Presentation on theme: "Unit 15: Age of Exploration. From the 1400s to the 1700s, Europe experienced an “Age of Exploration” As a result of exploration, European nations grew."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 15: Age of Exploration
From the 1400s to the 1700s, Europe experienced an “Age of Exploration” As a result of exploration, European nations grew powerful & spread their influence throughout the world The Renaissance encouraged curiosity & a desire for trade Motivations Motivations: Why did Europeans want to explore? The Crusaders brought goods and ideas back from Middle East Europeans wanted new products. After Black Death and European recovery, its population grew, demand for these goods increased Most valuable goods were pepper, cloves, cinnamon, found in Indonesia (Spice Islands)
Gold (Money) A desire for new sources of wealth was the main reason for European exploration The Crusades & Renaissance stimulated European desires for exotic Asian luxury goods Merchants began looking for quick, direct trade routes to Asia to avoid Muslim & Italian merchants & increase profits
Glory The Renaissance inspired new possibilities for power & prestige Exploration presented Europeans the opportunity to rise from poverty and gain fame, fortune, & status Kings who sponsored voyages of exploration gained overseas colonies, new sources of wealth for their nation, & increased power
God European Christians, especially Catholics, wanted to stop the spread of Islam & convert non-Christians to the faith Explorers were encouraged to spread Christianity or bring missionaries who would focus only on conversions
The Age of Exploration Means Means: How were explorers able to sail so far & make it back again? Before the Renaissance, sailors did not have the technology to sail very far from Europe & return
Navigation Trade & cultural diffusion during the Renaissance introduced new navigation techniques to Europeans Magnetic compass made sailing more accurate (Invented by Chinese) Astrolabe used stars to show direction (Invented by the Greeks; perfected by the Muslims Cartography – Maps were more accurate and used longitude & latitude – Mercator Projection
European shipbuilders built a better ship; The caravel was a strong ship that could travel in the open seas & in shallow water Caravels had triangular lateen sails that allowed ships to sail against the wind A moveable rudder made the caravel more maneuverable Cannons & rifles gave ships protection
The Age of Exploration Who were the explorers, where did they go, & how did they change world history?
Europeans were not the first to explore the oceans in search of new trade routes Islamic merchants explored the Indian Ocean & had dominated the Asian spice trade for centuries before European exploration
Early Exploration From 1405 to 1433, Zheng He led the Chinese treasure fleet on 7 expeditions to SE Asia, India, & Africa during the Ming Dynasty
But in the late 1400s, the European sailors did what neither Muslim nor Chinese explorers could: Begin global (not regional) exploration & create colonies to increase their wealth & power
Portugal was the early leader in the Age of Exploration In Portugal, Prince Henry the Navigator started a school of navigation to train sailors He brought in Europe’s best map-makers, ship-builders, & sailing instructors He wanted to discover new territories, find a quick trade route to Asia, & expand Portugal’s power. Sponsored ships to sail down coast of Africa and onto India “To serve God and His Majesty, to give light to those who were in darkness, and to grow rich as all men desire to do.” – Bartolomeu Dias sailed to tip of Africa – Cape of Good Hope
Vasco da Gama Vasco da Gama was the 1 st explorer to find a direct trade route to Asia by going around Africa to get to India (port of Calicut) Portugal gained a sea route to Asia that brought them great wealth Prince Henry’s navigation school & willingness to fund voyages led the Portuguese to be the 1 st to explore the west coast of Africa
During the Age of Exploration, Portugal created colonies along the African coast, in Brazil, & the Spice Islands in Asia
The Spanish government saw Portugal’s wealth & did not want to be left out More than any other European monarch, Ferdinand & Isabella of Spain sponsored & supported overseas expeditions
Columbus’ ships, the Nina, Pinta, & Santa Maria, reached the Bahamas in America but thought that he had reached islands off the coast of India He made 4 trips to “India” never knowing he was in “America” Like most educated men of the Renaissance, Italian, Christopher Columbus believed the world was round & thought he could reach Asia by sailing west
Despite the fact that Columbus never found Asia, Ferdinand Magellan still thought he could reach Asia by sailing West Magellan became the first explorer to circumnavigate the Earth (go all the way around)
During the Age of Exploration, Spain created colonies in North & South America
Spain sent explorers called conquistadors to the New World to find gold, claim land, & spread Christianity Cortez conquered the Aztecs Pizarro conquered the Inca The influx of gold from America made Spain the most powerful country in Europe during the early years of the Age of Exploration
Line of Demarcation ■ Pope Alexander VI suggested establishing an imaginary dividing line drawn north to south through the Atlantic Ocean to keep peace. ■ Treaty of Tordesillas established the line.
