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MIGUEL ÁNGEL MAYA ÁLVAREZ. The New Imperialism XX Century Europeans extend their culture, government and economy.

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Presentation on theme: "MIGUEL ÁNGEL MAYA ÁLVAREZ. The New Imperialism XX Century Europeans extend their culture, government and economy."— Presentation transcript:

1 MIGUEL ÁNGEL MAYA ÁLVAREZ

2 The New Imperialism XX Century Europeans extend their culture, government and economy.

3 A Western-Dominated World Explain the causes of the “new imperialism.” Explain the causes of the “new imperialism.” Identify multiple reasons to explain why imperialism was successful. Identify multiple reasons to explain why imperialism was successful. Define the different types of colonial rule. Define the different types of colonial rule.

4 Age of Exploration ↓ Europeans raced for overseas colonies ↓ Growth of European commerce and trade worldwide ↓ Commercial Revolution COLONIALISM

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7 1500s-1700s England, France, Holland, Portugal, and Spain Wars over colonies

8 Europeans were preoccupied with happenings on the European continent and in the existing European colonies. American Revolution French Revolution Napoleonic Wars Latin American Wars for Independence Growth of Nationalism Industrial Revolution INTERLUDE – LATE 1700s-LATE 1800s

9 Imperialism Imperialism is the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region Imperialism is the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region “Old Imperialism”….1500-1800 “Old Imperialism”….1500-1800 –Europeans gained cultural dominance in the Americas (Spanish, British and French colonies) –Europeans only gained toeholds in Africa, India and China

10 Imperialism “ New Imperialism”….1800’s “ New Imperialism”….1800’s –Western powers were stronger politically and economically –Europeans begin an aggressive expansion worldwide, not just in the Americas

11 Causes of the New Imperialism Economic Interests Economic Interests –Industrial Revolution created needs for natural resources Sources of raw materials Sources of raw materials Egypt – cotton Egypt – cotton Malaya – rubber and tin Malaya – rubber and tin Middle East – oil Middle East – oil –Manufacturers hoped for new markets –Colonies offered an outlet for expanding population

12 Political and Military Interests Steam powered merchant/naval vessels needed bases to take on coal and supplies British naval bases : Aden, Alexandria, Cyprus, Hong Kong, Singapore Manpower British – Indian sepoys French – north African troops Nationalism led European powers to compete for similar regions Europeans believed ruling a global empire increased a nation’s prestige

13 Causes of the New Imperialism Humanitarian Goals Humanitarian Goals –Europeans felt they had a duty to spread what they saw as the “blessings of western civilization” Social Darwinism Social Darwinism –Growing sense in the West of racial superiority –European races, they argued, were superior to all others and imperial conquest and destruction of weaker races were simply nature’s way of improving the human species –“Survival of the fittest” Surplus population: Japanese in Korea, Italians in Africa Surplus population: Japanese in Korea, Italians in Africa

14 Social Darwinism Interpreted Darwin’s evolutionary theory in terms of powerful nations “Only the strong survive” Powerful nations able to develop areas and resources being “wasted” by native peoples Racism Increased feelings of white superiority Increased feelings of Japanese superiority Eugenics developed as a branch of science JUSTIFICATIONS

15 CONCEPT OF “RACES” CIRCA 1900

16 Conversion to Christianity End-of-the-century crusading spirit Missionaries in Africa, Asia, Hawaii, etc. RELIGIOUS MOTIVES

17 Reasons for Success Weakness of Nonwestern States Weakness of Nonwestern States –Older civilizations were in decline (Ottomans, Mughal India and Qing China) –West Africa was experiencing wars due to effects of the slave trade Western Advantages Western Advantages –Strong economies, well-organized governments and powerful armies/navies –Superior technology and medical knowledge  Quinine, Maxim machine guns, repeating rifles, steam- driven warships

18 Economic privileges and rights given for a specific purpose U.S. and British oil concessions throughout the Middle East Ottoman Turks granted Germany permission to build Berlin-to-Baghdad Railroad CONCESSION IMPERIALISM

19 Exclusive or special control over an area. Examples British trading rights in China’s Yangtze valley French trading rights in southeastern China Japanese trading rights in Korea SPHERE OF INFLUENCE IMPERIALISM

20 LEASEHOLD IMPERIALISM Lease over an area Lease over an area Suez Canal Corporation Suez Canal Corporation Suez Canal built by French in 1860s Suez Canal built by French in 1860s Controlled by British shortly thereafter until 1968 Controlled by British shortly thereafter until 1968 Panama Canal Panama Canal United States United States Germans in Kiaochow Germans in Kiaochow French in Kwangchow French in Kwangchow British in Weihaiwei British in Weihaiwei Plan of Suez Canal as envisioned in 1881.

