Presentation on theme: "MIS 315 Information Systems CHAPTER 1 The Modern Organization in the Global, Web-Based Environment How the internet supports today’s business."— Presentation transcript:
MIS 315 Information Systems CHAPTER 1 The Modern Organization in the Global, Web-Based Environment How the internet supports today’s business.
Information Systems – MIS 315 2 Learning Objectives Differentiate among data, information, and knowledge. Distinguish between information technology infrastructure and information technology architecture. Discuss the relationships among business pressures, organizational responses, and the role of information systems.
Information Systems – MIS 315 3 Chapter Outline 1.1 Information Systems: Concepts and Definitions 1.2 The Global, Web-Based Platform 1.3 Business Pressures, Organizational Responses, and IT Support 1.4 Why Are Information Systems Important to You? 1.5 The Plan of the Book
Information Systems – MIS 315 4 Chapter Opening Case P. 4 Google HeadquartersGoogle servers in a server farm
Information Systems – MIS 315 5 Today we are … The most connected generation in history. Practicing continuous computing. Surrounded by a personal, movable information network. Our personal information network is created by constant cooperation between: –the digital devices we carry; –the wired and wireless networks that we access as we move about; –Web-based tools for finding information and communicating and collaborating with other people. We can pull information from the Web and push ideas back to the Web.
Information Systems – MIS 315 6 1.1 Information Systems: Concepts and Definitions Data Item –Elementary description of things, events, activities and transactions that are recorded, classified and stored but are not organized to convey any specific meaning. Information –Data organized so that they have meaning and value to the recipient. Knowledge –Data and/or information organized and processed to convey understanding, experience, accumulated learning and expertise as they apply to a current problem or activity.
Information Systems – MIS 315 7 1.1 Information Systems: Concepts and Definitions Information Technology Architecture. –A high-level map or plan of the information assets in an organization, which guides current operations and is a blueprint for future directions. Information Technology Infrastructure. –The physical facilities, IT components, IT services and IT personnel that support an entire organization.
Information Systems – MIS 315 8 IT Architecture Example: Online Travel Agency
Information Systems – MIS 315 9 1.1 Information Systems: Concepts and Definitions IT components –consist of hardware, software, telecommunications and networks, and wireless communications. –IT components are basically synonymous with the IT platform. IT services –consist of data management, managing security and risk, and systems development. –IT personnel use IT components to produce IT services.
Information Systems – MIS 315 10 1.2 The Global, Web-Based Platform Best represented by the Internet and the World Wide Web. Enables us to connect, compute, communicate, collaborate, and compete everywhere and anytime. Operates without regard to geography, time, distance, and language.
Information Systems – MIS 315 11 The Internet
Information Systems – MIS 315 12 IT Components, Services, Platform, and Infrastructure
Information Systems – MIS 315 13 The Stages of Globalization (From Thomas Friedman’s The World is Flat) Globalization 1.0 (from 1492 to 1800) Globalization 2.0 (from 1800 to 2000) Globalization 3.0 (from 2000 to the present) 1.0 2.0 3.0
Information Systems – MIS 315 14 Globalization 1.0 1492 to 1800 World went from large to medium-size. All about countries the amount of muscle, horsepower, steam power, etc that they could deploy. Key agents of change: brawn and horsepower. Christopher Columbus
Information Systems – MIS 315 15 Globalization 2.0 (first half) 1800 – 2000 Global integration during the first half of Globalization 2.0 was driven by falling transportation costs. –steam engine –railroads Steam engine Railroads
Information Systems – MIS 315 16 Globalization 2.0 (second half) Global integration during the second half of Globalization 2.0 was driven by falling communications costs. –satellites, –fiber optics, –personal computer, and –wireless smart phones Satellites Fiber optics
Information Systems – MIS 315 17 Globalization 3.0 2000 to the present. Driven by the convergence of ten forces (flatteners). Result: emergence of a global, web-based platform. 1.0 2.0 3.0 Key agent of change: Software, in conjunction with the global internet enabling people to collaborate and compete globally.
Information Systems – MIS 315 18 Globalization 3.0 (continued) Schematic Map of the Internet
Information Systems – MIS 315 19 1 - Fall of the Berlin Wall November 9, 1989 Free market economies of Eastern Europe (1991) and Rise of the European Union.
