Presentation on theme: "Balance of Payments Where New Zealand's international transactions are summarised International transactions include the value of – Inflows and outflows."— Presentation transcript:
Balance of Payments Where New Zealand's international transactions are summarised International transactions include the value of – Inflows and outflows of money – Financial assets and liabilities
Balance of Payments Financial Account Capital Account Current Account
1 st part to the current account Balance on goods Measures relationship between nations exports and imports of GOODS. Calculated as Export receipts – Import Payments Exports of goods Export receipts Imports of Goods Import Payments
2 nd part to the current account Balance on services We sell our services overseas and we buy other services from overseas. They include tourism, insurance and transport. Calculated as services receipts – service payments Exports of services Export receipts Import payments Import of Services
3 rd part to Current Account Balance on Incomes New Zealand Producers invest money in overseas businesses in order to earn income, and overseas producers do the same in NZ. Net result of this = Balance on Incomes Calculated as Income from investments aboard – incomes paid to foreign investors e.g. Interest on savings loans and dividends on shares
4 th part to current account Balance on current transfers Nz makes payments to overseas governments in the form of international aid. E.g Aid to assist Fiji for devastating cyclone. Transfers also include pension payments received by the NZ government from overseas governments for their citizens that now live in NZ.
Current Account Balance on goods Balance On services Balance on income Balance on current ‘ transfers Value of exported goods minus value imported goods Usually positive Includes all tangible items that can be seen, moved or stored Value exported services minus value of imported services e.g. Transport, insurance, education etc. Tourists from overseas who spend money in NZ contribute to our exports of services Value of investment income received from investments overseas minus investment income paid to foreign investors e.g. Interest on savings loans and dividends on shares Value of transfers received by NZlanders minus value of transfers paid to others overseas. e.g. Money transfers from Govt aid, gifts etc
How to calculate Current Account Balance on Current Account = Balance on goods + Balance on services + Balance on Incomes + Balance on current transfers
Current account balance Positive balances indicate a surplus, negative balances are in deficit -The goods balance has gone from a surplus of $2.1 billion in 2001 to a deficit of $4.2 billion in Mainly driven from rising imports -- Service balance went from deficit to small surplus -- Investment income deficit increased to over 11billion in result of increasing income earned by foreign investors (high foreign investment)
ItemYear 1Year 2Year 3Year 4Year 5 Xg Mg Xs Ms Investment income Net transfers Calculate the current account balances for Ecotania 2.Describe how these events will affect the CA balance (a) Air NZ buys another plane from the US (b) There is an economic downturn in NZ’s main export markets (c) Profits of foreign-owned companies in NZ increase (d) NZlanders donate large sums to help with disaster relief overseas Ecotonia’s current account statistics, years 1 to 5
Capital Account Includes all transfers that involve the receipt or payment of capital transfers and the Acquisition and disposal of non-financial assets Think of capital in an accounting sense of transfers of money Non financial assets include: 1.Debt forgiveness 2.Migrant transfers Occur when people migrate from one country to another and transfer all their financial wealth to their new home country. (most significant part of the CA for NZ
Financial Account Capital Inflows Assets brought in NZ by overseas investors (Foreign investment) -NZ borrowing overseas Capital Outflows Assets brought overseas by NZ investors ( NZ Investment Abroad) -Debt repayment Capital Inflows- Capital Outflows If NZ sells more assets to foreigners than it buys from foreigners, there will then be a financial account surplus. Includes all transfers between NZ and rest of the world associated with change in ownership in international financial assets and liabilities.
Is set out using these categories Direct investment Investments that make up over 10% of the equity (ownership) in a company Portfolio investment Includes investments that make up under 10% of the equity (ownership) in a company Other capital investment All other investment flows (including overseas loans and deposits, overseas currency and trade credits) Reserve assets NZ’s official overseas reserves held by the Treasury and the RBNZ. The RBNZ hold foreign currency to allow it to intervene in the foreign currency market in the event of a currency crisis.. Financial Account
Current Account Balance Is consistently in deficit. NZ has experienced current account deficits since the 1970s. Due to too much domestic demand, a lack of domestic savings and an over-valued exchange rate This deficit has to be paid for in some way, from overseas borrowing, foreign investment or assets sales Which account do all these components appear in? Financial Account Balance Is consistently in surplus – Generally considered undesirable as these are liabilities that have to be paid in the future. Thus the current account balance will be the opposite of the financial account balance.
Balance of Payments (1)2009(1) Current Account Export receipts31,11431,58135,63638,72044,259 Import receipts33,34335,68538,46440,51545,594 Merchandise BALANCE(2,228)(4,104)(2,828)(1,796)(1,337) Services BALANCE1, (1,119) Investment income BALANCE(9,384)(11,065)(11,906)(13,343)(13,035) Transfers BALANCE Current account BALANCE(10,120)(14,504)(13,527)(14,128)(14,568) Deficit as % OF GDP(6.7)(9.0)(8.0)(7.8)(7.9) Financial Account (net) Foreign investment in NZ 13,87010,42123,37026,795(8,853) NZ investment abroad3,222(3,790)11,12012,500(16,122) Reserves(914)4,8506,7445,763(9,947) Financial account BALANCE10,64814,21112,25014,2957,269 Capital Account BALANCE OF Capital Account108(326)(457)(773)(579 New Zealand’s Balance of Payments dollars amounts in millions) Year ended 31 March