21 Setbacks to Imperialism Resistance Resistance –Africans and Asians strongly opposed western expansion into their lands –Nationalism movements rose to expel imperialists Criticism at Home Criticism at Home –Some Europeans believed colonialism was a tool of the rich –Argument: Westerners were moving toward greater democracy at home but imposing undemocratic rule on other people

22 Forms of Imperial Rule Imperial rule took many forms. Imperial rule took many forms. 1. Colonial Rule: a)Direct Rule: Sending officials and soldiers to administer colony. Impose nation’s culture on their colonies and turn them into provinces b)Indirect Rule: Use local rulers to govern colonies. Encourages children of ruling class to get imperial nation’s education creating a new “westernized” generation of leaders and spread imperial country’s civilization.

23 ANNEXATION IMPERIALISM Territory annexed and turned into a colony under the complete control of a foreign power Territory annexed and turned into a colony under the complete control of a foreign power German colonies in east and southwest Africa – until 1918 and the end of World War I German colonies in east and southwest Africa – until 1918 and the end of World War I French Indochine (Vietnam) – until 1955 French Indochine (Vietnam) – until 1955 British Burma – until 1948 British Burma – until 1948

24 MANDATE IMPERIALISM Victors of World War I gained control over German possessions under mandates granted by the League of Nations Victors of World War I gained control over German possessions under mandates granted by the League of Nations German East Africa → Great Britain German East Africa → Great Britain Pacific islands north of the equator → Japan Pacific islands north of the equator → Japan Syria → France Syria → France

25 Forms of Imperial Rule 2) Protectorates: Local rulers left in place but were expected to follow advice of European advisers on issues such as trade or missionary activity. native “puppet” rulers 2) Protectorates: Local rulers left in place but were expected to follow advice of European advisers on issues such as trade or missionary activity. native “puppet” rulers French – Morocco (1906-1956) British – Egypt (1914-1968) French – Morocco (1906-1956) British – Egypt (1914-1968) 3) Spheres of Influence: An area in which an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges. Protectorates cost less to run than a colony. Protectorates cost less to run than a colony. Europeans carved spheres of influence in China, the US had a sphere in Latin America Europeans carved spheres of influence in China, the US had a sphere in Latin America

26 The Partition of Africa What forces were shaping Africa in the early 1800s? What forces were shaping Africa in the early 1800s? How did European contact with Africa increase? How did European contact with Africa increase? How did Leopold II start a scramble for colonies? How did Leopold II start a scramble for colonies? How did Africans resist imperialism? How did Africans resist imperialism? 2

27 Africa in the Early 1800s Islam had long influenced the coast, where a profitable slave trade was carried on. Zulu aggression caused mass migrations and wars and created chaos across much of the region. The Asante controlled smaller states, who were ready to turn to Europeans to help them defeat their Asante rulers. Region had close ties to the Muslim world and remained under the rule of the declining Ottoman empire. To understand the impact of European domination, we must look at Africa in the early 1800s, before the scramble for colonies began. NORTH AFRICA WEST AFRICA SOUTH AFRICA EAST AFRICA 2

28 European Contacts Increased 1. 1. From the 1500s through the 1700s, difficult geography and disease prevented European traders from reaching the interior of Africa. 2. 2. Medical advances and river steamships changed all that in the 1800s. Explorers were fascinated by African geography but had little understanding of the people they met. Most famous European explorer was Dr. Livingstone Catholic and Protestant missionaries sought to win people to Christianity. Most took a paternalistic view of Africans. They urged Africans to reject their own traditions in favor of western civilization. EXPLORERS MISSIONARIES 2

