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1 AEB 2007 GCSE Exam Questions To advance slide click here

2 How to use this package Choose any 1 of the 3 answered questions and see if you would have marked them the same as an examiner Or have a go at the sample question yourself then check your answer

3 Try your hand at being a GCSE examiner. Compare the marks you would give to those an examiner would. Answer this GCSE question yourself then check your answer Click on your choice Exit program

4 Choose your topic There are 3 questions each with 2 sample answers for you to mark…. Population growth Distribution and Density Population structure Click on the topic of your choice

5 World Population Growth First look at the question – read it through and think how you would answer it. Then look at the 2 student answers and see where they gained and lost marks.

6 a) Study fig.1 which shows total world population from 1830 to its predicted level for (i) How many years did it take for world population to double from 1 to 2 billion? [1] (ii) Between which two years did world population increase by 1 billion over the shortest time period? [1] (iii) Describe the evidence that shows that the rate of growth of world population growth will slow down between 1999 and [2] (iv) Give two reasons why world population growth is expected to slow down in the future.[4] Fig 1; World population (billions) ContinentBirth rate per 1000 Death rate per 1000 LEDC Africa4314 Asia269 South America267 MEDC Australasia208 Europe1210 North America168 b) The table below gives population information for six continents Using this information name the continent with: (i) the largest natural increase (ii) the smallest natural increase (iii) a natural increase of 12 per 1000 [3] (c) Explain why birth rates remain high (above 25 per 1000) in many LEDCs [7] (d) The Table shows that death rates in Europe are on average higher than those in South America and Asia. Suggest one reason for this. [2] Total: 20 marks Click here for answers

7 Answer A (i) 97 years (ii) 12 years between 1987 and 1999 (iii)The evidence is that it is predicted to take 14 years for the population to increase from 6 to 7 billion and then 17 years for it to increase the next billion. (iv) 1. Birth rates are going down as more and more people are using condoms and other methods of birth control eg. Kerela in India where women are better educated and encouraged to practise birth control 2. AIDS is killing thousands of people in Africa. So many people are already infected with HIV that death rates in many African countries eg Kenya are increasing and will continue to do so. (b) (i) Africa (ii) Europe (iii) Australasia (c) There are still many reasons why people in LEDCs have large numbers of children. People in some countries like having large families, because everyone comes from a large family themselves. Reasons for high birth rates in LEDC include: Lack of family planning. Some governments eg. Somalia and Ethiopia in Africa, are too poor to set up family planning clinics and provide contraceptives to people in rural areas. High infant mortality rates. Many children die before reaching their first birthday. Mothers try to compensate for these high death rates by having many children so that at least some of them will live until the age when they can start work and bring money into the family. Children are seen by many people as assets. They may not go to school because they are expected to work. Boys help with farming from the age of about 9 or 10 and will help to keep their parents when they can no longer work. (d) This is because medical services are much better in MEDCs than in LEDCs. There are more doctors per head of the population and governments can afford drugs to keep people alive, whereas many people are too poor in LEDCs and live in rural areas where there are no hospitals. Click here to see question again Click here for Answer B Click here to reveal marks

8 Answer A (i) 97 years (ii) 12 years between 1987 and 1999 (iii)The evidence is that it is predicted to take 14 years for the population to increase from 6 to 7 billion and then 17 years for it to increase the next billion. (iv) 1. Birth rates are going down as more and more people are using condoms and other methods of birth control eg. Kerela in India where women are better educated and encouraged to practise birth control 2. AIDS is killing thousands of people in Africa. So many people are already infected with HIV that death rates in many African countries eg Kenya are increasing and will continue to do so. (b) (i) Africa (ii) Europe (iii) Australasia (c) There are still many reasons why people in LEDCs have large numbers of children. People in some countries like having large families, because everyone comes from a large family themselves. Reasons for high birth rates in LEDC include: Lack of family planning. Some governments eg. Somalia and Ethiopia in Africa, are too poor to set up family planning clinics and provide contraceptives to people in rural areas. High infant mortality rates. Many children die before reaching their first birthday. Mothers try to compensate for these high death rates by having many children so that at least some of them will live until the age when they can start work and bring money into the family. Children are seen by many people as assets. They may not go to school because they are expected to work. Boys help with farming from the age of about 9 or 10 and will help to keep their parents when they can no longer work. (d) This is because medical services are much better in MEDCs than in LEDCs. There are more doctors per head of the population and governments can afford drugs to keep people alive, whereas many people are too poor in LEDCs and live in rural areas where there are no hospitals. 1mark 1mark lost 1 mark as did not how this indicates slow-down 4 marks 2 reasons clearly different. Good answer. All correct 3 marks 6 marks. 3 reasons used with good detail. 0 marks as not answering the question. In LEDCs there is a high proportion of young people that keep the death rate per 1000 low. Click here to see question again 16/20 – Grade A answer. Few mistakes made Click here for Answer B Click here to reveal marks

