Presentation on theme: "FRANCE France is an independent nation in Western Europe and the center of a large overseas administration. It is the third-largest European nation after."— Presentation transcript:
FRANCE France is an independent nation in Western Europe and the center of a large overseas administration. It is the third-largest European nation after Russia and Ukraine.
Since the 17th century, France has played a major role in European and world events. In the 20th century, it has experienced numerous crises, including the devastation of two world wars, political and social upheavals, and the loss of a large empire in Indochina, Algeria, and West and Equatorial Africa. It has, however, survived and emerged from the ruins of World War II to become an important world supplier of agricultural and industrial products and a major partner in the EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.
Today the term metropolitan France refers to the mainland departments and Corsica a large island located in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Italy that has been a part of France since 1768. France has six overseas departments: FRENCH GUIANA in South America; GUADELOUPE and MARTINIQUE in the West Indies; MAYOTTE, an island formerly part of the Comoros, located in the Indian Ocean; REUNION, an island in the Indian Ocean; and SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON, islands off the east coast of Canada. In addition, France has numerous small possessions called overseas territories. These include a group of widely scattered islands in the South Pacific, which are administered from Tahiti and are known collectively as French Polynesia French southern and Antarctic territories New Caldon and Wallies and Futna islands and many small islands in the southern oceans, including the Kerguelen and Crozet archipelagos and the islands of St.Paul and Amsterdam Indian Ocean. The overseas departments and territories are represented in the French National Assembly.
. France is about 80% the size of Texas. The missing pieces in Philip Valois's domain were the French provinces still held by the Plantagenet kings of England, who also claimed the French crown. Beginning in 1338, the Hundred Years' War eventually settled the contest.
A new France emerged from World War I as the continent's dominant power. But four years of hostile occupation had reduced northeast France to ruins. Beginning in 1919, French foreign policy aimed at keeping Germany weak through a system of alliances, but it failed to halt the rise of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi war machine. On May 10, 1940, Nazi troops attacked, and, as they approached Paris, Italy joined with Germany. The Germans marched into an undefended Paris and Marshal Henri Philippe Petain signed an armistice on June 22. France was split into an occupied north and an unoccupied south, Vichy France, which became a totalitarian German puppet state with Petain as its chief. Allied armies liberated France in Aug. 1944, and a provisional government in Paris headed by Gen. Charles de Gaulle was established. The Fourth Republic was born on Dec. 24, 1946. The empire became the French Union; the national assembly was strengthened and the presidency weakened; and France joined NATO. A war against Communist insurgents in French Indochina, now Vietnam, was abandoned after the defeat of French forces at Dien Bien Phu in 1954. A new rebellion in Algeria threatened a military coup, and on June 1, 1958, the assembly invited de Gaulle to return as premier with extraordinary powers. He drafted a new constitution for a Fifth Republic, adopted on September 28, which strengthened the presidency and reduced legislative power. He was elected president on Dec. 21, 1958.
Since prehistoric times, France has been a crossroads of trade, travel, and invasion. Three basic European ethnic stocks--Celtic, Latin, and Teutonic (Frankish)--have blended over the centuries to make up its present population. France's birth rate was among the highest in Europe from 1945 until the late 1960s. Since then, its birth rate has fallen but remains higher than that of most other west European countries. Traditionally, France has had a high level of immigration.
Education is free, beginning at age 2 and mandatory between ages 6 and 16. The public education system is highly centralized. Private education is primarily Roman Catholic. Higher education in France began with the founding of the University of Paris in 1150. It now consists of 91 public universities and 175 professional schools, such as the post-graduate Grandes Ecoles. Private, college-level institutions focusing on business and management with curriculums structured on the American system of credits and semesters have been growing in recent years.
National Day (Bastille Day) on 14th July, the national anthem the "Marseillaise", the “tricolour” blue, white and red French flag, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizens of 1789, the allegorical figure of Marianne. The French education system is also based on fundamental principles: academic freedom, free education, neutrality, secularism, compulsory schooling between the ages of 6 and 16 for all French and foreign children living in France.
French people cheek kiss to greet each others between family and friends, even between men. The number of kisses varies according to the region, from 1 in the tip of Brittany to 4 Paris and most of the North,and occasionally up to 5 in Corsica.
France is the only continental European country or eurozone member where cheques are still used as one of the main forms of payment. Most of European countries stopped using them since the 1990's because it was not deemed a safe method of payment.