29 King Leopold II of Belgium sent explorers to the Congo River basin to arrange trade treaties with African leaders. King Leopold’s activities in the Congo set off a scramble among other European nations. Before long, Britain, France, and Germany were pressing for rival claims to the region. European powers partitioned almost the entire African continent. At the Berlin Conference, European powers agreed on how they could claim African territory without fighting amongst themselves. 2 Scramble for Colonies

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31 Imperialism in Africa to 1914 2

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33 Boer War When Britain takes control of Cape Colony in 1815, the Boers flee north. When Britain takes control of Cape Colony in 1815, the Boers flee north. Late 1800’s: Boers find gold and diamonds in their new republics Late 1800’s: Boers find gold and diamonds in their new republics Conflict develops between British and Boers Conflict develops between British and Boers 1910: British unite Cape Colony and former Boer republics 1910: British unite Cape Colony and former Boer republics New Constitution set up a government run by whites and laid the foundation for a system of complete racial segregation that would remain in force until 1993 New Constitution set up a government run by whites and laid the foundation for a system of complete racial segregation that would remain in force until 1993 British clash with Boers….descendents of the Dutch who had controlled Cape Colony 2

34 Boer War What was the main reason the British and Boers clashed in Africa? – –The British coveted the riches the Boers had found in their new republics

35 African Resistance Algerians battled the French for years. Algerians battled the French for years. The Zulus in southern Africa and the Asante in West Africa battled the British. The Zulus in southern Africa and the Asante in West Africa battled the British. East Africans fought wars against the Germans. East Africans fought wars against the Germans. When Italy invaded, Ethiopia was prepared. Ethiopia was the only nation, aside from Liberia, to preserve its independence. When Italy invaded, Ethiopia was prepared. Ethiopia was the only nation, aside from Liberia, to preserve its independence. Europeans met armed resistance across the continent. 2

36 European Challenges to the Muslim World What were sources of stress in the Muslim world? What were sources of stress in the Muslim world? What problems did the Ottoman empire face? What problems did the Ottoman empire face? How did Egypt seek to modernize? How did Egypt seek to modernize? Why were European powers interested in Iran? Why were European powers interested in Iran? 3

37 What Were Sources of Stress in the Muslim World? By the 1700s, all three Muslim empires were in decline. By the 1700s, all three Muslim empires were in decline. In the 1700s and early 1800s, reform movements stressed religious piety and strict rules of behavior. In the 1700s and early 1800s, reform movements stressed religious piety and strict rules of behavior. The old Muslim empires faced western imperialism. The old Muslim empires faced western imperialism. 3

38 The Ottoman Empire As ideas of nationalism spread from Western Europe, internal revolts weakened the multiethnic Ottoman empire. As ideas of nationalism spread from Western Europe, internal revolts weakened the multiethnic Ottoman empire. European states sought to benefit from the weakening of the Ottoman empire by claiming lands under Ottoman control. European states sought to benefit from the weakening of the Ottoman empire by claiming lands under Ottoman control. Nationalist tensions triggered a brutal genocide of the Armenians, a Christian people in the eastern mountains of the empire. Nationalist tensions triggered a brutal genocide of the Armenians, a Christian people in the eastern mountains of the empire. By the early 1800s, the Ottoman empire faced serious challenges. 3

39 Iran and the European Powers Russia wanted to protect its southern frontier and expand into Central Asia. Britain was concerned about protecting its interests in India. For a time, Russia and Britain each set up their own spheres of influence, Russia in the north and Britain in the south. The discovery of oil in the region in the early 1900s heightened foreign interest in the region. Russia and Britain persuaded the Iranian government to grant them concessions, or special economic rights given to foreign powers. 3

40 The British Take Over India What were the causes and effects of the Sepoy Rebellion? What were the causes and effects of the Sepoy Rebellion? How did British rule affect India? How did British rule affect India? How did Indians view western culture? How did Indians view western culture? What were the origins of Indian nationalism? What were the origins of Indian nationalism? 4

41 The Sepoy Rebellion: Causes and Effects The British East India Company: Undermined and violated Hindu beliefs – –required sepoys, or Indian soldiers in its service, to serve anywhere, including overseas – –allowing Hindu widows to marry – –ordered the sepoys to bite off cartridges made of animal fat when loading their rifles The sepoys brutally massacred British men, women, and children. The British took terrible revenge Both sides were left with a bitter legacy of fear, hatred, and mistrust. The British put India directly under British rule, sent more troops to India, and taxed Indians to pay for the cost of the occupying forces. CAUSESEFFECTS 4

