Presentation on theme: "Partnerships for Mobility Management and Development Migration and Development: A Euro-Mediterranean Perspective 27 April 2007 Jeff Dayton-Johnson."— Presentation transcript:
Partnerships for Mobility Management and Development Migration and Development: A Euro-Mediterranean Perspective 27 April 2007 Jeff Dayton-Johnson
Key Messages: Migration and Development The impact of migration on sending countries’ development varies over time and across countries Mobility of the low-skilled contributes most to poverty reduction Migrants of all skill levels fill gaps in OECD countries, with minimal negative effects on wages and unemployment
Key Messages: Policy Innovations 1.Look at migration policies through a development lens 2.Integrate international migration into development strategies 3.Overhaul the organisation of migration management 4.Make policies more coherent for more effective management
(1) Look at migration policies through a development lens
Percent of Tertiary Educated Population in OECD Countries Source: OECD Database on Expatriates and Immigrants, 2004
High-skill migration: an important driver for growth and innovation Emigration of highly-skilled persons can be beneficial for sending countries. Compensation schemes and recruiting restraints hard to administer and usually ineffective. Potential for general guidelines of recruitment and partnership arrangements. Multiple entry visas, temporary work schemes and subsidisation of replenishment activities.
Europe attracts fewer highly educated migrants Source: OECD Database on Expatriates and Immigrants, 2004
Low-skill migration: an important driver for poverty reduction Low-skill migration has greater impact on poverty reduction than migration of professionals. Only 17% of low-skilled migrants in the EU15 come from low income countries. Dominant destination of low-skilled migrants is other developing countries. Temporary migration likely to be chosen over permanent settlement if costs are not too high.
Smart visa policies for legal migration and development Proliferation of temporary employment schemes: joint management in 57 out of 92 countries. Limitations of specific duration guest worker programmes Multiple entry visas: device to ease return and circularity. Continuous and active monitoring of contracting arrangements. Pre-departure training and language courses.
Reported Remittances Sent per Migrant (2000) Source: IMF Balance of Payments Statistics and UN Trends in Migrant Stock.
Remittances : who benefits? The poor if: Poorer families migrate Poor overseas migrants remit Potential gains depend on admission criteria, duration of absence, family separation, intention to return. Migration of highly skilled who settle permanently abroad with their families bring little by way of remittances to the home country. Non-receiving households benefit through multiplier and market integration effects.
Remittances: how to expand benefits? Remittances not a substitute for development assistance. Lower the cost of transfers: a priority for EU Member States. Provide improved access and innovative financial instruments. Codéveloppement: involve migrants and their associations
(2) Integrate international migration into development strategies
Integrating International Migration into Development Strategies For sending countries: integrate migration into macroeconomic, human resource management, higher education, infrastructure and “South-South” policy initiatives
Effective partnerships Partnerships: a vehicle for maximising gains and minimising risks of international migration? OECD countries commit themselves to rethinking migration policies conducive to development, and development assistance for capacity building Sending countries commit themselves to mainstream migration and remittances into national development strategies
Major developing country diasporas in the EU Foreign-born or foreign (*) populations Source: OECD International Migration Outlook 2006.
Enabling Diasporas Social and economic integration –Knowledge of job opportunities –Accessing social services Vectors of trade and investment –Transnational networks create trade opportunities –Preference for home-produced goods Development co-operation –Engage diasporas networks to facilitate return migrants –Migrant networks to foster “virtual return” –Co-development projects
(3) Overhaul the organisation of migration management
Overhauling the Organisation of Migration Management National level: inter-ministerial initiatives to promote co-ordination of development and migration policies Commission level: stronger systematic consultations across all relevant directorates
(4) Make policies more coherent for more effective management
Policy coherence: what role for aid? Aid cannot really slow migration …but it can serve as a catalyst to: –diffuse the benefits of migration –facilitate adjustment Aid channelled to investments in infrastructure can facilitate domestic labour market integration. Aid channelled to capacity building can mitigate the negative impact of the brain drain.
Policy coherence: what role for trade policies? EU and OECD trade policies have a significant impact on living standards and income in low income countries and hence affect migration patterns. More coherence is needed between EU and OECD trade and migration policies. The international community needs to consider the scope of GATS Mode 4 to encompass low- skilled workers.
Policy coherence: what role for security policies? Sources of insecurity: –inability to access strategic assets –access to food or other inputs –large market volatility –failed institutional set ups Strategies for risk prevention, mitigation and coping: make the link to migration –access to land and water assets –ag. extension programmes, irrigation infrastructure –capacity-building –appropriate land titling and regulatory modernisation