Presentation on theme: "Imperialism: Making of the European global order Chapter 24"— Presentation transcript:
1Imperialism: Making of the European global order Chapter 24 AP World History
2Big Picture Western European industrialization fundamentally altered the nature of European overseas expansion.In previous times, 3 Gs: Gold, God, & GlorySought desired material goods, in Americas seized lands for plantation crops.Countries in Europe were little interested in acquiring expensive/unstable distant possessions, but men on the spot were drawn into local struggles as they sought to advance or defend their interests.Christian missionaries sought converts. In competition with Islam.Industrialization brought new motives for expansion, including:Raw materials were needed to fuel industrial growthMarkets were required for its manufacturing productionChristian proselytizing continued, but private initiative replaced state directionIncreased power, fear of other imperial rivalries more than indigenous opposition.This pushed the Europeans into and occupied territories once closed to them by disease or local resistance.
3European Colonial Territories Before and After 1800
4The Shift to Land Empires in Asia The Dutch Advance on JavaEstablished Batavia 1619Initially paid tribute to sultan of Mataram1670s started to take part in political rivalry between claimants to the throne of MataramDutch used firearms & trained armyThese succession wars ended by with the domination of the whole island by the Dutch
5The Shift to Land Empires in Asia Stages of Dutch Expansion in Java
6The Shift to Land Empires in Asia Pivot of World Empire: The Rise of the British Rule in IndiaBritish East India CompanyGained power as the Mughal Empire diminishedSepoys used to fight warsSeploys were Indian troops trained in European-style fightingFive major wars were fought during the 18th century British assume power after defeat of the French, additionally:Battle of Plassey, 1757Robert Clive defeats Bengal rulerBritish control Bengal
7The Shift to Land Empires in Asia The Consolidation of British RuleMughal decline gives British opportunityPresidenciesCapitals: Madras, Bombay, CalcuttaDirectly ruled IndiaHowever, the rest of India was indirectly ruled Were controlled through agents at Indian rulers’ courtsBy the beginning of the 19th century, India was becoming Britain’s major colonial possession.Empire’s largest colonized population.Indians to served in British-led armies, powerful land forceIndian ports were vital to British sea power.Manufactured goods, overseas investment, and rawmaterials.
8The Shift to Land Empires in Asia The Growth of the British Empire in India, From the 1750s to 1858
9The Shift to Land Empires in Asia Early Colonial Society in India and JavaThe Europeans at first were content to leave Asian social systems intact.The previous rulers ended up performing most of the daily administrative tasks.They formed a new class on top of existing hierarchiesEuropean a dominant classEuropeans adopted themselves to indigenous culture in order to survive.local styles of dress, food, housing, work habits, and political symbols.Since most of the Europeans were men, they lived with and married indigenous women.
10The Shift to Land Empires in Asia Social Reform in the ColoniesRampant corruption among British East India Company officials (Nabobs) from the 1770s, which contributed to a disastrous famine in Bengal, forced reform.Accountable to British government1790s Indians excluded from administrationLord Charles Cornwallis Evangelical religion worked to…Social reform sought toEnd slave tradeEnd satiEnglish language was the key to reformThe reforms enacted were a turning point in global history.Essential components of Western culture were introduced into the Indian world.Attempt to reshape colonial society
11Industrial Rivalries and the Partition of the World, 1870-1914 Unequal CombatIndustrial Revolution increased Westernmilitary superiority over the rest of the world.Mass-produced weaponsMachine gun, rendered the massed charge suicidalRailroads, steam ships greater mobility.Africans and Asians still fought fiercely against the imperialistsFew won victories or long-delayed conquestsThe Zulu, defeated a British force at Isandhlwana in 1879Guerrilla tactics in Vietnam, prolonged, but did not defeatBy 1914, all of Africa but Ethiopia and Liberia had fallen to EuropeansIn southeast Asia, only Siam was independent.China, Persia, and the Middle East remained unoccupied, but strong informal European political and economic influence was present.Britain dominated overseas commerce and empire building during the first half of the 19th century; from then on, Britain was challenged by Belgium, France, Germany, and the United States.
12The Partition of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, to 1914
13Industrial Rivalries and the Partition of the World, 1870-1914
14Patterns of Dominance: Continuity and Change "Tropical dependencies"Africa, Asia, South PacificEuropeans rule indigenous peoplesSettler colonies (2 types)#1"White Dominions"Inhabitants mostly Europeans their descendantsindigenous peoples were few.Examples: Canada, Australia#2 “Contested Settler Colonies”Large numbers of EuropeansLarge indigenous numbersEuropean and indigenous peoples clashedcontrol of local resourcesquestions of social or cultural difference.Examples: South Africa, Algeria, New Zealand, Kenya, and Hawaii
15Patterns of Dominance: Continuity and Change Colonial Regimes and Social Hierarchies in the Tropical DependenciesCultural influenceExploited ethnic and cultural divisions --- ‘tribes’Minorities, especially Christians, were favored in colonial recruitingEnglish (western) language education (Java & India)Missionaries run schools (Africa)European racial prejudices blocked higher education for most Africans.Asians had more opportunities, but fear of such education denied graduates appropriate positions.Such policies greatly stunted the growth of a Western-oriented middle classChanging Social Relations Between Colonizers and the Colonized European communities growIncreasing segregationRelations with indigenous women were not favoredIdeas of white supremacyAfricans were put at the bottom of racial hierarchies, most non-white, if appeared non- civilized were put in a category of savages
16Patterns of Dominance: Continuity and Change Shifts in Methods of Economic ExtractionAttempted to introduce scientific agricultural techniquesProduce cheaper and more abundant raw materialsDrive to increase production, lower costsMany colonies reduced to dependencyRailways, roads built to serve extractionSettler Colonies in South Africa and the Pacific Relations variedDisease decimates in some casesSome native peoples WesternizedSome more resistantThe Afrikaners (Boers- mainly Dutch, German and French ancestry), and their native tongue is Afrikaans, a language closely related to Dutch.Formed two interior republics during the 1850s and remained independent untilDiscovery of diamonds (1867)Gold (1885)Boer wars ( ) & Afrikaner defeat in 1902
17Patterns of Dominance: Continuity and Change Pacific Tragedies demographic disaster and social disruptionNew Zealand1790s, first EuropeansAlcoholism, prostitution spreadMaoris adopt firearms1850s, changeBritish farmers, herders arriveMaoris pushed into interiorAdopt European cultureHawaii - James CookPrince KamehamehaWesternization1810, rules Hawaiian kingdomDisease devastates populationShift-exploited the economy by establishing a plantation sugar systemAsian workers American settlersPush for annexationWeak rulers pushed out1893, last ruler deposed (Queen Liliuokalani)1898, annexed by United States