9 Answer B (i) I can see that it is about 100 years. (ii) I think this was between 1987 and 1999 because the difference of 12 years was the smallest. (iii) I can see from the graph that it will take 31 years for world population to go up from 6 to 8 billion from 1999 to I can see that it took only 25 years for the world population to go up from 4 to 6 billion from 1974 to 1999, which is less time for the same amount of growth of population. This tells me that population growth is slowing down after I think that birth rates will fall because more people will use family planning and attend family planning clinics. 2. I know that some governments in LEDCs are giving free condoms to young married couples so that they will have fewer children than their parents had. (b) (i) Africa (ii) Europe (iii) Europe (c) 1. No birth control 2. No family planning 3. Religion, eg. Catholics are told not to use birth control. 4. High death rates 5. Children help with work ion the farm. 6. Look after parents in old age. Governments are too poor to educate people about family planning. (d) I think this is because medical care is much better in MEDCs than LEDCs. Click here to see question again Click here return to main menu Click here to reveal marks

10 Answer B (i) I can see that it is about 100 years. (ii) I think this was between 1987 and 1999 because the difference of 12 years was the smallest. (iii) I can see from the graph that it will take 31 years for world population to go up from 6 to 8 billion from 1999 to I can see that it took only 25 years for the world population to go up from 4 to 6 billion from 1974 to 1999, which is less time for the same amount of growth of population. This tells me that population growth is slowing down after I think that birth rates will fall because more people will use family planning and attend family planning clinics. 2. I know that some governments in LEDCs are giving free condoms to young married couples so that they will have fewer children than their parents had. (b) (i) Africa (ii) Europe (iii) Europe (c) 1. No birth control 2. No family planning 3. Religion, eg. Catholics are told not to use birth control. 4. High death rates 5. Children help with work ion the farm. 6. Look after parents in old age. Governments are too poor to educate people about family planning. (d) I think this is because medical care is much better in MEDCs than LEDCs. Click here to see question again 0 marks – it is possible to give the accurate number of 97 1 mark A bit muddled but still gets the 2 marks 2 marks – only first 2 correct (iii) Australasia 2 marks – only 1 reason given as points 1 and 2 are too similar Not the way to lay out a 7 mark question shouldn’t use bullet points. However reasons given are valid but there is some overlap. Marks given 3 (Often examiners will only award a maximum of 2 for a ‘list’ answer to a high mark question. 0 marks – incorrect answer 10/20 – Grade D answer. Remember to use extended writing for high mark questions Click here return to main menu Click here to reveal marks

11 Population Distribution and Density First look at the question – read it through and think how you would answer it. Then look at the 2 student answers and see where they gained and lost marks.

12 (a) (i) Name the two continents with the largest concentrations of people. [2] (ii) State one similarity and one difference in population between Australia and South America shown on the map above. [2] (b) Very few people live in those areas of the world lettered A-D on the map. Give the letter for the areas where the low number of people living can be explained by conditions being: (i) too cold (ii) too hot and wet (iii)too dry (iv)too high and steep[2] (c) How is the density of population in an area calculated?[2] (d) (i) Name one area you have studied with a high density of population [1] (ii) Give reasons why so many people live in the area you have named.[6] Total 15 marks Click here for answers

13 Answer A (a) (i) Europe and South Asia (ii) Similarity – most people live near the coast Difference – a lot more people live in South America (b) (i) A (ii) D (iii)C (iv)B (c) Total population Area (d) (i) Southeast England (ii) London is the capital city It attracts workers from the north of England where many and factories have closed. Many jobs are found in London, eg in shops, offices, transport, tourism and in government. London is the largest financial centre in Europe It has airports that attract many visitors from overseas. The Southeast is the nearest part of the UK to Europe and other countries in the EU. The main market for manufactured goods is in Europe Hi-tech industries, such as computers and electronic companies, like to locate in the southeast, eg, along the M4 corridor between London and Reading. Click here for Answer B Click here to see question again Click here to reveal marks

