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Chapter 14 In Pursuit of Democracy From Slavery to Freedom 9 th ed.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 In Pursuit of Democracy From Slavery to Freedom 9 th ed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14 In Pursuit of Democracy From Slavery to Freedom 9 th ed.

2 Answering the Call to Fight The Selective Service Act U.S. entered World War I in April 1917 Selective Service Act passed in May 1917 with no racial restrictions African Americans disproportionately represented in draft Fewer blacks received exemptions based on marriage, children Racism in armed forces undeniable Black men rejected for officer’s commissions © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2

3 Answering the Call to Fight The NAACP Responded to “whites-only” policy in the Army’s officer training camps Became part of organization’s civil rights agenda Pushed for establishment of black officers’ training camp Some critical of push for Jim Crow training camps Blacks eventually commissioned starting in Des Moines, Iowa, in October 1917 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3

4 Answering the Call to Fight Emmett J. Scott Appointed special assistant to Secretary of War; charged with giving advice on matters relating to African Americans in the war Urged equal and impartial application of the Selective Service Act Formulated plans to raise black soldiers’ morale © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4

5 Jim Crow Military Camps Locating Training Camps Training of black soldiers in domestic camps problematic because white communities did not want a large number of black men in their midst Rampant Discrimination Black troops faced discrimination from the Army and the civil agencies that served it Also faced hostility from white civilians © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5

6 Jim Crow Military Camps African Americans Fight Back Response to riot in Houston in August 1917 enraged African Americans and shook their faith in their government Black Fifteenth New York Infantry mistreated while in training in Spartanburg, South Carolina Prevented from retaliating; eventually sent to Europe, becoming the first contingent of African American troops to reach the Western Front © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6

7 Service Overseas The 369th African American troops among first combat forces to go overseas From July1918 on, the 369th saw almost continuous action against the enemy The 369th first and longest serving regiment assigned to support a foreign army Other African American Combat Units 370th, 371st, 372nd United States infantries all fought valiantly © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7

8 8 Black American “Buffalo” soldiers of the 367th infantry, 77th Division, in France

9 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9 Decoration of African American Soldiers

10 Service Overseas German Propaganda Leafleted black troops of the Ninety-Second Division urging them to desert U.S. Army, promising liberty, democracy, equality Slander Campaigns Black troops severely criticized if suffered defeat Became brunt of slander campaigns Cultural Experiences Most combat units had their own band © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10

11 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11 Lt. James Reese Europe

12 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12 Women’s war work

13 Service Overseas YMCA and YWCA in France provided services for black soldiers’ comfort Had better opportunities to move about and socialize in France than in the U.S. Coming Home Some whites worried that habits developed in France would be detrimental to interracial stability when black troops returned home All troops enthusiastically received upon return © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13

14 Service Overseas Wilson’s Contradictory Positions No African colony, including Germany’s colonies, received independence after war Wilson criticized by Du Bois “Has the world forgotten Congo?” In light of continued colonialism, peace rhetoric angered many African American leaders Encounter of African Americans, Caribbeans, and Africans during war fostered dialogue of common oppression and racial destiny Pan African Congress held in February 1919 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14

15 On the Home Front African Americans Support the War Blacks joined domestic war effort War bonds; production and conservation of food Curtailing Civil Liberties Patriotic fervor led to curtailment of civil liberties and stifling of dissent Silencing Dissent Racism conflated with nationalistic zeal and wartime intolerance Black protest believed to be work of outside saboteurs © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15

16 On the Home Front Many hesitated to articulate nonconformist ideas Those who opposed war came under attack At same time, black press came into its own Encouraged blacks to move to industrial centers to find work; protested racist incidents; led fight for integration Black Exodus Thousands of African Americans moved from South into northern cities Both economic reasons and social considerations played role in exodus © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16

17 On the Home Front New Opportunities Migration gave blacks new opportunities in industrial employment The National Urban League Helped newly arrived blacks adjust to life in northern industrial cities Employment in Industry African Americans organized several unions In 1917, AFL encouraged workers of all colors to present a common front to industry © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17

18 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18 New Jobs for Women

19 On the Home Front Riots and Lynchings Outbreaks of racial injustice damaged morale that was briefly buoyed by stories of black wartime valor Fifty-eight African Americans lost their lives to lynchings in 1918 Racial clashes in both North and South continued © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 19


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