Presentation on theme: "Unit 2 Topic: Foreign Affairs from Imperialism to Post World War I ( )"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 2Topic: Foreign Affairs from Imperialism to Post World War I ( )The industrial and territorial growth of the United States fostered expansion overseas. Greater involvement in the world set the state for American participation in World War I and attempts to preserve post-war peace.
2Chapter 1: United States Imperialism and World War I Content Statement: As a result of overseas expansion, the Spanish-American War and World War I, the United States emerged as a world power.Expectations For Learning: Analyze the circumstances which enabled the United States to emerge as a world power in the early 1900’s.
3Section 1: United States Imperialism Content Elaboration: With the closing of the western frontier, Americans developed favorable attitudes toward foreign expansion. Pushed along by global competition for markets and prestige, and expanded navy and a sense of cultural superiority, the United States engaged in a series of overseas actions which fostered its move to global power status. The annexation of Hawaii followed by a successful conclusion to the Spanish-American War allowed the United States to join other nations in imperialist ventures.
4Reasons for Imperialism Q: What is imperialism?A: An attempt to create an empire; when a country looks to expand its territory*Up until the 1890’s, most Americans wanted to stay isolated. We had oceans on 2 sides and friendly nations on the other 2 borders. Our FOREIGN POLICY was isolationism. Why did we change our foreign policy to imperialism???????
5Reason #1: Economic Growth 1. Businesses wanted to make more $$$$A. Needed foreign marketsB. Easy trade2. Raw materials/natural resourcesA. US could take from new territories1. oil2. coal3. timber
6Reason #2: Military 1. Alfred T. Mahan Wrote The Influence of Sea Power Upon History (1890)2. This book said: Strong navy = strong nation3. Why???a. can protect new nationsb. use new nations as fueling and supply ports4. Within 10 years of book, US had 3rd largest navy
7Reason #3: Psychological Reasons 1. Many hoped that interest in foreign affairs would divert attention from domestic problemsExamples:crime, dirt, disease in citiespoor working conditions in factoriesgovernment corruption (city bosses, etc)
8Reason #4: Ideological Beliefs Charles Darwin: “Survival of the Fittest” and Social Darwinism: the strongest countries survive—it is their obligation to take over other nationsManifest destiny
9Reason #5: Religious reasons duty to spread Christianity
10Reason #6: Influence of the Press 1. Yellow Press: a type of journalism that presents little or no legitimate well-researched news and instead uses eye-catching headlines to sell more newspapers.a. told sensational stories on faraway placesb. examplesWilliam Randolph Hurst (New York Journal)Joseph Pulitzer (New York World)*These people argued for expansion
12Summary—6 Reasons for Imperialism E very EconomicM ichigan MilitaryP layer PsychologicalI s IdeologicalR eally ReligiousI diotic Influence of the Yellow Press
13OGT Multiple Choice_____ Alfred T. Mahan, in explaining what was necessary to keep the United States strong in the modern world, put forward the idea that.A. the U.S. must sell its products on all continents.B. the nation needed a powerful navy.C. the U.S. should build a canal across the Isthmus of PanamaD. all of the above
14OGT Multiple Choice_____ (Blue Book, 2005) What change in the United States after Reconstruction was a factor in the rise of imperialism?A. Thousands of people were killed in the Civil War.B. Business and industry suffered a severe declineC. Businesses required foreign sources for raw materials and markets in which to sell their productsD. People feared that European nations were an imminent threat to invade the United States
15OGT Multiple Choice_____ (Practice Test Booklet 2005) During the late-19th century the United States wanted colonies so thatA. they could provide the colonies with raw materialsB. they could get manufactured goods from the coloniesC. they could become a market for products from the coloniesD. they could get raw materials from the colonies
16OGT Multiple Choice_____ Americans favored overseas expansion in the late 1800’s for all the following reasons except toA. spread Christianity and democracyB. acquire bases for United States securityC. acquire new markets for tradeD. halt the spread of Russian influence
17OGT Multiple Choice_____ (Blue Book, 2005) In his book The Influence of Sea Power Upon History (1890), Alfred T. Mahan argued thatA. the United States was so well protected by both oceans that a strong navy was not necessaryB. most powerful empires relied upon armies rather than naval powerC. the U.S. Navy in 1890 was already strong enough and should not be enlargedD. to become a world power, a nation must possess a strong navy
18OGT Multiple Choice____ (Base Test March 2005) One factor that motivated U.S. imperialism during the late 19th and early 20 centuries wasA. development of closer political ties with European nationsB. closing of China to all foreign tradeC. support of international peacekeeping operationsD. acquisition of new markets and sources of raw materials
19OGT Multiple Choice_____ (Blue Book, 2005) Supporters of imperialism would be most likely to use which of the following ideas to argue in favor of territorial acquisition?A. universal suffrageB. manifest destinyC. self-determinationD. freedom of religion
20OGT Multiple Choice _____ An attempt to create an empire is A. imperialismB. neutralityC. isolationD. rough riding
21OGT Extended ResponseAnalyze 2 reasons that countries gained control of territory through imperialism and the impact on people living in the territory that was controlled.
