept “modern” ways. By this, they meant western ideas, government, technology, and culture. Many non-westerners, especially in conquered lands, came to accept a belief in western superiority. The overwhelming successes of the western imperialist nations sapped people’s confidence in their own leaders and cultures. Western culture spread around the world.

76 New Political Tensions
5 By the early 1900s, western-educated elites in Africa and Asia were organizing nationalist movements to end colonial rule. The competition for imperial power was fueling tensions among western nations.

77 The End

78 China and the New Imperialism
5 China and the New Imperialism What trade rights did westerners seek in China? How did the Qing dynasty come to an end?

79 The Trade Issue 5 Prior to the 1800s, Chinese rulers placed strict limits on foreign traders. China enjoyed a trade surplus, exporting more than it imported. Westerners had a trade deficit with China, buying more from the Chinese than they sold to them. In 1842, Britain made China accept the Treaty of Nanjing, the first in a series of “unequal treaties” that forced China to make concessions to western powers. -China paid a huge indemnity to Britain. -The British gained the island of Hong Kong. -China had to open five ports to foreign trade and grant British citizens in China extraterritoriality.

80 Internal Problems 5 By the 1800s, the Qing dynasty was in decline. Irrigation systems and canals were poorly maintained, leading to massive flooding of the Huang He valley. The population explosion that had begun a century earlier created a terrible hardship for China’s peasants. An extravagant court, tax evasion by the rich, and widespread official corruption added to the peasants’ burden. The civil service system was rocked by bribery scandals. Between 1850 and 1864, peasants took part in the Taiping Rebellion, the most devastating revolt in history.

81 Imperialism in China to 1914
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82 Fall of the Qing Dynasty
5 As the century ended, anger grew against foreigners in China. 1) European countries were splitting China into spheres of influence. 2) Britain’s opium trade with China led to the Opium Wars 3) The United States forced an Open Door Policy which kept Chinese trade open to ALL nations. In the Boxer Rebellion, angry Chinese attacked foreigners across China. In response, western powers and Japan crushed the Boxers. Defeat at the hands of foreigners led China to embark on a rush of reforms.

83 Fall of the Qing Dynasty
5 Chinese nationalists called for a constitutional monarchy or a republic. When Empress Ci Xi died in 1908, China slipped into chaos. In 1911, the Qing dynasty was toppled. Sun Yixian was named president of the new Chinese republic. Sun wanted to rebuild China on “Three Principles of the People”: nationalism, democracy, and economic security for all Chinese. The time period from 1911 to 1949 was a period of instability in China

84 China and the New Imperialism Review
5 Which of the following is not true of Chinese trade relations with the West? a) Before the 1800s, China enjoyed a trade surplus. b) Before the 1800s, China had a trade deficit with the West. c) In 1842, China was forced to open up five ports to foreign trade. d) Before the 1800s, China strictly limited foreign trade.

85 China and the New Imperialism Review
5 What happened in the Boxer Rebellion? a) Angry Chinese attacked foreigners in China. b) The Chinese started a war with Japan. c) Western imperialists attacked Chinese peasants. d) Chinese peasants rose up against the government.


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