Presentation on theme: "Period 5: Industrialization and Global Integration, c to c. 1900"— Presentation transcript:
1Period 5: Industrialization and Global Integration, c. 1750 to c. 1900 Key Concept 5.1 Industrialization and Global Capitalism.Key Concept 5.2 Imperialism and Nation-State FormationKey Concept 5.3 Nationalism, Revolution, and ReformKey Concept 5.4 Global Migration
2Analyze imperialism? How think about categories to compare . . . Or CCOT
3Key Concept 5.2 Imperialism and Nation-State Formation As states industrialized during this period, they also expanded existing overseas c________ and established new types of colonies and transoceanic empires The process was led mostly by E_______, The ________ ________and J______ also participated in this process. The growth of new empires challenged the power of existing ________-based empires of Eurasia.New ideas about n____________, race, gender, class and culture also developed that both facilitated the spread of transoceanic empires and new states, as well as justifying anti-imperial resistance and the formation of new national identities.I. Industrializing powers established tr_________________ empires.\Colonies EuropeUS and Japan land nationalismBrain storm categoires to compare Motives, methods, results
5CapitulationssoverigntyOttoman s___________ is undermined with the C____________which were treaties granted by the Ottoman Empire conferring the privilege of extra-territorial jurisdiction within the empire on the subjects of other states,
7I. A. States with existing colonies (such as the British in India or the Dutch in Indonesia) strengthened their control over those colonies.B. European states (such as the British, the Dutch, the French, the Germans or the Russians) as well as the Americans and the Japanese established empires throughout Asia and the Pacific, while Sp______ and Po______________e influence declined.Transoceanic Spanish
9In SE ASIAThe Dutch control Indonesia By the early 19th century, the Dutch East India Company established control of the 3,000 mile long chain of Islands known as Indonesia and established plantations producing sugar cane, coffee, cocoa, rubber, coconuts, bananas, and pineapple. The British control Malaysia In order to compete with the Dutch holdings in Indonesia, the British sought to gain a foot hold in South East Asia. Using Singapore as a trading base, Britain soon gained control of the Malay Peninsula and Burma, where they developed businesses based on rubber, tin, and teak. The British encouraged the immigration of Chinese to Malaysia to work in tin mines and tap rubber trees. As a result Malays eventually became a minority in their own land and tensions between Chinese and native Malays remains unresolved to this day.The French control Indochina The French began direct rule of Vietnam after seven French missionaries were killed during the reign of an anti-Christian emperor. Church leaders and French businesses interested in expanding overseas markets demanded military intervention. The French military invaded Southern Vietnam and occupied it. Later they expanded their control to include North Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia, which collectively became French Indochina. Rice became a cash-crop. The conversion to this cash crop economy was so large scale that despite four times as much land being devoted to rice, due to exportation the native consumption of rice actually declined.
12By 1910, Japan colonized Korea as well. In the S_________J-______________War with China, Japan successfully colonized Taiwan in 1895.In 1905, Japan dealt a military and psychological blow to R_________(and watchful Western world) when the Japanese soundly defeated the ‘great Russian’ in the Russo-Japanese War.By 1910, Japan colonized Korea as well.nationalismThrough the Sino-Japanese War and Russo-Japanese War. Meiji Japan won the right to be treated on a level with the Western imperialist powers, according to the West
14Imperialism influenced state formation and contraction around the world A. The expansion of US and European Influence over Tokugawa Japan led to the emergence of Meiji Japan“Western Technology, Japanese Spirit”_____________ restoration
18New Imperial Nation: United States HawaiiSpanish-American WarMonroe DoctrinePanama CanalRoosevelt CorollaryThe Monroe Doctrine is a policy of the United States introduced on December 2, It stated that further efforts by European countries to colonize land or interfere with states in the Americas would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S. interventionThe Monroe Doctrine is a policy of the United States introduced on December 2, It stated that further efforts by European countries to colonize land or interfere with states in the Americas would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S. intervention
19In other parts of the world, industrialized states practiced economic imperialism. (such as the British and French expanding their influence in China through the Opium Wars or the British and the United States investing heavily in _________ _________British and frenchLatin am