22OGT Short Answer(Blue Book, 2005) If you were a person living in a territory that was being taken over by the United States, how would you feel about possibly revolting?
23The Spanish-American War 1. BACKGROUNDA. Spain controlled CubaB. The U.S. wanted to control Cuba (only 90 miles from Florida)C. The Cubans wanted independenceD. There was a war between Spanish and CubansE. Spanish tortured Cubans in concentration camps1. Many died of disease or starved
25***Public opinion grew louder and louder for war vs. Spain! 2. Yellow Pressa. started writing stories about Spanish atrocities against Cubansb. public wants war vs. Spain!c. Pres. Cleveland did not give ind. Pres. McKinley did not give in at first***Public opinion grew louder and louder for war vs. Spain!
27“Remember the Maine” a. was a U.S. battleship that was in Cuba b. it blew upc killedd. Yellow Press blamed the Spanish--they really didn’t do it!e. “Remember the Maine!”
28The Philippines Fighting actually begins in The Philippines Ass. Secretary of Navy, Theodore Roosevelt, orders navy to attack the Spanish fleet in the PhilippinesMan in charge: Commodore George DeweyUS navy overwhelms SpanishAug. 13, 1898, US has control of the Philippines
31Victory in Cuba US army a. mostly volunteers b. poorly trained c. many died of disease before fighting
32Theodore Roosevelt and the Rough Riders A. Roosevelt gathered a rough group of peopleB. They went to Cuba1. Roosevelt led them up San Juan Hill2. Bloody battle3. Roosevelt winsC. Our navy sink all of Spain’s ships in CubaD. Americans cheered our victory***THIS WAR LASTED ONLY 4 MONTHS!!!
34The “Splendid Little War” A. Only 385 deathsB. Lasted only 4 monthsC. Cost $250 millionD. Big change in relationship between U.S. and rest of world1. Took all of Spain’s coloniesa. Cubab. Puerto Ricoc. Guamd. Philippine Islands
35Revolt in the Philippines Americans opposed to empireA. Many Americans did not want an empireB. Many against imperialism!C. Why were these people against imperialism1. Brutal towards the Filipinos2. Lording over people in faraway places3. Might lead to war with JapanD. Filipinos fought against the US--they wanted us out!E. Thousands killed in this fight
36Teller and Platt Amendments The Teller AmendmentA. U.S. would let Cuba govern itself. U.S. did not leave Cuba1. set up schools2. finances put in order3. keep peaceB. The Platt Amendment1. The U.S. was allowed to enter Cuba for any reason
37OGT Multiple Choice_____ Compared to the Civil War, the American Revolution, World War I, and World War II, the Spanish-American WarA. was much longerB. was much costlier in terms of amount of deathsC. was much shorterD. was less significant in terms of the relationship of the United States to the world
38OGT Multiple Choice_____ All of the following developments led to war with Spain in 1898 exceptA. the sinking of the MaineB. the Yellow PressC. Reports of the Spanish torturing the Cubans in concentration campsD. the signing of the Teller and Platt Amendments
39OGT Multiple Choice_____ (Practice Test Booklet 2005) The United States became an imperialist nation with interests in the Caribbean, Central America, the Far East, and the South Pacific following which war?A. The Civil WarB. The Spanish-American WarC. World War ID. The Korean War
40OGT Multiple Choice_____ Most of the credit for the American victory in the Spanish-American War was earned by_____.A. the ArmyB. the Air ForceC. the MarinesD. the Navy and the Rough Riders
41OGT Multiple Choice _____ The U.S. battleship Maine A. was shattered by an explosion while in CubaB. led the attack on Spanish warships in the PhilippinesC. led the attack on Spanish warships near Santiago, CubaD. was the flagship when the U.S. fleet sailed around the world
42OGT Short AnswerHow did the U.S. involvement in the Spanish American war show that the U.S. was becoming a world power?