14 Answer A (a) (i) Europe and South Asia (ii) Similarity – most people live near the coast Difference – a lot more people live in South America (b) (i) A (ii) D (iii)C (iv)B (c) Total population Area (d) (i) Southeast England (ii) London is the capital city It attracts workers from the north of England where many and factories have closed. Many jobs are found in London, eg in shops, offices, transport, tourism and in government. London is the largest financial centre in Europe It has airports that attract many visitors from overseas. The Southeast is the nearest part of the UK to Europe and other countries in the EU. The main market for manufactured goods is in Europe Hi-tech industries, such as computers and electronic companies, like to locate in the southeast, eg, along the M4 corridor between London and Reading. Click here for Answer B Click here to see question again 2 marks Click here to reveal marks 2 marks All correct - 2 marks Looks short but is the correct method - 2 marks Good choice - 1 mark Good answer with enough geographical information for all 6 marks but as it is bullet pointed would only get 5 marks 14/15 – Grade A* answer. Remember to use extended writing for high mark questions

15 Answer B (a) (i)1. The UK and Europe 2. India and China (ii) Both have large areas with no population More people live down the east coast of South America (b) (i) A (ii) B (iii)C (iv)D (c) Density is the amount of people per square kilometre. (d) (i) Sao Paulo in Brazil (ii) Many people have moved from the northeast of Brazil into Sao Paulo. Two thousand people are moving into the city every week. This is a result of rural to urban migration. Most people are attracted by jobs and the bright lights of the big city. Many of the migrants live in shanty towns until they find work. Shanty towns are found all around the edges of Sao Paulo on unused land where people build shacks and homes from any material they can find. In the northeast of Brazil the land is dry and people are poor, which is why they migrate to big cities in the hope of getting a job and having a better life. Click here return to main menu Click here to see question again Click here to reveal marks

16 Answer B (a) (i)1. The UK and Europe 2. India and China (ii) Both have large areas with no population More people live down the east coast of South America (b) (i) A (ii) B (iii)C (iv)D (c) Density is the amount of people per square kilometre. (d) (i) Sao Paulo in Brazil (ii) Many people have moved from the northeast of Brazil into Sao Paulo. Two thousand people are moving into the city every week. This is a result of rural to urban migration. Most people are attracted by jobs and the bright lights of the big city. Many of the migrants live in shanty towns until they find work. Shanty towns are found all around the edges of Sao Paulo on unused land where people build shacks and homes from any material they can find. In the northeast of Brazil the land is dry and people are poor, which is why they migrate to big cities in the hope of getting a job and having a better life. Click here return to main menu Click here to see question again Click here to reveal marks These are countries not continents – but would get 1 mark for Europe 2 marks 1 mark as A and C only are correct Only 1 mark – doesn’t make it clear that you need to use both total population and the size of the area 2 marks Spends too long writing about migration and its causes. Failed to mention Sau Paulo is Brazil’s largest centre of manufacturing or other details about the city. 1 mark but to use an area rather than a city would make part (ii) easier to answer 8/15 – Grade C answer. Needed more detail in their chosen case study.

17 Population Structure First look at the question – read it through and think how you would answer it. Then look at the 2 student answers and see where they gained and lost marks.

18 (a) Study the population pyramids for Kenya and the UK. (i) What percentage of the population of Kenya is aged 14 years and under? [1] (ii) Describe one difference in shape between the two pyramids[2] (iii) How do differences in birth rate and life expectancy affect the shape of the two pyramids? [2] (b) For one named country, describe the methods used to reduce birth rates.[5] (c) The population of a country can be split into three groups: A: 0-14 years: young dependants B: years C: 65 and over: old dependants (i) Give a label suitable for the group aged years [1] (ii) Explain why the other two groups are called ‘dependants’[2] (d) The UK and many other MEDCs have ageing populations (increased percentage of old people). Describe fully the consequences for a country of an ageing population.[7] Total 20 marks KenyaUK Click here for answers

19 Answer A (a) (i) 46% (ii) The shape for Kenya looks like a real pyramid with a wide base and steps up to the narrow top. The UK’s pyramid is almost straight up and down. (iii) Kenya has a much higher birth rate than the UK and so its graph is much wider at the bottom. Kenya has a much lower life expectancy than the UK, so that its pyramid is narrower and less high at the top. (b) China’s population is almost a quarter of the total world population. With worries that China would become overpopulated, a one child policy was introduced. Each couple was only allowed one child. If you wanted a child you would have to receive a permission card. Without this you would be unable to register the child. Couples with one child would receive a 10% increase in salary; however, couples with more than one child would receive a 10% decrease. The government provided family planning advice and clinics and had a massive advertising campaign to get people to stop at one child. (c) (i) Workers. Old and young depend upon the money made by them. (ii) Old and young depend upon money made by workers. The money workers pay in taxes is used by the government for schools for the under 15s and for pensions for the over 65s. Old and young do not earn money which is why they depend upon the worker. (d) As a result of improved medical knowledge, more diseases and illnesses can be cured. However, as people get older and live longer they need more and more medical help. This puts a great strain on the NHS (National Health Service). Some cannot look after themselves any more either, and have to go into care homes run and paid for by local councils. People over 65 do not work, so they are no longer paying into the economy. However, they are taking money out with pensions, which they need to live on. Pensions are paid out by the government using the money it has collected in taxes from those who are younger and still in work. As the percentage of old people increases, the amount the government needs to pay out increases. Some governments in MEDCs are now worried that they will not have enough money to keep paying pensions to all of their old people, especially if the workforce gets smaller. In addition, raising taxes for those still in work is not going to be popular. Click here for Answer B Click here to see question again Click here to reveal marks

