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Modern Europe. Great Britain History 1960’s and 1970’s Severe economic problems Outdated factories, low productivity = can’t compete Result  raised.

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Presentation on theme: "Modern Europe. Great Britain History 1960’s and 1970’s Severe economic problems Outdated factories, low productivity = can’t compete Result  raised."— Presentation transcript:

1 Modern Europe


3 Great Britain

4 History 1960’s and 1970’s Severe economic problems Outdated factories, low productivity = can’t compete Result  raised taxes & increase borrowing Result  unemployment & high inflation 1980’s and 1990’s Margaret Thatcher elected prime minister (Britain's first female prime minister 1979 to 1990) Govt. & Economic reforms = economic growth mid 80’s John Major elected prime minister (1990-1997)

5 Recent History 2000’s Tony Blair elected prime minister (1997 to 2007) - strong ally w/ U.S. in War in Iraq & Afghanistan = hurts him politically Gordon Brown prime minister (2007 to 2011) - 2008-09 recession hurts economy and banking David Cameron prime minister (2011 to Present) Economy Type: Market Economy Welfare State w/ recent reductions in public ownership GDP: 2.174 trillion GDP Rank: 7 th Labor Force: Farming: 4%, Industry: 24%, Services: 72%

6 Northern Ireland

7 Background & History Background: 1967 to 1972  Northern Ireland Civil Right Movement leads civil resistance campaign 1969 to 1997  Irish Republican Army (IRA) catholic paramilitary group in the north who use violence to achieve goals of driving out British & uniting all of Ireland Recent Times: 1985 Anglo-Irish Agreement 1994 cease-fire between IRA & U.K. 1998 Belfast Agreement ( Good Friday Agreement ) 2005 IRA decommission their arsenal 2007 First Minister of Northern Ireland elected 2011 Sinn Fein left wing political party (rep. 25%) Northern Ireland is a part of Great Britain Northern Ireland is protestant & Ireland catholic

8 France

9 History Fourth Republic : 1945 to 1958 Economic growth after WWII Conflict overseas (Algeria & Indochina) Result  govt. grows weak & unstable Fifth Republic : 1958 to Present 1958-1969 Charles de Gaulle president - ends conflicts overseas, strengthens presidency, economy falters 1969-1974 George Pompidou president - introduce social programs, increase trade, alliance w/U.S. grows 1974-1981 Valery Giscard d’Estaing president - reduce state control of economy, cooperation overseas 1981-1995 Francois Mitterrand president - increase role of govt., nationalized banks, raised taxes on rich, social programs, unemployment hit 10%

10 Recent History 2000’s 1995-2007 Jacque Chirac president - conservative, increase govt. role in economy, guilty of corruption in 2011 2007-Present Nicolas Sarkozy current president - 2008-09 recession leads to debt crisis, increase cooperation w/U.S. & U.K. Economy Type: Mixed Economy (moving towards Market) GDP: 2.145 trillion GDP Rank: 5 th Labor Force: Agriculture : 1%, Industry: 25%, Services: 74%

11 France Germany

12 History Divided Germany : 1945 to 1990: East Germany (Communist) and West Germany (Democratic) 1990 Reunified as one Germany Modern Germany: 1990 to Present 1982-1998 Helmut Kohl chancellor - strong ally w/U.S. & U.K. - re-unification economic challenge - 1994 Berlin becomes capital again (Berlin Republic)

13 Recent History 2000’s 1998-2005 Gerhard Schroder chancellor - economic problems, active role in E.U., sends forces to help NATO 2007-Present Angela Merkel current chancellor - first female chancellor of Germany - central role in European Financial & Debt Crisis - domestic policy: healthcare reform & energy development - considered the world’s most powerful women (currently) Economy Type: Market Economy GDP: 2.94 trillion GDP Rank: 4 th Labor Force: Agriculture : 1%, Industry: 31%, Services: 68%

14 Italy

15 History 1960’s and 1970’s Severe economic crisis (Years of Lead) Social conflict & terrorism Result  1978 assassination of leader 1980’s Coalition govt. forms = political stability Free Market reforms = economy improves 1946 Italy became a voted be become a republic 1948 Italy ratified a constitution 1990’s Results  national debt, corruption, scandals, coalition govt. disbands

16 Recent History 2000’s Weak bureaucracy Wealth gap (between north & south) European debt crisis  internal financial problems Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi resigns (2011 sex scandal) Economy Type: Mixed Economy GDP: 1.77 trillion GDP Rank: 8 th Labor Force: Agriculture: 5%, Industry: 32%, Services: 63%

17 Greece

18 History 1960’s and 1970’s Colonels Military coup (1967) overthrows King Constatine II Counter-coup (1973) establishes dictatorship (till 1974) Republic govt. created in 1974; constitution in 1975 1980’s and 1990’s Join E.U. in 1981  leads to period of sustained economic growth Standard of living increases Greek Civil War (1946-1949): democratic army vs. communist army; democratic govt. wins with help of Truman Doctrine

19 Recent History 2000’s Replace currency with Euro in 2001 2008-09 European Financial Crisis  leads to Greek Debt Crisis and billions in bailouts from E.U. Greek government Confidence votes bring govt. to edge of dissolving Economy Type: Mixed Economy GDP: 318 billion GDP Rank: 34 th Labor Force: Agriculture: 20%, Industry: 20%, Services: 59%