43The Annexation of Hawaii Annex: to incorporate (territory) into the domain of a city, country, or stateFor the story behind the annexation of Hawaii, read the following link:MAIN POINT: US WANTS HAWAII FOR NAVAL BASE IN PACIFIC OCEAN!!!!!
47The Open Door Policy in China The “Open Door” in ChinaA. The U.S. wanted to trade with ChinaB. China was divided among France, Germany, Japan, and RussiaC. We demanded to these 4 that we be allowed to trade with ChinaD. China was to have an “Open Door” for trade
48The Boxer Rebellion A. The “Boxers” were Chinese rebels 1. They did not want other countries there2. They fought and killed many3. It took 7 weeks to put them outB. The U.S. wanted Chinese independence1. Easier to trade2. We helped China get these other countries out3. China like this, and like the U.S.
51“Big Stick” Diplomacy A. President McKinley 1. Sept. 6, 1901 a. assassinatedb. by Leon Czolgoszc. he was an anarchist2. Vice President Teddy Roosevelta. “speak softly and carry a big stick”
52B. Teddy Roosevelt--President a. “Big Stick” diplomacy: term is used to describe the foreign policy of the U.S. at the time, Roosevelt claimed the U.S. had the right to oppose European actions in the Western Hemisphereb. believed US should be world powerc. imperialisticd. anti-imperialists: did not like TR’s policy
53Panama Canal many want this easier to move navy from ocean to ocean able to protect large empire
56The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine Q: What was the Monroe Doctrine?A: President James Monroe came up with it in It said no European nation could set up colonies in the Americas.Q: What is the Roosevelt Corollary?A: Early 1900’s. Said the US would exercise “international police power” in response to chronic misconduct by any nation in the Western Hemisphere.
57Roosevelt Corollary Continuation of TR’s imperialism A. US intervened everywhere in Latin AmericaB. They did not like this1. this led to poor relations between US and many Latin American nations
58THE U. S. IS NOW GETTING A LARGE EMPIRE AROUND THE WORLD. THE U. S THE U.S. IS NOW GETTING A LARGE EMPIRE AROUND THE WORLD. THE U.S. IS BECOMING AWORLD POWER!!!!!!
60OGT Multiple Choice_____ (Practice Test Booklet 2005) The Boxer Rebellion of 1900 was an attempt to removeA. the British from IndiaB. the Europeans from South AfricaC. the French from AlgeriaD. the Europeans from China
61OGT Extended ResponseThe U.S. became an imperialistic country by 1900.•What is imperialism? (2 pts)•How did the U.S. imperialism in the Far East, South Pacific, Caribbean, and Central America show the U.S. was becoming a world power? (2 pts)
62Section 2: World War IContent Elaboration: With its entry into World War I, the United States mobilized a large army and navy to help the Allies achieve victory. After the war, European countries were forced to concentrate their resources on rebuilding their countries. However the United States enjoyed a brief period of economic prosperity and was able to exert authority as a world power.
63M.A.I.N. Causes of World War I A. MilitarismB. AlliancesC. ImperialismD. NationalismE. War Breaks Out: Archduke Frances Ferdinand and his wife assassinated.
64Reason #1: Militarism 1. glorification of military power 2. Nations increased size of military3. Nations increase weapons production4. New technology = better and deadlier weapons
65Reason #2: Alliances 1. War looked inevitable 2. Nations started forming alliances: a group of countries who are friendly and make deals to help protect each otherExamples:Germany allied with Austria-Hungary and Italy (Triple Alliance) Later: These countries known as the “Central Powers”France allied with Russia and Great Britain (Triple Entente) Later: These countries known as “The Allies”many other agreements made“An attack on one is an attack on all.”