Information Systems – MIS 315 20 2 - Netscape Goes Public August 9, 1995 Marc Andreessen (wrote Mosaic browser and Netscape browser)
Information Systems – MIS 315 21 3 - Workflow Software Enables computer applications to interoperate or communicate and work with one another without human intervention. Standards such as Extensible Markup Language (XML) enable workflow communication.
Information Systems – MIS 315 22 4 - Uploading Anyone can create and upload content to the web. –Shift from static, passive approach to media to an active participatory approach. The Open Source Movement: an essential ingredient of uploading.
Information Systems – MIS 315 23 Mozilla The Open Source Movement Firefox Thunderbird Linux
Information Systems – MIS 315 24 5 - Outsourcing Involves taking a specific function that a company was doing itself, having another company perform that same function and then integrating their work back into the original company. Outsourcing gained momentum and “took off” with Year 2000 (Y2K) problem.
Information Systems – MIS 315 25 6 - Offshoring Occurs when a company moves an entire operation, or certain tasks to another country. The operation and/or activities are performed the same way, but with cheaper labor, lower taxes, fewer benefits, etc. Call center in India
Information Systems – MIS 315 26 7 - Supply Chaining Occurs when companies, their suppliers, and their customers collaborate and share information. Requires common standards so each segment of the chain can efficiently interface/communicate.
Information Systems – MIS 315 27 8 - Insourcing Delegates operations or jobs within a business to another company, which specializes in those operations. Example: Dell hires FedEx to analyze Dell’s shipping process and then “take over” that process. FedEx employees work inside Dell but remain employed by Fed Ex.
Information Systems – MIS 315 28 9 - Informing Ability to search for information (e.g., search engines). Facilitates the formation of global communities. There are MANY other interesting search engines as we see in Chapter 5
Information Systems – MIS 315 29 10 - The IT Steroids The IT Steroids amplify the other flatteners. They enable all forms of computing and collaboration to be digital, mobile, virtual, and personal. –Digital All analog content and processes are being digitized. –Mobile Thanks to wireless technologies, computing, connecting, collaborating can be done anywhere. –Virtual The process of shaping, manipulating, and transmitting digitized content can be done at very high speeds, so that users do not have to think about these processes. –Personal Individuals can perform all the virtual processes on their own computing devices.
Information Systems – MIS 315 30 The IT Steroids Computing-Processing Computing-Storage Instant Messaging and File Sharing Wireless Technologies Voice over Internet Protocol Videoconferencing Computer Graphics
Information Systems – MIS 315 31 Computing - Processing TO Charles Babbage’s Difference Engine (1822) Ultramobile personal computer
Information Systems – MIS 315 32 Computing - Storage TO First disk storage unit by IBM (1956) Capacity: 5 megabytes Size: Refrigerator Sony Micro Vault Thumb Drive Capacity: 2 gigabytes
Information Systems – MIS 315 33 Instant Messaging and File Sharing Instant messaging (example) File sharing (example)
Information Systems – MIS 315 34 Wireless Technologies Using cell phone in motion Geostationary satellite Bluetooth phone sunglasses
Information Systems – MIS 315 35 Voice over Internet Protocol
Information Systems – MIS 315 36 Videoconferencing An individual telepresence system A telepresence system in a conference room
Information Systems – MIS 315 37 Videoconferencing and Medicine New Zealand used Polycom, a leading vendor of telepresence systems, to provide a telemedicine application for children.telemedicine application
Information Systems – MIS 315 38 Computer Graphics
Information Systems – MIS 315 39 1.3 Business Pressures, Organizational Responses, and IT Support Business Pressures –The business environment is the combination of social, legal, economic, physical, and political factors that affect business activities. –Significant changes in any of these factor are likely to create business pressure on the organization. –The three types of business pressures faced are: Market Pressures Technology Pressures Societal Pressures
Information Systems – MIS 315 40 Market Pressures The Global Economy and Strong Competition European Union NAFTA Labor Costs The Changing Nature of the Workforce Diversified Telecommuting Powerful Customers Sophisticated Knowledgeable Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
Information Systems – MIS 315 41 Technology Pressures Information Overload –Amount of information on the internet doubles approximately every year. Technological Innovation and Obsolescence –Today’s state-of-the-art products may be obsolete tomorrow. e.g., CRT monitors vs LCD monitors