20New Imperial Nation: United States HawaiiSpanish-American WarMonroe DoctrinePanama CanalRoosevelt CorollaryThe Monroe Doctrine is a policy of the United States introduced on December 2, It stated that further efforts by European countries to colonize land or interfere with states in the Americas would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S. interventionThe Roosevelt Corollary was an extension of the Monroe Doctrine by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt in Roosevelt's extension of the Monroe Doctrine asserted a right of the United States to intervene in order to "stabilize" the economic affairs of small states in the Caribbean and Central America, if they were unable to pay their international debts
23The PhilippinesAfter defeating the Spanish in the Spanish Am War, the U.S. had only maintained control over Manila and its surrounding provinces. The rest of the islands were controlled by the Filipinos. President William McKinley then ordered the War Department to place the rest of the islands under military control. He issued the Benevolent Assimilation Proclamation which, although outwardly expressing friendship and offering guidance to the Philippine people, was actually a declaration asserting American dominance of the islands.Uncle Sam Invites the Hungry Philippines to Share Its Prosperity
24. The Filipinos refuse to recognize American sovereignty. On February 4, 1899, an American soldier shot at a Filipino soldier crossing a bridge onto American territory. This marked the beginning of the Philippine-American War. At this time, the ratification of the Treaty of Paris was pending, and McKinley used this event, stating that the Filipinos had instigated the incident, to garner support for the treaty. It was ratified by the Senate within two days.The Filipinos, led by Aguinaldo, waged a fierce battle against American troops for three years. Aguinaldo resorted to guerilla warfare and despite being victorious in several battles, was eventually captured.President Theodore Roosevelt, who had become president upon McKinley’s assassination, then issued the official Peace Proclamation ending the war on July 4, However, it wasn’t until 1913 that resistance and guerilla warfare on the outskirts of the Philippines officially subsided.The casualties suffered on both sides during the Philippine-American War were more numerous than during the relatively peaceful Spanish-American War. Over 4,000 American troops, 20,000 Filipino soldiers, and 500,000 Filipino civilians died over the course of the war.U.S. military training at their fort in the Philippines
26The _______ CanalPanama was a province of C_________when negotiations opened for the US to pay for permission to begin construction. A deal was signed by representatives of both nations, but the C___________ Senate refused to ratify the treaty, hoping for more cash. Roosevelt then facilitated a deal with P_____________ business interests to declare independence. In November 1903, P____________declared its independence from C______________ and had a draft constitution sent over from Washington. The President of the Municipal Council became the new head of state, the US recognized the new republic of P_________, and an invading contingent of C___________troops were bribed $50 per soldier to surrender their arms and go home. Presto! A new nation was born.Coumbia columbian panama
28In other parts of the world, industrialized states practiced ____________ imperialism (such as the British and French expanding their influence in _______ through the _____ Wars or the British and the ______ ______ investing heavily in _____ America.
29Dismemberment of China Spheres of Influence Eventually several European nations followed suit, forcing China to sign a series of unequal treaties. Extraterritoriality guaranteed that European citizens in China were only subject to the laws of their own nation and could only be tried by their own courts. Eventually western nations weary of governing foreign lands, established spheres of influence within China which guaranteed specific trading privileges to each nation within its respective sphere.French asked for railway and mine concessions.Germans get Giaozhou Bay and port of Qingdao.English extracted more economic concessions in Yangtze valley.Russians received right to construct railroad.JapanIn this political cartoon, China is being divided up by the United Kingdom, Germany, Russia, France, and Japan
32Timeline of British control of India In South Asia . . .Timeline of British control of India1615 British East India Company acquires its first territory in Bombay and begins to rule trading areas in India_________ year war1600: British East India Company is established.
33Timeline of British control of India In South Asia . . .Timeline of British control of India1857-The Indian Mutiny or The First War of Independence / / the __________ RebellionTURNING POINT:An 18th century political cartoon of Benjamin Disraeli (1804–1881) making Queen Victoria Empress of India. The caption was "New crowns for old ones!"Acorn: Increasing questions about political authority and growing nationalism contributed to anti-colonial movements. (such as the Indian Revolt of 1857 or the Boxer Rebellion)An 1859 lithograph depicts the storming of Delhi in 1857 by rebelling Indian troops, known as sipahi, or sepoys.