67Reason #3 Imperialism ***An attempt to create an empire 1. Countries competed for lands and raw materials2. This competition led to conflicts
68Reason #4: NationalismNationalism: strong love of one’s country. This can lead to desperate actions, including fighting or war.1. Desire for Self-RuleA. Europe made of several empiresB. They were multinationalC. Each group wanted own identityExample: Austro-Hungarian Empire made up of Germans, Hungarians, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Serbs, Croatians, Jews, and Gypsies2. Rivalry Among NationsA. Pride = competition = rivalriesB. This led to violent relationships between countries
69War Breaks Out The Story of How the First World War Began A country in Europe called Bosnia was a part of Austria-Hungary. Bosnia did not like this. They wanted to be a part of Serbia instead. Things were getting very tense, so the Emperor of Austria-Hungary sent his nephew, Archduke Ferdinand, to Bosnia. He was to try to smooth things over with the the government of Bosnia.People in Bosnia did not like Archduke Ferdinand being there. One man named Gavrilo Princip decided to shoot Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie. Sophie died immediately and Ferdinand died shortly after.The Emperor of Austria-Hungary, Francis Joseph, then declared war on Serbia. World War I had begun.The assassination of Archduke Ferdinand led to the beginning of World War I.
71Countries Quickly Choose Sides Russia declared war on A-HGermany declared war against RussiaFrance declared war on GermanyGermany declared war FranceGreat Britain declared war on GermanyBy August 14, 1914, 7 European countries were at war. Before World War I was over, more than 20 countries had fought, including the U.S.
72OGT Multiple Choice _____ The first declaration of war involved A. Serbia declaring against BosniaB. Russia declaring against SerbiaC. Bosnia declaring against ItalyD. Austria-Hungary declaring against Serbia
73OGT Multiple Choice _____ World War I began with the asssassination of A. Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife, SophieB. Kaiser WilhelmC. Czar NicholasD. the King of Serbia
74OGT Multiple Choice_____ (Blue Book, 2005) At the start of World War I, all of the following were members of the Triple Entente exceptA. GermanyB. Great BritainC. FranceD. Russia
75OGT Multiple Choice(Practice Test Booklet 2005) One of the causes of World War I was the nations of Europe had aligned into two alliance systems. Which of the following combination of nations comprised of the Allies?A. France, Great Britain, and RussiaB. Germany, Great Britain, and RussiaC. Austria-Hungary, Germany, and ItalyD. Austria-Hungary, France, and Italy
76OGT Multiple Choice(Blue Book, 2005) Which factor guaranteed that a war between Britain and Germany would involve other nations?A. the system of entangling alliancesB. new war technologies such as poison gas and airplanesC. the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand in SarajevoD. the sinking of the Sussex
77OGT Extended ResponseList and describe 4 MAIN long-term causes of World War I.
78II. The United States and the War 1914-1917 A. Neutrality--not choosing sides1. The U.S. wanted peace2. Woodrow Wilson is President of the United States throughout World War Ia. declared U.S. neutrality immediatelyb. urged Americans to not take sidesc. this was not possible, not even for Wilson
79Reason #1 for US entry into WWI: Ties That Bind 1. U.S. was for Britaina. spoke Englishb. read English booksc. laws and customs are Englishd. born in Britain (or their parents)People in the United States started taking the sides of their ancestry.
80President Woodrow Wilson President Woodrow Wilson He favored neutrality at the onset of World War I
81Reason #2 for US entry into WWI: Propaganda Very influential manner of trying to make people support their groupBoth sides sides used propaganda to influence people in the U.S.***The British cut the communications cable from Germany to the U.S. All information came from Britain about the war.
