Presentation on theme: "19th century Imperialism"— Presentation transcript:
1 19th century Imperialism & the Scramble for africa
2 a policy of conquering and ruling other lands The Age of ImperialismImperialism =a policy of conquering and ruling other lands
3 The Link… Industry and Imperialism Science and industry increase competition between European powersColonies essential to states that aspire to status as great powersRaw materialsMarketsA place for the unemployed massesPride
4 Technology HelpsImproved communication and transportation easier for European governments to control what’s going on in their coloniesNew military tech makes conquest easier!
5 Nations competed for overseas empires. Britain’s lead was challenged. In the mid-1800s, Britain was the most powerful nation in the world.It’s factories produced more good than those of any other country.The British Navy guarded the oceans so that those goods could be shipped safely to ports around the globe.British banks loaned the money needed to build factories, mines, and railroads worldwide.By the late 1800s, however, Germany and the United States were challenging Britain’s economic leadership.Faced with possible decline, Britain looked increasingly to its colonies for markets and resources.
6 Nations competed for overseas empires. Imperialism fostered rivalries. Other countries followed Britain’s lead and came to see colonies as necessary for their economic well-being.The French and Dutch expanded their holdings and by 1900 France had an empire second in size only to Britain’s.Spain and Portugal attempted to build new empires in Africa.Austria-Hungary moved into the Balkans.Russia expanded into the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Siberia.Countries that had no colonies set out to acquire them.Belgium, Italy, and Germany all took over lands in Africa (with Germany also taking an interest in East Asia & the Pacific islands).
7 Nations competed for overseas empires. Imperialism fostered rivalries. (continued)Two non-European countries, the United States and Japan, also became involved in overseas expansion during this period.Both the U.S. and Japan were interested in East Asia.The U.S. was also deeply tied to Latin America.Increasingly, Europeans viewed an empire as a measure of national stature.Imperialism becomes intricately tied to Nationalism both economically and politically.Thus, the race for colonies grew out of a strong sense of national pride as well as from economic competition.
8 Nations competed for overseas empires Nations competed for overseas empires. Europe believed in its own superiority.Following the Industrial Revolution, Europeans regarded their new technology (weaponry, telegraphs, railroads etc.) as proof they were better than other peoples.This attitude is a reflection of racism, the belief that one race is superior to others.Europeans believed that they had the right and duty to bring the results of their progress to other countries.
9 Causes of New Imperialism Economic motives:Britain had the early leadBy 1870’s France, Germany, US were rapidly industrializingBritain valued India, a possession of over a centuryColonies provide markets for European capital, investment, and merchants.Colonies provide a means to get natural resources needed for the new industrial machinery
10 Causes of New Imperialism Crucial to national security, military power, and national prestigeSocial Darwinism: brutal natural struggle between the races of the world
12 Opening of Suez Canal, 1869French English venture for access to the Red Sea from Mediterranean; crucial for access to Asia by Europe.akg-images
13 Congress of Berlin 1872 Gathered to apportion the empires of Europe Competition for colonies among non-empires sets up alliances for WW IOtto von Bismarck sets up this conference to try to deal withPartitioning of AfricaDecline of the Ottoman EmpireTerritories in AsiaStop expansion of Russia
14 The Conference 1884-1885: Berlin Conference An international conference to lay down basic imperialistic rules.Organized by Jules Ferry from France, and Otto Von Bismarck from GermanyNo Africans were presentNo European country could claim the entire continent.European nations would push relentlessly from all sides to the interior.
15 Pre-imperialism Africa 1878: European nations control less than 10% of AfricaBy 1900, nearly the entire continent will be “carved up” by European industrialized nations
16 South AfricaAfrican Chiefdoms, Dutch settlers (Boers, or Afrikaners) and British Colonial Forces wages a three-pronged war for control of South AfricaShaka, of the Zulu tribe revolutionized warfare for the AfricansWith discovery of diamonds in 1867, Cecil Rhodes and his De Beers financiers were energized for takeover!
17 Boer War: Anglo-Boer War, otherwise known as the South African War.British forces defeated the Afrikaner forces using 450,000 soldiers from all over the empire.Used the “total war” concept
18 European powers engaged in a “Scramble for Africa” starting in the 1870s. By 1890,most of Africa came under European control.E. Napp
20 By 1890, onlyEthiopiaandLiberiaremainedindependent.E. Napp
21 private estate. Natives that did not supply enough rubber had King Leopold, the kingof Belgium, ruledthe Congo like his ownprivate estate. Nativesthat did not supplyenough rubber hadtheir hands cut off. Whilethe king profited, thepeople of the BelgianCongo suffered greatly.E. Napp
24 Reasons why the Europeans were so successful… Rapid Fire Machine GunQuinine: immunization against malariaSteamship and Telegraph allowed European powers to concentrate firepower
25 Nations competed for overseas empires. Imperialism had mass appeal. (continued)Novels and poetry also glorified Imperialism .The most popular writer of the day was Joseph Rudyard Kipling ( ).Kipling appealed not only to his readers’ sense of adventure but also the their feelings of superiority.He saw imperialism as a mission to “civilize non-Europeans” and urged his readers to:Take up the White Man’s Burden-Send forth the best ye breed-Go bind your sons to exile-To serve your captives’ need…
26 The Seizure of Africa (1880-1902) (Early) David Livingstone: Protestant missionary who wrote of the horrors in African Slave TradePeople felt that European rule would benefit the AfricansA moral justification for the conquest of Africa
27 Seizure of Africa (Early) Leopold II of Belgium“Steam and electricity have annihilated distance, and all the non-appropriated land on the surface of our globe can become the field of our operations and of our success.”Focused on gaining land in Central AfricaAlarmed the French
28 A positive effect of European imperialism was the introduction of moderntransportation and communicationsystems, such as telegraphs, railroads,and telephones.E. Napp
29 European medicine and improved nutrition The introduction ofEuropean medicine and improved nutritionled to an expansion of population.E. Napp
30 Europeans divided Africa and ignored the tribal, ethnic, and cultural boundariesof the African people. This has led totribal conflicts in many African nationsthat continue to this day.E. Napp