Presentation on theme: "Aaron Johnson. The 19 th centaury saw a new desire by Western empires to extend and expand their power into East Asia. This meant that once very isolated."— Presentation transcript:
The 19 th centaury saw a new desire by Western empires to extend and expand their power into East Asia. This meant that once very isolated and closed nations were being forced open an change became inevitable. China’s Self-strengthening movement and Japan’s Meiji restoration were similar in goals, yet vast differences between them showed why one of them was a success, and how the other was the opposite.
SELF STRENGTHENING Backwards, more traditional and confusion ideologies. Save tradition China wants isolation, still believes foreigners are barbarians, anti-western feeling. China’s leaders corrupt, individual personalities involved more focused on personal gain than nationwide gain. China economically weak, cannot finance reforms as effectively Blood-shed, violence involved MEIJI RESTORATION ▶ Japan realizes weakness, looks forward and pro-reform to develop improvement. ▶ Took influence from Western powers to be more like them, e.g. Dutch learning and also military styles. ▶ Decisions made by consensus in a centralized government, so no one person had control over an area, therefore decisions made in interest of nation, not individuals ▶ Japan financially able to carry out goals and reforms ▶ No blood –shed, restoration not a revolution
MEIJI RESTORATION Western education adopted, especially Rangaku; Dutch teachings Many students were sent overseas to universities. Japan adopted Western-style clothes, Western technologies and inventions like clocks and railway lines. SELF STRENGTHENING Main education system: Confucianism. Traditional outlook favored Only western factor was that some students were sent overseas to study.
SELF STRENGTHENING China introduced conscription Modeled military on western style Low finance meant inefficient army Military still to weak to deal with foreigners MEIJI RESTORATION ▶ Conscription but mainly for peasants due to blood tax ▶Western Style army, decline of Samurai as a class ▶High finance meant better development of army ▶Sino-Japanese war proves Japans new military strength
SELF STRENGTHENING Attempt to close treaty ports Low resources and low finance meant development of the movement was hindered Tax was heavy on public MEIJI RESTORATION ▶Tax Reforms e.g. No more pay by rice sacks for farmers ▶Build up of infrastructer and industries boosted Japans economy ▶New currency introduced ▶Japans economy so strong, almost equaled many European economies
SELF STRENGTHENING ▶Not centralized ▶Move backwards towards traditional ideologies ▶Capitalization on changes by politicians to attain personal benefits for themselves and their family and friends ▶Basically in this movement, the politicians controlling and operating were very corrupt MEIJI RESTORATION ▶Centralized government, emperor restored. ▶Decisions and laws made by consensus so everyone agreed ▶No corruption in the government ▶It was not a revolution but restoration, no opposition and therefore no blood- shed ▶Government targeted the restoration nation wide, not just specific areas.
Though the goals and the reasons for both movements were similar, what set them apart was the way in which the government went about it, the method of change was the make or break. In China; the government was corrupt and interested in self-gain, and therefore finance was not used efficiently and the self strengthening movement failed with the people, failed in the military and over all failure. In Japan however, the centralized government saw that before Japan could develop as a nation, changes all around had to be made and finance distribution into all sectors; military, economy, political and social were evenly and fairly made and therefore succeeded well. Also, Japan saw that their military strength increased as a priority so they could get a foothold in the power vacuum in East Asia.