84Reason #3 for US entry into WWI: Trade with the Allies 1. More and more we sided with Alliesa. Trade--. food--. weapons and ammo--. raw materials**Britain had a naval blockade of Germany. This made it difficult to trade with the Central Powers.b. Loans--. $2 billion--. No loan = no trade = depression*** (beginning of WWI)Trade with Allies: from $800 million to $3 billionTrade with Germany: $170 million to $1 million
85Reason #4 for US entry into WWI: Unrestricted Submarine Warfare by Germany Germany did not like the U.S. trading with the AlliesGermany announced they would use U-Boats (German submarines) to attack U.S. merchant ships heading to EnglandWilson warned Germany not to do thisGermany used the U-Boat anyway
861. Germany could not follow international law a. Germany had 27 subs (U-Boats)b. began to use the subs2. Feb. 4, 1915a. Germans declare waters around British Islea war zoneb. urged American ships not to go therec. urged Americans to not travel on Brit shipsd. Wilson didn’t listen--. told Germany they would be responsibleif any ships sunke. Now, Britain begins seizing ships everywhere--. this “gagged” Germany
88Reason #5 for US entry into WWI: Sinking of the Lusitania 1. May 7, 19152. Lusitania: British ship3. U-Boats sank itkilled, 100 Americans5. Later found it had war supplies on it6. American public outraged7. NO WAR YET! Wilson sent letters to Germany in protest
90Reason #6 for US entry into WWI: Arabic and Sussex Pledges 1. Wilson sends strong message to Germanya. U.S. will sail wherever it wantsb. neutrality laws2. Many in U.S. want wara. Teddy Roosevelt3. The Arabica. British shipb. sunk by U-Boatsc. 2 Americans killedd. Germany backed down--. they didn’t want war with us--. Arabic Pledge--would not sink any ships
914. The Sussexa. French shipb. sunk by the Germans March 1916c. May 31, Sussex Pledge--another promise by the Germans5. Germans wanted same rulesa. They killed with their U-Boatsb. British blockade starved Germans
92Reason #7 for US entry into WWI: The Zimmerman Note 1. wrote by German Arthur Zimmerman2. sent to Mexicoa. wants Mexico tohelp Germany by attackingthe U.S.b. this would keep us out of Europec. In return, Germany would help Mexico gainback Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico
95OGT Multiple ChoiceWhen World War I first broke out the United States stated they wereA. on the side of the AlliesB. on the side of the Central PowersC. neutral
96OGT Multiple ChoiceDuring the first 3 years of the war, United States tradeA. increased with the Central PowersB. decreased with the AlliesC. increased with the AlliesD. stayed the same with both sides
97OGT Multiple Choice(Practice Test Booklet, 2005) Which of the following is not an example of propaganda?A. A gov. poster to get people to enlist in the military during a warB. The listing of names, addresses, and telephone numbers in the telephone directoryC. An advertisement to convince consumers to buy a particular brand of shoesD. A candidate’s campaign slogan to help him or her get elected
98OGT Multiple ChoiceAmerica tended to favor the Allies because of all the following exceptA. language and cultural ties to Great BritainB. reports of German atrocities coming from EnglandC. the huge numbers of Irish and German immigrants in the United StatesD. the sinking of ships by the German U-Boats
99OGT Multiple Choice(Blue Book, 2005) The single most important factor in causing the entry of the U.S. into World War I wasA. Britain’s naval blockadeB. the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in SarajevoC. unrestricted submarine warfare by GermanyD. the sinking of the Sussex
100OGT Multiple ChoiceTwo ships that were sunk by the Germans and resulted in them sending pledges to not sink any more ships wereA. the Arabic and SussexB. the Maine and the ArabicC. the Maine and the SussexD. the Lusitania and the Andreodorea
101OGT Extended ResponseList and explain 4 reasons why the United States became involved in World War I.
102The U.S. Goes to WarApril 2, 19171. Wilson asks Congress for Declaration of War against Germany2. Wilson: “The world must be made safe for democracy.”3. Four days later, Congress votes:Senate: 82 to 6 in favorHouse: 373 to 50 in favor
103The Sides During World War I The AlliesGreat BritainFranceRussiaUnited StatesThe Central PowersGermanyAustria-Hungary*U.S. soldiers during WWI were called DOUGHBOYS.
105When U. S. entered, the Allies were in bad trouble When U.S. entered, the Allies were in bad trouble. Central Powers almost had the war won. Submarines had kept everything (food, money, men, ammo) out of the Allied countries.