20 Spain

21 History 1960’s and 1970’s Cold War = U.S. influence in region Spanish Miracle (economic growth) 1975 Franco dies; Juan Carlos becomes king 1978 Spanish Constitution = democracy & regional power ETA (separatist group from Basque region) use terrorism 1980’s 1981 failed military coup Economic problems Strong democracy 1947 Falange (civil war regime) becomes National Movement Francisco Franco is dictator (political & economic isolation)

22 Recent History 2000’s Replace currency with Euro  economic growth Terrorism by Islamic extremists (2004 train bombing) European debt crisis  Spanish Financial Crisis (08-12) Economy Type: Mixed Economy GDP: 1.37 trillion GDP Rank: 17 th Labor Force: Agriculture: 7%, Industry: 29%, Services: 64% Basque Region

23 Portugal

24 History 1960’s and 1970’s Portuguese Colonial War (Angola, Mozambique, Guinea) Carnation Revolution (1974): bloodless military coup led by Antonio de Spinola ousts authoritarian regime Result  political and economic instability 1980’s and 1990’s Free enterprise reforms = economic growth continued economic growth

25 Recent History 2000’s Export-based economy grows till 2008-09 European Financial crisis  borrow money from E.U. to stabilize finances Economy Type: Mixed Economy GDP: 247 billion GDP Rank: 42 nd Labor Force: Agriculture: 10%, Industry: 30%, Services: 60%

26 Russia

27 History 1990’s December 1991 Soviet Union falls; 15 soviet states are now independent……. Biggest = Russia! Boris Yeltsin is president of Russia -Economic restructuring & privatization= companies in hands of those with connections….. Result: economic crisis in 90’s -Rise of organized crime, corruption, and lawlessness -Separatists movements (Chechen) and Terrorism (Islamic extremists) - resigns in 1999 after 1998 economic crisis and social issues 2000’s Vladimir Putin elected president in 2000 (took office1999) - Market Economy reforms  economic growth - Political & Social reforms  seen by West as “un-democratic”  return order & stability to Russia

28 Recent History Late 2000’s 2008 Dmitry Medvedev elected President of Russia - Putin elected Prime Minister 2012 Vladimir Putin re-elected President of Russia - protests against him and his election met with resistance Economy Type: Mixed Economy GDP: 2.22 trillion GDP Rank: 9 th Labor Force: Agriculture: 12%, Industry: 23%, Services: 65%

29 Czech Republic Slovakia and

30 Recent History Background: 1989 Velvet Revolution  communist regime collapses and Czechoslovakia becomes independent Vaclav Havel  revolution ledr becomes president - democratic reforms and free market reforms - ethnic tensions rise in 1992 1993 Czechoslovakia dissolves : Czech Republic & Slovakia Czech Republic Economy: Type: Market Economy GDP: 261 billion GDP Rank: 45 th Most stable & prosperous post-communist states Slovakia Economy: Type: Market Economy GDP: 120 billion GDP Rank: 62 nd Most privatization has taken place (banking)

31 Y ugoslavia

32 Montenegro Podgorica *

33 History Post WWI Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918-1941) Post WWII 1946 = Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia created as a communist state (modeled after Soviet Union) - Josip Broz Tito elected to lead as prime minster - expelled from Soviet Bloc by Stalin (non-alignment in Cold War) 1963 = name changed to Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia w/ Tito as “President for Life” WWII Invaded by Axis Powers in 1941 Controlled by Axis Powers 1941-1945 Soviets expel Axis Powers in 1945

34 History 1970’s : Ethnic tensions and Economic crisis 1980’s Josip Broz Tito dies in 1980 1986 Slobodan Milosevic elected president of Serbia - believed in Serbian nationalism & dominance over all other ethnicities Ethnicities of Yugoslavia: - Serbians, Macedonians, Montenegrins (Orthodox Christian) - Croats & Slovenians (Roman Catholic) - Albanians, Bosnians & Herzegovinians (Muslim)

35 Ethnic Unrest 1991 : Croatia & Slovenia declare independence – Result: Yugoslav army invades  U.N. peacekeepers sent  truce 1992-: Bosnia & Herzegovina declare independence – Result: Yugoslavia left w/Serbia &Montenegro  Yugoslav troops invade  seize 70% of land  carry out ethnic cleansing against Bosnian Muslims  Bosnian Muslims carry out revenge killings  U.N. & NATO intervene w/air strikes  ends w/1995 Dayton Peace Accords  international peacekeepers remain in Bosnia

36 Ethnic Unrest Crisis in Kosovo – Province of Serbia (90% Muslim) – 1989-1997 Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) wage guerilla war vs. Serbs Crisis in Kosovo – 1998 Milosevic orders police & military campaign against KLA  ethnic cleansing  Albanian Kosovars flee – 1998 U.N. demands cease-fire  agreed to  then fight starts again – 1999 NATO intervened w/air strikes  Yugoslav forces leave Kosovo  international peacekeepers remain

37 Recent History 2000’s: 2000 Slobodan Milosevic forced to resign 2001 International Criminal Tribunal arrest Milosevic & others - charged w/crimes against humanity & violation of customs of war 2003 Yugoslavia = Serbia & Montenegro 2006 Montenegro declares independence 2006 Milosevic dies in jail cell of heart attack (no verdict)


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