Information Systems – MIS 315 42 Technological Innovation and Obsolescence Innovation: Early calculator Obsolescence: Slide Rule
Information Systems – MIS 315 43 Technological Innovation and Obsolescence (continued) Innovation: Telegraph Obsolescence: Pony Express
Information Systems – MIS 315 44 Technological Innovation and Obsolescence (continued) Obsolescence: old phonographInnovation: iPod nano
Information Systems – MIS 315 45 Technological Innovation and Obsolescence (continued) Innovation: digital camera Innovation: “Credit card” digital camera Obsolescence: old analog camera
Information Systems – MIS 315 46 Technological Innovation and Obsolescence (continued) Innovation: Ford Model T Obsolescence: Horse and Buggy
Information Systems – MIS 315 47 Technological Innovation and Obsolescence (continued) Innovation: Notebook computer with word processing software Obsolescence: Manual typewriter
Information Systems – MIS 315 48 Societal Pressures-The Third Category Of Business Pressures Social Responsibility –Digital devide – gap between those who have access to IT and those who do not. Government Regulation and Deregulation –Sarbanes –Oxley, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Protection Against Terrorist Attacks –Dept of Homeland Security – US-VISIT Ethical Issues –China Olympics and foreign press access to internet –Newspapers/governments editing photographs
Information Systems – MIS 315 49 Social Responsibility One Laptop per Child initiative
Information Systems – MIS 315 50 Social Responsibility (continued) Internet over satellite in developing nations
Information Systems – MIS 315 51 Social Responsibility (continued) Bridging the Digital Divide
Information Systems – MIS 315 52 Businesses are Responding to the Pressures by Implementing IT Solutions Strategic Systems –Provide advantages that enable organizations to increase market share and/or profits, to better negotiate with suppliers, or prevent competitors from entering their markets. Customer Focus –Is the difference between attracting and keeping customers by providing superb customer service to losing them to competitors. Make-to-Order customized products and mass customization –Mass Customization is producing a large quantity of items, but customizing them to fit the desire of each customer. –Reebok and Bodymetrics provide excellent examples of mass customization. See Reebok See Bodymetrics videoReebokvideo E-business and E-commerce –Buying and selling products and services electronically. E- business is a broader concept than e-commerce.
Information Systems – MIS 315 53 Business Pressures, Organizational Responses, and IT Support (Summary)
Information Systems – MIS 315 54 1.4 Why Are Information Systems Important to You? Information systems and information technologies are integral to your lives. For example: –Register for classes –Pay Bills –Sell stuff online –Job search –etc. Information systems offer career opportunities. –Being knowledgeable about IT will improve your chances of landing a good job. Information systems are used by all functional areas in an organization. “Pervasive”
Information Systems – MIS 315 55 Misinformation about Information Systems Career Opportunities Myth #1: There are no computing jobs. Myth #2: There will be no IT jobs when I graduate. Myth #3: All IT-related jobs are moving offshore. Myth #4: IT salaries are lower due to cheap overseas labor.
Information Systems – MIS 315 56 IT Jobs P. 21
Information Systems – MIS 315 57 1.5 The Plan of This Class The major objective of this class is to help you understand the roles of information technologies in today’s digital organizations. The class is designed to help you think strategically about information systems. The book documents how IT supports all of the functional areas of the organization. –Each chapter introduces a major topic in Information Technology
Information Systems – MIS 315 58 Summary: The Great Convergence We are in a convergence of three powerful, technological forces: –(1) Cheap and ubiquitous computing devices –(2) Low-cost, high bandwidth –(3) Open standards In essence, we have computing everywhere and anywhere, anytime and all the time, with access to limitless amounts of information, services, and entertainment.
Information Systems – MIS 315 59 The Great Convergence (continued) We have the creation of a global, Web-enabled playing field that allows for multiple forms of collaboration – the sharing of knowledge and work – in real time, without regard to geography, distance, or, in the near future, even language. The field now includes some 3 billion new people, formerly digitally disenfranchised.
Information Systems – MIS 315 60 And the result of all this?