Additional Explorers ■ Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal ■ New World named America after Amerigo Vespucci ■ 1513 – Balboa (sailing for Spain) discovers the Pacific Ocean
England, France, & the Netherlands became involved in overseas exploration & colonization as well
The French explorer Samuel de Champlain searched Canada for a northwest passage to Asia After failing to do so, Champlain founded the French colony of Quebec The French would soon carve out a large colony along the Mississippi River from Canada to New Orleans
Unlike other European nations whose kings paid for colonies, the English colonies were paid for by citizens who formed joint- stock companies English colonies formed along the Atlantic Coast of North America by colonists motivated either by religion or wealth
The English explorer James Cook was the first European to make contact with Australia, New Zealand, & Hawaii
English Settlements 1 st – Jamestown in 1607 Tobacco – cash crop 2 nd – Plymouth Colony in 1620 Pilgrims sought religious freedom 3 rd – Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1628 Puritans sought religious freedom and wanted to establish model community for other Christians to follow.
Like England, the Netherlands (the Dutch) allowed private companies to fund exploration The Dutch had colonies in America & Africa, but the Dutch East India Company dominated trade in Asia
Conclusions As a result of the Age of Exploration, European knowledge & influence of the world increased greatly
The Impact of the Age of Exploration ■ Group presentation directions: – Each student group will be assigned one of nine major effects of European exploration – Read the placard information and complete three tasks as a group: Create a summary for the placard that completes this sentence “The Age of Exploration impacted ___ because…” Create a symbol for your summary Pick a group member to present
1. Asian Trade ■ Led by Prince Henry, “the Navigator”, the Portuguese were the first Europeans to explore the west coast of Africa, to sail around the southern tip of Africa and finally, the first to reach India. ■ The Portuguese seized trading ports in India and in the Spice Islands. They fought the Muslim merchants who had control of the ports. The prices of Asian goods like spices and fabrics dropped, and more people in Europe could afford to buy them. ■ Not only did Portuguese sailors bring back spices and goods from the Indian Ocean (cinnamon, pepper, porcelain, jewels and silk) but they also brought slavery to their colony of Brazil.
2. Nationalism ■ The explorations and conquests of the conquistadors transformed Spain. The Spanish rapidly expanded foreign trade and overseas colonization. For a time, wealth from the Americas made Spain one of the world’s richest and most powerful nations. At the height of Spain’s power it was ruled by Philip II. ■ In the long run, gold and silver from the Americas hurt Spain’s economy. Inflation, or an increase in the supply of money compared to goods, led to higher prices. Monarchs and the wealthy spent their riches wastefully instead of building up Spain’s industries.
3. Capitalism ■ The voyages of explorers had a dramatic impact on European trade. As a result, more goods, raw materials and precious metals entered Europe. New trade centers developed, especially in the Netherlands and England. ■ Exploration and trade led to the growth of capitalism. This system is based on investing money for profit. Merchants gained great wealth by trading and selling goods from around the world. They then could use their profits to finance other voyages and to start trading companies. Other people began investing money in these companies and shared in the profits as well.
4. Mercantilism ■ European nations developed a new economic policy called mercantilism. Kings believed that wealth was the best way to build their countries’ power. They tried to reduce the things that bought from other countries and increase items sold. ■ Having colonies was a key part of this policy. Nations expected colonies to supply raw materials for their industries. They could also make more money by selling finished goods to their colonies. ■ As a result, a “triangular trade” developed: manufactured goods were made in the mother country, raw materials were produced in the colonies, and slaves from Africa were brought to the colonies to produce raw materials.
5. Columbian Exchange Early Spanish explorations were important because it led to knowledge of the existence of the Americas and the creation of colonies in the “New World”. The Spanish gained great wealth, and crops began to be exchanged with the “Old World” of Europe. The introduction of Europeans plants, animals, and diseases in America and the introduction of American crops into Europe became know as the Columbian Exchange This diffusion of “Old World” and “New World” products changed world history.