351858 The India Act: power transferred to British Government. 1877 Queen Victoria becomes the Empress of India. 1885 Indian National Congress is formed. . Acorn: The rapid development of industrial production contributed to the decline of economically productive, agriculturally-based economies. (such as textile production in India)raw materialsmarkets for manufactured goodsoverseas investment
36B. The rapid development of industrial production contributed to the decline of economically productive, agriculturally-based economies (such as textile production in I_______).C. The rapid increases in productivity caused by industrial production encouraged industrialized states to seek out new con__________ markets for their finished goods (such as British and French attempts to “open up” the Chinese market during the nineteenth century)D. The need for specialized and limited metals for industrial production, as well as the global demand for gold, silver and diamonds as forms of wealth led to the development of extensive mining centers (such as copper mines in Mexico or gold and diamond mines in ________ _________).In 1870, diamond diggers discovered stones at the Bultfontein, Du Toits Pan, and Vooruitzight farms, and in 1871, an carat diamond was found on the slopes of Colesberg Kopje, leading to the first 'diamond rush' into the area. Miners began arriving by the thousands, and the hill at Colesberg Kopje began to disappear, replaced by a gigantic open-pit mine that became known as the "Big Hole.”Inidaconsumer
37The Suez Canal gives ‘the lion’s share’ to the British with the key to India
40In the Pacific Hawaii – 1770s - Kamehameha works with British - royalty adopts western ways- encourage export & western business- Christianity- Americans take over 1898 how?The United States acquired Hawaii byannexing the islands after American planters had overthrown the monarchy.Kamehameha I (c. 1758–May 8, 1819), also known as Kamehameha the Great, conquered the Hawaiian Islands and formally established the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi in By developing alliances with the major Pacific colonial powers, Kamehameha preserved Hawaiʻi's independence under his ruleLiliʻuokalani, was the last monarch and only queen regnant of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi.
41Figure 1.3. On August 12, 1898, the flag of the Kingdom of Hawaii over Iolani Palace was lowered and the American flag was raised
42The ____________ for Africa Imperialism In Africa
43The Boer Wars in South Africa The Boers opposed the British rule in the Cape Colony, especially after 1833, when the British government made slavery illegal in the Cape Colony.This forced the Boers to emigrate from the Cape Colony. Piet Retief and his followers established the Republic of Natalia.In May 1842, British forces invaded the Republic of Natalia and converted it into a British colony.From Natal, many Boers again trekked northwards to the Orange River, where they established two states, namely Transvaal and the Orange Free State, respectively.However, as a result of the Anglo-Boer War ( ), both Transvaal and the Orange Free State became British colonies.
44______________ Conference Berlin ConferenceWhat decade again??????
47Q__________ medicine which moderates effects of malaria industrialization________________________ provided both the motive and means for imperialismAs much as Europeans might have wanted to conquer Africa in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries it couldn't. European guns were not sufficient to overcome the _diseases that the Africans had. Africa's m_____________, m____________ and p_______________ were too much for them. So what changed all that ?___________________________ ships allowed them to travel inland. “No horses? No problem”Q__________ medicine which moderates effects of malariaGuns were the most important, especially with the invention of the Maxim _________ gun.mosquitosmicrobespeopleTechnologyImperialismDiseasesMosquitos, microbes and peopleTechnologySteam quinine machinesteamquininemachine
48foreign family units “settle” in tended to stay permanently In some parts of their empires, Europeans established settler colonies. (such as the British in southern Africa, Australia and New Zealand, or the French in Algeria)foreign family units “settle” intended to stay permanentlyFocus more on farming/ranching not extracting raw materialstaking possession of the land and cultivating it, there was never much thought to returning home.South Africa, Algeria, New Zealand, Kenya, Hawaii- Europeans & indigenous clash over control & cultureor colonies of occupation,White Dominions- Canada & Australia- inhabited mostly by Europeans, few natives- 19th century – self governmentin settler colonies “the invading Europeans (or their descendants) annihilated, displaced and/or marginalized the indigenes to become a majority non-indigenous population