42 British Colonial Rule The British built roads and an impressive railroad network. The British built roads and an impressive railroad network. The British flooded India with machine-made textiles, ruining India’s once-prosperous hand-weaving industry. The British flooded India with machine-made textiles, ruining India’s once-prosperous hand-weaving industry. Britain transformed Indian agriculture. Britain transformed Indian agriculture. Better health care and increased food production led to rapid population growth. Over-population led to terrible famines. Better health care and increased food production led to rapid population growth. Over-population led to terrible famines. The British revised the Indian legal system. The British revised the Indian legal system. British rule brought peace and order to the countryside. British rule brought peace and order to the countryside. Upper-class Indians sent their sons to British schools. Upper-class Indians sent their sons to British schools. After 1858, Parliament set up a system of colonial rule in India. 4

43 Imperialism in India to 1858 4

44 Different Views on Culture Some educated Indians were impressed by British power and technology and urged India to follow a western model of progress. Other Indians felt the answer to change lay with their own Hindu or Muslim cultures. Most British knew little about Indian achievements and dismissed Indian culture with contempt. A few British admired Indian theology and philosophy and respected India’s ancient heritage. During the Age of Imperialism, Indians and British developed different views of each other’s culture. INDIAN ATTITUDESBRITISH ATTITUDES 4

45 Indian Nationalism The British believed that western-educated Indians would form an elite class which would bolster British rule. As it turned out, exposure to European ideas had the opposite effect. By the late 1800s, western-educated Indians were spearheading a nationalist movement. In 1885, nationalist leaders organized the Indian National Congress. Its members looked forward to eventual self-rule, but supported western-style modernization. In 1906, Muslims formed the Muslim League to pursue their own goals, including a separate Muslim state. 4

46 In response to the Sepoy Rebellion, the British did all of the following except a) place India directly under British rule. b) send more troops to India. c) give into Indian demands for greater self-rule. d) tax Indians to pay for an increased British military presence. Which of the following is true of the Indian National Congress? a) Its members wanted to establish a separate Muslim state. b) Its members favored continued British rule c) Its members supported western-style modernization. d) Its members favored immediate overthrow of the British. 4 British Rule in India Review

47 Imperialism in China Since the mid 17 th century, Chinese rulers had refused to adopt western ways Since the mid 17 th century, Chinese rulers had refused to adopt western ways As a result, Chinese technology began to fall behind that of the Europeans who will begin to challenge the Middle Kingdom As a result, Chinese technology began to fall behind that of the Europeans who will begin to challenge the Middle Kingdom

48 The Opium War Desperate to end the drain of British silver into Chinese pockets, British merchants began to trade opium in China in the late 18 th century Desperate to end the drain of British silver into Chinese pockets, British merchants began to trade opium in China in the late 18 th century China tried to halt imports of the highly addictive drug China tried to halt imports of the highly addictive drug In 1839, to keep trade open, the British fought with the Chinese in a conflict called THE OPIUM WAR In 1839, to keep trade open, the British fought with the Chinese in a conflict called THE OPIUM WAR Britain’s superior military and industrial strength led to a quick victory Britain’s superior military and industrial strength led to a quick victory

49 The Opium War

50 Treaty of Nanjing In 1842, Britain forced China to agree to the harsh terms of the Treaty of Nanjing In 1842, Britain forced China to agree to the harsh terms of the Treaty of Nanjing China had to pay for Britain’s war costs, open ports to British trade and give Britain the island of Hong Kong China had to pay for Britain’s war costs, open ports to British trade and give Britain the island of Hong Kong The western powers carved out spheres of influence, areas in which an outside power claimed exclusive trade privileges including the right to build roads, railroads and factories The western powers carved out spheres of influence, areas in which an outside power claimed exclusive trade privileges including the right to build roads, railroads and factories

51 Spheres of Influence

52 Chinese Reaction to Imperialism The Taiping Rebellion- from 1850-1864, angry impoverished peasants revolted against Qing officials. Millions were killed and China suffered. The Taiping Rebellion- from 1850-1864, angry impoverished peasants revolted against Qing officials. Millions were killed and China suffered. Boxer Rebellion – in 1900, a group known as the Boxers assaulted foreign communities across China. Armies from the west and Japan crushed the rebellion and forced the Chinese to give foreign powers even more influence in China. Boxer Rebellion – in 1900, a group known as the Boxers assaulted foreign communities across China. Armies from the west and Japan crushed the rebellion and forced the Chinese to give foreign powers even more influence in China.