20 Answer A (a) (i) 46% (ii) The shape for Kenya looks like a real pyramid with a wide base and steps up to the narrow top. The UK’s pyramid is almost straight up and down. (iii) Kenya has a much higher birth rate than the UK and so its graph is much wider at the bottom. Kenya has a much lower life expectancy than the UK, so that its pyramid is narrower and less high at the top. (b) China’s population is almost a quarter of the total world population. With worries that China would become overpopulated, a one child policy was introduced. Each couple was only allowed one child. If you wanted a child you would have to receive a permission card. Without this you would be unable to register the child. Couples with one child would receive a 10% increase in salary; however, couples with more than one child would receive a 10% decrease. The government provided family planning advice and clinics and had a massive advertising campaign to get people to stop at one child. (c) (i) Workers. Old and young depend upon the money made by them. (ii) Old and young depend upon money made by workers. The money workers pay in taxes is used by the government for schools for the under 15s and for pensions for the over 65s. Old and young do not earn money which is why they depend upon the worker. (d) As a result of improved medical knowledge, more diseases and illnesses can be cured. However, as people get older and live longer they need more and more medical help. This puts a great strain on the NHS (National Health Service). Some cannot look after themselves any more either, and have to go into care homes run and paid for by local councils. People over 65 do not work, so they are no longer paying into the economy. However, they are taking money out with pensions, which they need to live on. Pensions are paid out by the government using the money it has collected in taxes from those who are younger and still in work. As the percentage of old people increases, the amount the government needs to pay out increases. Some governments in MEDCs are now worried that they will not have enough money to keep paying pensions to all of their old people, especially if the workforce gets smaller. In addition, raising taxes fro those still in work is not going to be popular. Click here for Answer B Click here to see question again Click here to reveal marks 1 mark 2 marks Good description detailed enough to gain all 5 marks Correct term is ‘economically active’ but most examiners would allow this for 1 mark Good answer - 2 marks Some good points, but only dealt with bad points, need to mention at least 1 benefit for full marks. 6 marks 19/20 – Grade A answer.

21 Answer B (a) (i) 24% (ii) The population pyramid for Kenya has a wide base; the UK’s hasn’t. This is because there is a much higher birth rate in Kenya. (iii) The much higher birth rate in Kenya gives a wide base to its pyramid. The higher the life expectancy, the wider the top, which is what I can see on the UK pyramid. (b) China. The old child policy. This meant that people did not receive benefits for a second child. (c) (i) Working population (ii) ‘Dependant population’ means the section of a population that doesn’t work, whether they are too young or too old. Old dependants are retired people on pensions. Young dependants are those at school and too young to work. (d) More pensions. Longer life expectancy and the government has to pay more people for longer. More health care. Drugs are keeping more old people alive More care homes. These are needed for very old people. It costs a lot of money to run a home for old people because nurses are needed. Many old people go on cruises and take lots of holidays, which is why holiday companies like old people. Makers of zimmer frames and stair lifts make more money. Click here to see question again Click here return to main menu Click here to reveal marks

22 Answer B (a) (i) 24% (ii) The population pyramid for Kenya has a wide base; the UK’s hasn’t. This is because there is a much higher birth rate in Kenya. (iii) The much higher birth rate in Kenya gives a wide base to its pyramid. The higher the life expectancy, the wider the top, which is what I can see on the UK pyramid. (b) China. The old child policy. This meant that people did not receive benefits for a second child. (c) (i) Working population (ii) ‘Dependant population’ means the section of a population that doesn’t work, whether they are too young or too old. Old dependants are retired people on pensions. Young dependants are those at school and too young to work. (d) More pensions. Longer life expectancy and the government has to pay more people for longer. More health care. Drugs are keeping more old people alive More care homes. These are needed for very old people. It costs a lot of money to run a home for old people because nurses are needed. Many old people go on cruises and take lots of holidays, which is why holiday companies like old people. Makers of zimmer frames and stair lifts make more money. Click here to see question again Click here return to main menu Click here to reveal marks 0 marks – may have only added up one side 1 mark – only 1 side stated, nothing is said about the UK pyramid 2 marks Correct answer but not enough detail – 2 marks 1 mark 1 mark needs more detail Some good information but this is not the way to lay out a 7 mark question - shouldn’t use bullet points or lists. Would therefore only get 4 or 5 for this answer 12/20 – Grade C answer.