49exploitation colonies As opposed to . . .exploitation coloniesEuropean ‘settlers' consisted of a relatively small but powerful group of white plantersconcerned mainly with managing and supervising the exploitation of resources as well as safeguarding the geo-political interests of the state.Europeans seldom remained on after the end of their mission.Nigeria and India are examples of colonies of occupation where although indigenous people were the majority, they were ruled by a foreign power
51Motives for Imperialism Industrial revEconomic – Because of the __________ ___________, a need for ________ materials (cotton, copper, iron and rubber), __________ markets, cheap labor, investment opportunities because of all the __________ which was generated.Political- N_____________, expand your territory and beat other nations there, military and naval ____________/ports, get more soldiers, outlet for unhappy population so they don’t rebel at homeCultural: religious-so missionaries can p____________, to spread European values and moral beliefs, to educate peoples of other cultures, social ____________ (those barbarians aren’t fit to rule themselves); W___________ ______ _________ to “civilize” the uncivilized; Gain knowledge desire to explore "unknown" or uncharted territory, conduct s_______research, medical searches for the causes and treatment of diseases, to go on an adventure, and to investigate "unknown" lands and cultures, nationalism.rawconsumercapitalNationalismbasesproselytizeDarwinismWhite man’s burdenscientific
52Take up the White Man's burden– Rudyard Kipling, "The White Man's _____________" published in McClure's Magazine, Feb. 1899Take up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go, bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait, in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught sullen peoples, Half devil and half child.Take up the White Man's burden-- In patience to abide, To veil the threat of terror And check the show of pride; By open speech and simple, An hundred times made plain, To seek another's profit And work another's gain.. . .Take up the White Man's burden–And reap his old reward-- The blame of those ye better The hate of those ye guard-- The cry of hosts ye humour (Ah, slowly!) toward the light:-- "Why brought ye us from bondage, Our loved Egyptian night?"Take up the White Man's burden-- Ye dare not stoop to less-- Nor call too loud on Freedom To cloak your weariness. By all ye will or whisper, By all ye leave or do, The silent sullen peoples Shall weigh your God and you.. . .
59The rapid development of industrial production contributed to the decline of economically productive, agriculturally-based economies. (such as textile production in India)
60Responses to Imperialism Indirect Rule: “Rule by and Thru the Natives”intermediaries and collaboratorsJohn Green in India fewer than 1000 ruling of 300 million Indians
61Indian National Congress (formed in 1885) Educated Indians, predominantly Hindu, demanded increasing equality & self-gov't—not INDEPENDNECE
62Increasing questions about political authority and growing nationalism contributed to anti-colonial movements. (such as the Indian Revolt of 1857 or the Boxer Rebellion)
63Boxer Uprising ( )Developed in response to bad economic conditions & rise of foreign influenceA secret society whose signal was the clenched fist.Encouraged by Empress Cixi!Besieged the capital’s Legation Quarter, where foreign diplomats lived and worked.Killed several diplomats and missionaries; looting & violence thru out BeijingAttacked railroads and telegraph offices
64Boxer Rebellion (GY’s perspective) An allied force of British, American, French, German, and Japanese troops entered Beijing and defeated the Boxers. Russian forces used as an excuse to occupy Manchuria
65ResultsLast extensive group of foreigners’ demands imposed on imperial China.Erected monuments in foreign cemeteries.Suspended civil service examinations in all places where foreigners had been manhandled or killed.Chinese government posted edicts in all district towns discouraging anti-foreign activities.indemnity of $333.9 millionCaptured Boxer Prisoners guarded by soldiers of the Sixth United States Cavalry, 1901
66Increasing discontent with imperial rule and the spread of Enlightenment ideas propelled reformist and revolutionary movements.It is very important to remember that Africans did not meekly acquiesce to European hegemony. They resisted, often violently, to a technologically superior enemy. Like the Chinese and Vietnamese and Indians. . .
67resistanceThe development and spread of nationalism as an ideology fostered new communal identities(such as the German nation, Filipino nationalism or Liberian nationalism).
68Anglo–Zulu WarNew states (such as the Cherokee nation, Siam, Hawai’i or the Zulu kingdom) developed on the edges of empire.