53 The Chinese Revolution In the early 1900’s Chinese nationalism grew in reaction to the increased western presence in China In the early 1900’s Chinese nationalism grew in reaction to the increased western presence in China Sun Yat-sen led the movement to create a new government and replace the Qing Dynasty Sun Yat-sen led the movement to create a new government and replace the Qing Dynasty

54 Sun Yat-sen’s Three Goals To end foreign domination To end foreign domination To form a representative government To form a representative government To create economic security To create economic security In 1911, workers, peasants and warlords toppled the monarchy. Yat-sen was named president of the Chinese Republic. In 1911, workers, peasants and warlords toppled the monarchy. Yat-sen was named president of the Chinese Republic.

55 Japan Modernizes How did discontent in Japanese society and the opening of Japan lead to the Meiji Restoration? What were the main reforms under the Meiji? How did Japanese military strength promote imperialism? 5

56 Discontent in Tokugawa Japan After the Tokugawa shoguns gained power in 1600, the reimposed centralized feudalism, closed Japan to foreigners and forbade Japanese to travel overseas. 5 The Japanese had limited trade with the Dutch in the port of Nagasaki. By the 1800’s: Shoguns were no longer strong leaders Daimyo suffered financial hardship Samurai were no longer fighters Merchants had no political power Peasants suffered under heavy taxes

57 Opening Up Japan July 1853: American Commodore Matthew Perry persuades the Japanese give the U.S. trading rights: Extraterritoriality “Most Favored Nation” 5 Japanese resented unequal treaties, found them humiliating 1867: Discontented daimyo and samurai “restored” the 15-year-old emperor to power and moved the capital to Tokyo.

58 Meiji Restoration 5 Period lasting from 1868 to 1912. Meiji means “enlightened rule.” Goal: “A rich country, a strong military” New leaders set out to study western ways, adapt them to Japanese needs and beat westerners at their own game.

59 Reforms under the Meiji 5 Strong Central Government based on German system: Constitution said all citizens equal before law Gave emperor autocratic power Limited voting rights Ended special privileges of samurai and subjected all men to military service Economic Reforms: Industrialized using technologies of the west Social Change: Ended legal distinctions between classes Opened educational opportunities Women still had secondary roles Overall, the Meiji Restoration reforms were very successful. Japan modernized and became a world power.

60 Growing Military Strength 5 As a small island nation, Japan had few resources essential to industrial growth. Spurred by nationalism and imperialism, Japan built an empire. 1894:Sino-Japanese War Though outnumbered, Japan defeated China with their modern technology. Japanese Rule Korea 1910: Japan annexes Korea Japan modernizes Korea but profits went to Japanese Imposed harsh rule on Koreans Korean rebels created nationalist groups 1904: Russo- Japanese War Japan’s armies defeated Russia in Manchuria. Japanese navy almost destroyed a Russian fleet 1905 Treaty of Portsmouth: Japan gains control of Manchuria and Korea

61 Naval Power in the late 1800’s 5 Jul. 24, 1894 — A party of 50 Sailors and Marines under Captain George Fielding Elliott, USMC, was sent from the cruiser USS Baltimore (C 3) to guard the American legation at Seoul, Korea, during the Sino-Japanese War. The Japanese had just landed troops in Korea.