23 On the following page is a sample GCSE question on population. Use your knowledge to answer it then once finished check you answer against a possible top mark answer. Remember to check how many marks are awarded for each part of the question and decide how much information and detail you need to give to achieve those marks.

24 a) Study the two tables. These show some information about the population of the UK in 1994 and how it may look in 2031(estimated) 1994 Population Age groupNumbers in millionsPercentage Under % % Over % Total % 2031 Population Age groupNumbers in millionsPercentage Under % % Over % Total % (i) give two differences between the population of the UK in 1994 and the year [2] (ii) What type of diagram is usually used to study the age/sex structure of the population? [1] (iii) Suggest two ways that the age/sex structure of an LEDC may be different from that of an MEDC such as the UK [2] b) By 2031 the death rate may be lower than in (i) What is the meaning of the term ‘death rate’? [2] (ii) How can changes in the death rate affect the size of the population? [2] c) Study this graph which shows migration between the UK and some other European countries between 1980 and (i) What is migration? [2] (ii) Which country shown on the graph has the most migrants from the UK? [1] (iii) Explain why people migrate [3] (iv) Using one or more examples, describe some of the problems which may be caused when people migrate. [4] Click here for last part of question

25 d) Study the map, which shows the annual population growth rates for some countries in Asia. The map shows that some countries in Asia, including Japan and South Korea, have a very low population growth rate. Other countries have higher growth rates. Explain why the population grows faster in some countries than in others. [6] You can go back to the first part of the question by clicking here To see a model answer click here – (remember to complete your answers on paper first so you can compare the two).

26 Model answer to GSCE question – you may have course used other case study examples that are equally relevant. a) (i) People under 16 in 1994 make up 21% of the population. In 2031 the percentage has decrease to 17% People over 65 in 1994 made up 18% of the population. There were 10.6 million people over 65. In 2031 the percentage of people over 65 rises to 23%. There will be 14.1 million people over 65. This is an increase of 3.5 million from (ii) Population pyramid (iii) The age-sex pyramid of an LEDC has a wider base than that of an MEDC as the LEDC has a higher birth rate. The age-sex pyramid of an LEDC gets narrower as the age increases, showing a higher death rate and low life expectancy compared to that of an MEDC which has a rounder shape with comparatively even numbers all the way up. b) (i) The death rate is the number of deaths per thousand per year in a country. (ii) Changes in the death rate can affect the size of population. It increases if the death rate is lower. The population will decrease if the death rate is higher. c) (i) ‘Migration’ means the movement of people. (ii) Germany (iii) People migrate for many different reasons. Some seek better job opportunities or a better standard of living. Refugees may be forced to migrate, to escape a war. People may migrate to be with relatives or because of famine in their country. (iv) Many problems can be caused when people migrate. Firstly, they may increase the population of an area and put strain on resources. They are in unfamiliar territory and do not know what to expect. Migrants to the UK seeking better jobs, may take away employment from people in the UK. Refugees fleeing war, for example in Kosovo, may use the local resources of countries like Macedonia which are relatively poor themselves. d) The population grows faster in some countries than in others for many reasons. In parts of India, they are not using or aware of contraception. In countries with lower population growth rates, they may make greater use of contraceptives. In countries like India with high population growth rates, education, particularly of women, is less well developed. Educated women in countries like South Korea are put off having children if they want careers. Population grows faster in some countries because of the poor provision of medical care. This also affects the death rate, particularly among children. People in LEDCs like Bangladesh have a lot of children as many of them will die. Parents need children to support them in their old age and to work on the family farm. As children can go out to work younger in LEDCs they bring in money. In countries like Singapore, children have to go to school until they are older and so it is expensive to have a large number of children. The population growth rate in China is kept down by the government’s one child policy. Parents are taxed more heavily if they have more than one child. Exit

27 That completes this section on GCSE Population Questions Click this box to return to the main menu to choose another topic Click here to exit the program to review your knowledge or try one of the short quick answer.

28 Good Luck with your GCSE population studies Press ESC to exit


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