Presentation on theme: "J. Stewart Black* University of California, Irvine Summerized by : morteza jamshidi 2013 – azad univ, karaj international marketing course."— Presentation transcript:
J. Stewart Black* University of California, Irvine Summerized by : morteza jamshidi 2013 – azad univ, karaj international marketing course
Abstract Throughout the course of a career, an individual must make numerous role transitions, instigated through such events as overseas transfers, domestic transfers, promotions, company reorganizations, and inter-company job changes. This paper examines the relationships between several variables and work role transition in the case of an overseas assignment to Japan. Role ambiguity and role discretion were found to influence work adjustment, while pre-departure knowledge, association with local nationals, and family's adjustment were found to correlate with general adjustment of American expatriate managers in Japan.
Work role transitions can be instigated through overseas transfers, domestic transfers, promotions, company reorganization as, and intercompany job changes. It brought on by foreign assignment. this particular type of work role transition was Selected because the growing internationalization of business requires increasing amounts of interaction between companies and business people of different Countries and cultures.
studywhen First theory of Work Role TransitionsNicholson 1984 between 20 to 40% of the Expatriate managers(EXM) do not successfully make the transition and return early Baker and Ivancevich 1971 Tung % of the EXMs in Japan where considered Failures by their headquarte Adams And Kobayashi 1969 if the EXM returnsf rom the internationaals signment early Thes problems are significant to corporations because the associated costs are high, ranging from $50,000 to $150,000 per person Harris 1979
DIMENSIONS OF ADJUSTMENT IN WORK ROLE TRANSITIONS degree, mode, and facet.
Scholars [Lysgaad1 955; Oberg 1960; Torbion1 982] have argued that adjustment occurred in four phases often referred to as the U-curve : 1-honymoon stage the individual's adjustment is generally complete and the incremental degree of adjustment is minimal, the individual now knows and can properly perform the necessary behaviors to function effectively and without anxiety due to cultural differences.
FACTORS HYPOTHESIZED TO INFLUENCE ADJUSTMENT Adjustment inhibiting and adjustment facilitating factors: These are then subdivided into three subcategories : individual factors job-related factors outside factors
Hl: The higher the role novelty, the lower the adjustment to work responsibilities. H2: The greater the role ambiguity,the less the degree of adjustment to the specific job responsibilities. H3: The greater the role conflict,the less the degree of adjustment to the specific job responsibilities. H4: The greater the role overload,the less the degree of adjustment to the specific job responsibilities. H5: The greater the increase in role discretion, the greater the adjustment.
H6: The greater the previous overseas work experience, the greater the adjustment. H7: The more knowledge the manager has about the target country of the overseas assignment prior to departure, the better will be the manager's adjustment. H8: The family's general adjustment will be positively correlated with the expatriate's adjustment. H9: Interaction with host nationals will be positively correlated with general adjustment.
Exhaustive,the directory contains over 1,400 names and represents virtually all American companies operating in Japan. A sample of 195 individuals was randomly drawn by selecting every seventh individual in the alphabetized Listing. AmericanC hambero f Commercein Japan
195 questionnaires sent 77 were returne 40% response rate
All of the respondents ere male and 80% were married. Represent 25 of 33 different industries The Respondents were 46 years old and had been in the firm for 14.5 years.
3.8% top management 4 9.2% department heads 15.4% were middle managers 1.5% technical specialists
Adjustment Inhibiting Job Factors Hypotheses1 through 4 predicted that role novelty, role ambiguity, role conflict, and role overload would have a negative impact on work adjustment only role Ambiguity had a significant impact on work adjustment (beta. 44, p <.005). Adjustment Facilitating Job Factors Hypotheses 5 through7 predicted that role discretion, previous overseas transfers, And pre-departure knowledge would facilitate adjustment. Pre-departure knowledge had a significant and negative impact on work adjustment. both role discretion and previous overseas work experience had a significant and positive impact on work adjustment Adjustment Facilitating Outside Factors Hypotheses 8 and 9 asserted a positive correlation between family's adjustment, association with host nationals and the EXM's adjustment. family's adjustment was positively and significantly correlated with general adjustmen (.85, p<.001) but not with work adjustment.