Presentation on theme: "& THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA 19 th century Imperialism."— Presentation transcript:
& THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA 19 th century Imperialism
The Age of Imperialism Imperialism = a policy of conquering and ruling other lands
The Link… Industry and Imperialism Science and industry increase competition between European powers Colonies essential to states that aspire to status as great powers Raw materials Markets A place for the unemployed masses Pride
Technology Helps Improved communication and transportation easier for European governments to control what’s going on in their colonies New military tech makes conquest easier!
Nations competed for overseas empires. Britain’s lead was challenged. In the mid-1800s, Britain was the most powerful nation in the world. It’s factories produced more good than those of any other country. The British Navy guarded the oceans so that those goods could be shipped safely to ports around the globe. British banks loaned the money needed to build factories, mines, and railroads worldwide. By the late 1800s, however, Germany and the United States were challenging Britain’s economic leadership. Faced with possible decline, Britain looked increasingly to its colonies for markets and resources.
Nations competed for overseas empires. Imperialism fostered rivalries. Other countries followed Britain’s lead and came to see colonies as necessary for their economic well-being. The French and Dutch expanded their holdings and by 1900 France had an empire second in size only to Britain’s. Spain and Portugal attempted to build new empires in Africa. Austria-Hungary moved into the Balkans. Russia expanded into the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Siberia. Countries that had no colonies set out to acquire them. Belgium, Italy, and Germany all took over lands in Africa (with Germany also taking an interest in East Asia & the Pacific islands).
Nations competed for overseas empires. Imperialism fostered rivalries. (continued) Two non-European countries, the United States and Japan, also became involved in overseas expansion during this period. Both the U.S. and Japan were interested in East Asia. The U.S. was also deeply tied to Latin America. Increasingly, Europeans viewed an empire as a measure of national stature. Imperialism becomes intricately tied to Nationalism both economically and politically. Thus, the race for colonies grew out of a strong sense of national pride as well as from economic competition.
Nations competed for overseas empires. Europe believed in its own superiority. Following the Industrial Revolution, Europeans regarded their new technology (weaponry, telegraphs, railroads etc.) as proof they were better than other peoples. This attitude is a reflection of racism, the belief that one race is superior to others. Europeans believed that they had the right and duty to bring the results of their progress to other countries.
Causes of New Imperialism Economic motives: Britain had the early lead By 1870’s France, Germany, US were rapidly industrializing Britain valued India, a possession of over a century Colonies provide markets for European capital, investment, and merchants. Colonies provide a means to get natural resources needed for the new industrial machinery
Causes of New Imperialism Crucial to national security, military power, and national prestige Social Darwinism: brutal natural struggle between the races of the world
British Empire 19 th c.
Opening of Suez Canal, 1869 French English venture for access to the Red Sea from Mediterranean; crucial for access to Asia by Europe. akg-images
Congress of Berlin 1872 Gathered to apportion the empires of Europe Competition for colonies among non- empires sets up alliances for WW I Otto von Bismarck sets up this conference to try to deal with Partitioning of Africa Decline of the Ottoman Empire Territories in Asia Stop expansion of Russia
The Conference : Berlin Conference An international conference to lay down basic imperialistic rules. Organized by Jules Ferry from France, and Otto Von Bismarck from Germany No Africans were present No European country could claim the entire continent. European nations would push relentlessly from all sides to the interior.
Pre-imperialism Africa 1878: European nations control less than 10% of Africa 1878: European nations control less than 10% of Africa By 1900, nearly the entire continent will be “carved up” by European industrialized nations By 1900, nearly the entire continent will be “carved up” by European industrialized nations
South Africa African Chiefdoms, Dutch settlers (Boers, or Afrikaners) and British Colonial Forces wages a three-pronged war for control of South Africa Shaka, of the Zulu tribe revolutionized warfare for the Africans With discovery of diamonds in 1867, Cecil Rhodes and his De Beers financiers were energized for takeover!
Boer War : Anglo-Boer War, otherwise known as the South African War. British forces defeated the Afrikaner forces using 450,000 soldiers from all over the empire. Used the “total war” concept
E. Napp European powers engaged in a “Scramble for Africa” starting in the 1870s. By 1890, most of Africa came under European control.
E. Napp By 1890, only Ethiopia and Liberia remained independent.
E. Napp King Leopold, the king of Belgium, ruled the Congo like his own private estate. Natives that did not supply enough rubber had their hands cut off. While the king profited, the people of the Belgian Congo suffered greatly.
Asia in 1914
Reasons why the Europeans were so successful… Rapid Fire Machine Gun Quinine: immunization against malaria Steamship and Telegraph allowed European powers to concentrate firepower
Nations competed for overseas empires. Imperialism had mass appeal. (continued) Novels and poetry also glorified Imperialism. The most popular writer of the day was Joseph Rudyard Kipling ( ). Kipling appealed not only to his readers’ sense of adventure but also the their feelings of superiority. He saw imperialism as a mission to “civilize non-Europeans” and urged his readers to: Take up the White Man’s Burden- Send forth the best ye breed- Go bind your sons to exile- To serve your captives’ need…
The Seizure of Africa ( ) (Early) David Livingstone: David Livingstone: Protestant missionary who wrote of the horrors in African Slave Trade People felt that European rule would benefit the Africans A moral justification for the conquest of Africa
Seizure of Africa (Early) Leopold II of Belgium “Steam and electricity have annihilated distance, and all the non-appropriated land on the surface of our globe can become the field of our operations and of our success.” Focused on gaining land in Central Africa Alarmed the French
E. Napp A positive effect of European imperialism was the introduction of modern transportation and communication systems, such as telegraphs, railroads, and telephones.
E. Napp The introduction of European medicine and improved nutrition led to an expansion of population.
E. Napp Europeans divided Africa and ignored the tribal, ethnic, and cultural boundaries of the African people. This has led to tribal conflicts in many African nations that continue to this day.