62 Japanese Power in the late 1800’s 5 Sino-Japanese War Battle of Pung-do, Sinking of the Kowshing July 25, 1894 “Japanese Warships Fire on the Enemy near Haiyang Island” by Mizuno Toshikata, September 1894

63 Japanese Power in the late 1800’s 5 Sino-Japanese War Chinese Surrender “After the Fall of Weihaiwei, the Commander of the Chinese Beiyang Fleet, Admiral Ding Juchang, Surrenders” by Mizuno Toshikata, November 1895 (above, with details). [2000.123] Sharf Collection, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

64 Southeast Asia and the Pacific What impact did European colonization have on Southeast Asia? What impact did European colonization have on Southeast Asia? How did imperialism spread to the Philippines and other Pacific islands? How did imperialism spread to the Philippines and other Pacific islands? 2

65 Imperialism in Southeast Asia and the Pacific, 1900 2

66 Colonization of Southeast Asia By the 1890s, Europeans controlled most of Southeast Asia. They: introduced modern technology introduced modern technology expanded commerce and industry expanded commerce and industry set up new enterprises to mine tin and harvest rubber set up new enterprises to mine tin and harvest rubber brought in new crops of corn and cassava brought in new crops of corn and cassava built harbors and railroads built harbors and railroads These changes benefited Europeans far more than the people of Southeast Asia. In their relentless race for raw materials, new markets, and Christian converts, western industrial powers gobbled up Southeast Asia. 2

67 Imperial Powers in the Pacific In the 1800s, the industrial powers began to take an interest in the islands of the Pacific. In 1878, the United States secured an unequal treaty from Samoa. Later, the United States, Germany, and Britain agreed to a triple protectorate over Samoa. From the mid-1800s, American sugar growers pressed for power in Hawaii. In 1898, the United States annexed Hawaii. At the conclusion of the Spanish-American War, the Philippines was placed under American control. The United States promised Filipinos self-rule some time in the future.

68 Economic Imperialism in Latin America What political and economic problems faced new Latin American nations? What political and economic problems faced new Latin American nations? How did Mexico struggle for stability? How did Mexico struggle for stability? How did the United States influence Latin America? How did the United States influence Latin America? 4

69 Political Problems Many problems had their origins in colonial rule, as independence barely changed the existing social and political hierarchy. Many problems had their origins in colonial rule, as independence barely changed the existing social and political hierarchy. With few roads and no traditions of unity, the new nations were weakened by regionalism, loyalty to a local area. With few roads and no traditions of unity, the new nations were weakened by regionalism, loyalty to a local area. During the 1800s, most Latin American nations were plagued by revolts, civil war, and dictatorships. 4

70 The Economics of Dependence Economic dependence occurs when: less-developed nations export raw materials and commodities to industrial nations and import manufactured goods, capital, and technological know-how. less-developed nations export raw materials and commodities to industrial nations and import manufactured goods, capital, and technological know-how. The relationship is unequal because the more developed — and wealthier nation — can control prices and terms of trade. The relationship is unequal because the more developed — and wealthier nation — can control prices and terms of trade. Under colonial rule, mercantilist policies made Latin America economically dependent on Spain and Portugal. After independence, this pattern changed very little. The region remained as economically dependent as before. 4

71 The Influence of the United States In 1823, the United States issued the Monroe Doctrine: –stated that the American continents were no longer open to colonization by any European powers. In 1904, the United States issued the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: –Under this policy, the United States claimed “international police power” in the Western Hemisphere. In the next decade, the United States frequently intervened militarily in Latin American nations to protect American lives and investments. In 1903, the United States backed the Panamanians in a revolt against Colombia in order to gain land to build the Panama Canal. 4

72 Imperialism in the Caribbean and South America, 1898–1917 4

73 Impact of Imperialism How did imperialism lead to new economic patterns? How did imperialism lead to new economic patterns? What was the cultural impact of imperialism? What was the cultural impact of imperialism? How did political tensions develop as the result of imperialism? How did political tensions develop as the result of imperialism? 5

74 New Economic Patterns A truly global economy emerged, dominated by the United States, Britain, France, and Germany. A truly global economy emerged, dominated by the United States, Britain, France, and Germany. Colonial rulers introduced a money economy that replaced the old barter system. Colonial rulers introduced a money economy that replaced the old barter system. Mass-produced goods from the industrialized world further disrupted traditional economies. Mass-produced goods from the industrialized world further disrupted traditional economies. Local economies that had once been self-sufficient became dependent on the industrial powers. Local economies that had once been self-sufficient became dependent on the industrial powers. 5