106War on the Western Front A. Trench warfare: type of warfare used during WWI1. machine guns2. defensive war3. stationary war: No movementa. front lines changed little for over 3 years4. Conditionsa. front trenchesb. behind were supply trenches (5 miles)c. connected by tunnels and railways5. “trench fever” “trench foot” “trench mouth”--all caused by filth and fatigue6. isolation, dark, constant firing***This type of warfare led to a lot of casualties: death or injury during a war
108War on the Western Front (Cont) B. The “battle”1. A group from one trench charges over tothe enemy trench2. They fire their machine guns/weapons3. Try to open up a hole in the line4. This was tougha. barbed wireb. enemy machine gun
111Early Losses in the War A. 1914: 500,000 men killed from each side B : no advancement over 3 miles1. French still lost 1.5 millionC : French lost 1 million
112The American Expeditionary Force (AEF) A. The U.S. came in timeB. All other sides were tired and wearyC. August U.S. had 500,000 soldiers1. they pushed the Germans backD. End of Sept U.S. had 1.25 million soldiers1. Pushed Germans further back2. took over trenches the Germans had for 3 yrs3. cut the German supply lines4. French + British also pushing back GermansE. German mistake--they did not believe the U.S.would be this strong
113U.S.: lost only 50,000 men.Other countries lost millions. We came in late and took care of business.Nov. 11, 1918: armistice. This ended World War I.
114OGT Multiple ChoiceWorld War I was the bloodiest war in history because ofA. the lack of medical personnelB. the use of naval blockadesC. the development of new weapons such as the machine gunD. its length
115OGT Short Answer(Blue Book, 2005) Prior to the entry of the United States into World War I, two views prevailed. One favored preparedness, increasing our military strength to be ready for war. The other opposed military buildup and advocated pacifism. Pacifists argued that if the United States prepared for war, it was more likely to use the weapons that had been developed. Choose one of the points of view and write 2 reasons that explains your answer (2 points).
116The Home FrontDuring World War I the U.S. government told everybody what to do:1. how much and what they could eat2. what factories could make and buy
117Mobilization of Men and Women Mobilize: to get ready for warA. Selective Service Act--set up the draft.1. Passed: May, 19172. By end of war: 24 million drafted for different areas (army, Nat. Guard, etc)B. American factories1. began to make weapons/ammo/boots/clothes/food rations
118Mobilizing Money 1. Raised taxes 2. War Bonds A. War cost $2.3 billion to U.S.1. Raised taxes2. War Bonds
119The War Industries Board A. formed to make war time decisions at home 1. decide what goods should be produced
120The Labor Force A. Women had to work 1. mills and factories 2. assembly lines3. After war, they returned homeB. African-Americans from the South moved to North to work in factoriesC. There was a shortage of workers during warD. National War Labor Board1. settled labor disputes during war
123Mobilizing Minds A. Many didn’t want war 1. German Americans 2. Conscientious objectors3. Pacifists
124Germanaphobia 1. People hated Germans 2. No German foods or traditions practiced in the U.S. (Ex: sauerkraut now is liberty cabbage)3. German-Americans changed their names4. Spy scares5. Could be arrested for making unpatriotic remarks
125The Attack on Civil Liberties Illegal to speak against the war.
126OGT Multiple Choice During the war, the right of free speech A. became greaterB. became lessC. was unaffectedD. was respected by the United States government
127OGT Multiple Choice The Selective Service Act of 1917 provided for A. the draft of men between ages 21 and 31B. hiring substitutes to replace those not wishing to be draftedC. draft dodgers to be tried for treasonD. drafting of women for medical and clerical jobs
128OGT Multiple Choice_____(2005 Practice Test) Charles Schenck was found guilty of violating the 1917 Espionage Act by distributing leaflets through the mail urging men to resist induction under the military draft for World War I. On appeal, Schenck’s attorneys argued the distribution of the leaflets was protected by the 1st Amendment. The Supreme Court upheld his convictions. This case illustrates how individual rights can be balanced againstA. the rights of other individualsB. the security of the nation in a time of warC. The opportunities for people to enlist in the militaryD. the interest of the gov. in keeping courts open to provide justice
129OGT Extended ResponseDuring World War I, the United States government took away some rights of the people.List and explain two of these rights taken away during time of war.Is it right that the government took these rights away? Why or why not?