69A depiction of the Battle of Isandlwana, taken from the Illustrated London News. The Battle of Isandlwana on 22 January 1879 was the first major encounter in the between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom. Eleven days after the British commenced their invasion of Zululand in South Africa, a Zulu force of some 20,000 warriors attacked a portion of the British main column consisting of about 1,800 British, colonial and native troops and perhaps 400 civilians.The Zulus were equipped mainly with the traditional assegai iron spears and cow-hide shields, but also had a number of muskets and old rifles though they were not formally trained in their use. The British and colonial troops were armed with the state-of-the-art Martini-Henry breech-loading rifle and two 7 pounder artillery pieces as well as a rocket battery. Despite a vast disadvantage in weapons technology, the numerically superior Zulus ultimately overwhelmed the poorly led and badly deployed British, killing over 1,300 troops, including all those out on the forward firing line.The battle was a crushing victory for the Zulus and caused the defeat of the first British invasion of Zululand. The British Army had suffered its worst defeat against a technologically inferior indigenous force. Isandlwana resulted in the British taking a much more aggressive approach in the Anglo–Zulu War, leading to a heavily reinforced second invasion and the destruction of King Cetshwayo's hopes of a negotiated peace
70MORE RESISTANCEThe Battle of Adwa (also known as Adowa, or sometimes by the Italian name Adua) was fought on 1 March 1896 between the Ethiopian Empire and the Kingdom of Italy near the town of Adwa, Ethiopia, in Tigray. It was the climactic battle of the First Italo-Ethiopian War, securing Ethiopian sovereignty.
721870’s, “self-strengthening” movement. In a small number of states, governments promoted their own state-sponsored visions of industrialization. (such as the economic reforms of Meiji Japan, the development of factories and railroads in Tsarist Russia, China’s Self-Strengthening program or Muhammad Ali’s development of a cotton textile industry in Egypt)1870’s, “self-strengthening” movement.“Learn the superior technology of the barbarian, in order to control him,”new plans for a modern army and navy, industrialization and changes within the diplomatic corps,
73Increasing discontent with imperial rule and the spread of Enlightenment ideas propelled reformist and revolutionary movements.Some of the rebellions were influenced by religious ideas and millenarianism,. (such as the Taiping Rebellion, the Ghost Dance or the Xhosa cattle killing)
74Contemporary drawing of Hong Xiuquan, dating from about 1860 Taiping RebellionLasted 15 years; Led by Hung Xiuquan (peasant who repeatedly failed examinations & recently converted to Christianity)Developed form of Sinicized Christianity (said had met God & that Jesus was his elder brother). Started as a religious movement that stressed a strict morality (no opium, gambling, alcohol, prostitution, & foot binding), gender equality!, & economic egalitarianismBelieved in a mandate to unite the world & establish peace. --to a PRE-Confucian world as “when God created earth, both barbarian & Chinese walked together”Appealed to growing anti-Manchu sentiment (high taxes, unequal treaties, foreign influence, etc). Wanted to get rid of Confucian elite to purify Chinese society .The Tai Pings controlled most of southern China for over a decade. Established the Taiping Heavenly KingdomWestern military forces (esp Fr and Brits) were sent by their governments to help the Qing emperor put down the rebellion. After Taiping, MORE foreign influence: now 90 ports opened, modern banks, libraries, hospitals, paved/lit streets, newspapers, etc.20-30 million dieIn the end, lots of Chinese died (including Hung) & the Qing dynasty became dependent on European and American military support.
80Painting from Le Figaro of French commander Cousin-Montauban leading a charge during the Second Opium War in China, 1860.
81Also in east Asia . . . Treaty of Annexation (August 22, 1910) The ProclamationNotwithstanding the earnest and laborious work of reforms in the administration of Korea in which the Governments of Japan and Korea have been engaged for more than four years since the conclusion of the Agreement of 1905, the existing system of government in that country has not proved entirely equal to the duty of preserving public order and tranquillity; and in addition, the spirit of suspicion and misgiving dominates the whole peninsula.In order to maintain peace and stability in Korea, to promote the prosperity and welfare of Koreans, and at the same time to ensure the safety and repose of foreign residents, it has been made abundantly clear that fundamental changes in the actual regime of government are absolutely essential. The Governments of Japan and Korea, being convinced of the urgent necessity of introducing reforms responsive to the requirements of the situation and of furnishing sufficient guarantee for the future, have, with the approval of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan and His Majesty the Emperor of Korea, concluded, through their plenipotentiaries, a treaty providing for complete annexation of Korea to the Empire of Japan. By virtue of that important act, which shall take effect on its promulgation on August 29, 1910, the Imperial Government of Japan shall undertake the entire government and administration of Korea, and they hereby declare that the matters relating to foreigners and foreign trade in Korea shall be conducted in accordance with the following rules: