Presentation on theme: "Overseas Organizations’ Activities to Improve Seismic Performance of Masonry Houses in Developing Countries As a reference for BRI project formulation."— Presentation transcript:
Overseas Organizations’ Activities to Improve Seismic Performance of Masonry Houses in Developing Countries As a reference for BRI project formulation Satoru OBA Research Institute for Urban & Environmental Development, Japan
Research Background/Purpose General perceptions Traditional masonry houses have weaknesses in seismic resistance. In spite of efforts to strengthen these houses, proposed techniques have not used widely. Gathering information (through internet) on the activities of overseas organizations concerning their achievements, encountered problem, and so on As a reference for the formulation of BRI project
Organizations Being Researched I.International/Multi-National Organizations II.Bi-Lateral Aid Agencies III.Academic/Professional Societies IV.Universities/Research Institutes/ Information Centers V.Others doing international activities NGOs, Companies, Conferences, Networks Many Organizations are acting variously.
Five Projects Being Looked into Some Detail Ⅰ. I/MOs Ⅱ. BAAs Ⅲ. A/PSs Ⅳ. Us/RIs/ICs Ceresis/GTZ/PUCP Project ○ Ceresis ○ GTZ ○ PUCP IDRC/PUCP Project ○ IDRC ○ PUCP IAEE/EERI Tutorial ○ IAEE/EERI ○ contributors World Bank/METU Project ○ WB ○ METU NICEE/IITK Activities ○ WB ○ IAEE ○ NICEE/IITK All are/include transnational activities.
Project 1: Ceresis/GTZ/PUCP Project Targeted Buildings Adobe (existing) Technical Solutions Reinforcing walls electro-welded wire mesh + cement mortal Dissemination Methods demonstration houses manuals DVDs trainings/workshops early-late ‘90s Ceresis: Regional Seismology Center for South America GTZ: German Agency for Technical Cooperation PUCP: Pontifical Catholic University of Peru
Project 2: IDRC/PUCP Project Targeted Buildings Adobe （ new ） Quincha (new) mud +wood Technical Solutions Reinforcing walls cane & wood + cement mortal Dissemination Methods demonstration houses manuals pamphlets/booklets videos trainings/workshops radio shows middle ‘80s-late ‘90s IDRC: International Development Research Centre (Canada)
Project 3: IAEE/EERI Tutorial (on the Web) Targeted Buildings Adobe (new & existing) Other masonry buildings, etc. Technical Solutions （ Adobe ） Reinforcing walls reinforcement with any ductile material ring beam buttresses & pilasters, etc. Quality Management materials & construction Building Form Planning squat & single story small windows regular & compact plan, etc. Dissemination Method tutorials (on the Web) 2003-ongoing IAEE: International Association for Earthquake Engineering EERI: Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (USA)
Project 5: NICEE/IITK Activities Targeted Buildings Masonry (new & existing) Technical Solutions Reinforcing walls ring beam protecting window corners, etc. Quality Management materials & construction Dissemination Methods Earthquake Tips （ on website; in newspapers & journals ） trainings/workshops acquiring & disseminating latest professional information e-conference focusing on 2001-ongoing activities NICEE: National Information Center of Earthquake Engineering(India) IITK: Indian Institutes of Technology, Kampur
Research Findings 1 Substantial Accumulation of Efforts on Technical Development & Dissemination Various techniques have been developed. Their seismic performance has been proved. Affordability and technical simplicity have been sought. e.g., scrap-tires = US$100, wire mesh = US$400/housing unit Various methods/tools have been used to disseminate. methods/tools used in the five examples translation of useful foreign manuals (e.g., IIEA 1986 Manual) demonstration of improvement effect (e.g., UNCRD shake table demo ） international networks for collaboration/information sharing （ World Housing Encyclopedia ） However, new techniques haven’t been used as expected.
Research Findings 2 Various Challenging Obstacles to Dissemination possible breakthrough low - cost information provision (e. g., Web, information center) Intnl. research network continuing education quake areas ’ key stakeholders exchanging knowledge intnlly. ? ? ? (good governance & PPP) ? ? obstacles expensive information access cost unreachable of LDC professionals shortage of researchers (worldwide) shortage of engineers learned seismic design peoples’ lack of knowledge on earthquake and their disregard for risk enormous amount of informal housing priority on not disaster mitigation but poverty issues (food, shelter, health, education) public sector’s neglect to revise codes and to diffuse techniques insufficient support to the poor (low cost loan ） no established method in effective diffusion private sector’s disregard of codes ? popular perception inhibiting improvement = traditional materials inferior to modern ones