75 Cultural Impact As westerners conquered other lands, they pressed subject people to accept “modern” ways. By this, they meant western ideas, government, technology, and culture. As westerners conquered other lands, they pressed subject people to accept “modern” ways. By this, they meant western ideas, government, technology, and culture. Many non-westerners, especially in conquered lands, came to accept a belief in western superiority. Many non-westerners, especially in conquered lands, came to accept a belief in western superiority. The overwhelming successes of the western imperialist nations sapped people’s confidence in their own leaders and cultures. The overwhelming successes of the western imperialist nations sapped people’s confidence in their own leaders and cultures. Western culture spread around the world. Western culture spread around the world. 5

76 New Political Tensions By the early 1900s, western-educated elites in Africa and Asia were organizing nationalist movements to end colonial rule. By the early 1900s, western-educated elites in Africa and Asia were organizing nationalist movements to end colonial rule. The competition for imperial power was fueling tensions among western nations. The competition for imperial power was fueling tensions among western nations. 5

77 The End

78 China and the New Imperialism What trade rights did westerners seek in China? What trade rights did westerners seek in China? How did the Qing dynasty come to an end? How did the Qing dynasty come to an end? 5

79 The Trade Issue Prior to the 1800s, Chinese rulers placed strict limits on foreign traders. China enjoyed a trade surplus, exporting more than it imported. China enjoyed a trade surplus, exporting more than it imported. Westerners had a trade deficit with China, buying more from the Chinese than they sold to them. Westerners had a trade deficit with China, buying more from the Chinese than they sold to them. In 1842, Britain made China accept the Treaty of Nanjing, the first in a series of “unequal treaties” that forced China to make concessions to western powers. -China paid a huge indemnity to Britain. -China paid a huge indemnity to Britain. -The British gained the island of Hong Kong. -The British gained the island of Hong Kong. -China had to open five ports to foreign trade and grant British citizens in China extraterritoriality. -China had to open five ports to foreign trade and grant British citizens in China extraterritoriality. 5

80 Internal Problems Irrigation systems and canals were poorly maintained, leading to massive flooding of the Huang He valley. Irrigation systems and canals were poorly maintained, leading to massive flooding of the Huang He valley. The population explosion that had begun a century earlier created a terrible hardship for China’s peasants. The population explosion that had begun a century earlier created a terrible hardship for China’s peasants. An extravagant court, tax evasion by the rich, and widespread official corruption added to the peasants’ burden. An extravagant court, tax evasion by the rich, and widespread official corruption added to the peasants’ burden. The civil service system was rocked by bribery scandals. The civil service system was rocked by bribery scandals. Between 1850 and 1864, peasants took part in the Taiping Rebellion, the most devastating revolt in history. Between 1850 and 1864, peasants took part in the Taiping Rebellion, the most devastating revolt in history. By the 1800s, the Qing dynasty was in decline. 5

81 Imperialism in China to 1914 5

82 Fall of the Qing Dynasty 1) European countries were splitting China into spheres of influence. 2) Britain’s opium trade with China led to the Opium Wars 3) The United States forced an Open Door Policy which kept Chinese trade open to ALL nations. In the Boxer Rebellion, angry Chinese attacked foreigners across China. In response, western powers and Japan crushed the Boxers. Defeat at the hands of foreigners led China to embark on a rush of reforms. 5 As the century ended, anger grew against foreigners in China.

83 Fall of the Qing Dynasty Chinese nationalists called for a constitutional monarchy or a republic. When Empress Ci Xi died in 1908, China slipped into chaos. In 1911, the Qing dynasty was toppled. Sun Yixian was named president of the new Chinese republic. Sun wanted to rebuild China on “Three Principles of the People”: nationalism, democracy, and economic security for all Chinese. The time period from 1911 to 1949 was a period of instability in China 5

84 Which of the following is not true of Chinese trade relations with the West? a) Before the 1800s, China enjoyed a trade surplus. b) Before the 1800s, China had a trade deficit with the West. c) In 1842, China was forced to open up five ports to foreign trade. d) Before the 1800s, China strictly limited foreign trade. China and the New Imperialism Review 5

85 What happened in the Boxer Rebellion? a) Angry Chinese attacked foreigners in China. b) The Chinese started a war with Japan. c) Western imperialists attacked Chinese peasants. d) Chinese peasants rose up against the government. China and the New Imperialism Review 5


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