6. Colonies and Plantations ■ During the 1500s, Portugal began to establish colonies in Brazil which greatly impacted the native people. The Portuguese tried to get them to give up their religion and convert to Christianity. They also forced them to work on sugar plantations. Missionaries sometimes tried to protect them from abuse, but countless numbers died from overwork and European diseases. ■ The colonization of Brazil also had an impact on Africa. As the native population decreased, the Portuguese needed more laborers. Starting in the mid 1500s, for over 300 years, they brought millions of enslaved West Africans to Brazil.
7. Disease To explore and conquer “New Spain,” the Spanish turned to men called conquistadors (conquerors). The conquistadors were allowed to establish settlements and seize the wealth of natives. This led to conquering of the Aztecs by Cortes and the Inca by Pizarro. When conquistadors arrived they brought with them their horses, armor and guns, which helped them in battle. But more deadly for the natives were the deadly epidemic diseases that the Europeans carried. Millions of natives died from diseases. For example in Mexico, there were about 25 million native people in By 1605, this number had dwindled to 1 million.
8. Slavery ■ When native populations were wiped out because of overwork and disease, both the Spanish and Portuguese began to import slaves from the west coast of Africa. Over the next 300 years millions of slaves would be taken across the Atlantic Ocean. ■ The journey across the Atlantic was grueling and deadly. The Middle Passage is the name given to the journey of African slaves to the Americas. ■ Once slaves arrived in the New World they were forced to work in harsh conditions on plantations growing sugar and indigo and work in gold and silver mines.
9. Christianity ■ One of the impacts of exploration on the Americas was the introduction of Christianity. The Spanish conquistadors were accompanied by Catholic missionaries looking to spread Catholicism. ■ Some natives were forced to convert by the Spanish that were looking to win converts as a way to fight against the Protestant Reformation. The fierce competition of European nations during the time period was not limited to wealth and power, but included religion as well.
■ Essential Question: – What were the global impacts of the European Age of Exploration? ■ Warm-Up Question: – What was the Columbian Exchange? – What is mercantilism? – What is capitalism?
The Impact of the Age of Exploration: Europe
Europe was greatly impacted by the Age of Exploration Overseas colonies increased the wealth of European nations, the power of kings (called nationalism) This was especially true in Spain where the influx of gold turned Spain into one of the wealthiest & most powerful nations in Europe King Philip II
The increase in trade led to the growth of capitalism, especially in England & the Netherlands Capitalism is a system in which merchants trade & invest money in order to make a profit; Prices are determined by supply and demand Citizens can invest money in companies like the British East India Company & share in the profits Commercial Revolution- quick change in business practices and in trade with European nations.
Mercantilism Nations developed an economic policy called mercantilism based upon the idea that national power comes from a favorable balance of trade As a result, colonies are needed to supply the mother country with cheap raw materials and to help mother country accumulate gold and silver. Over time, inflation occurs – increase in money supply value of money declines prices of goods increase
Due to mercantilism, a “triangular trade” developed between Europe, their overseas colonies, & Africa
The Impact of the Age of Exploration: Asia, America, Africa
Asia was greatly impacted by the Age of Exploration The Portuguese & Dutch seized trade ports in the Spice Islands & in India in order to gain exotic goods like cotton & spices European merchants began to dominate trade in China & Japan & converted many people to Christianity
America was greatly impacted by the Age of Exploration Catholic missionaries introduced Christianity to the American Indians
The introduction of new foods, plants, & animals between America & Europe was called the Columbian Exchange
The introduction of potatoes & corn helped improve the diets & life expectancy of people throughout the world The introduction of European grains, horses, & cattle transformed many Indian cultures The introduction of European diseases like smallpox, measles, & influenza killed as many as 90% of Native Americas
Europeans introduced the plantation system in America; These large cash crop farms were called encomiendas Encomiendas required a large supply of workers which increased the need for slaves
(Encomienda System – system of forced labor of Native Americans)
Africa was greatly impacted by the Age of Exploration The demand for workers on American plantations, especially in the Caribbean & Brazil, led Bartolome de Las Casas, a Spanish priest to suggest replacing indigenous Americans with harder working and better equipped Africans. Thus the African slave trade was established.
For 300 years, slaves were sold in West Africa & brought to America along a route across the Atlantic Ocean known as the Middle Passage The majority of African slaves worked in harsh conditions on sugar & indigo plantations or in gold & silver mines
The “Coffin” Position Used Below DeskAfrican Captives Being Thrown OverboardSlave auction upon arrival in AmericaSugar plantation in Haiti