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1World History Period 1 xxSin7xx Chapter 16: Europe Expands Overseas. Section 1: Conquests in the AmericasWorld HistoryPeriod 1xxSin7xx
2A. The Voyages of Columbus The four voyages of Christopher Columbus were the start of the colonization of the Americas.
3A. The Voyages of Columbus A Route WestColumbus wanted to discover new routes to the riches of Asia.King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain paid for Columbus’s voyage.Columbus’s plan had two flaws:1.The Earth was smaller then Columbus said.2.He thought the earth had more land than water.
4A. The Voyages of Columbus The First JourneyThe fleet set out August 3,1492 and stopped on the Canary Islands.Columbus set sail on September 6.There were about 90 crew members altogether.The crew included 3 doctors, a translator, a secretary, an accountant, and servants.
5A. The Voyages of Columbus Finding New LandOn October 12, the crew spotted land in the group of islands called the West Indies.They went and took people from the island back to Spain.They made 3 more voyages during the next 10 years.
6A. Voyages of Columbus Impact of Columbus’s voyages Columbus’ search for the new sea route to Asia, led to contact between Europe and the Americas.More than 40 million natives lived on the land before Columbus.The Americans had an illness which the crew and most of Europe caught.
7B. Other European Explorers. Many explorers followed Columbus west across the Atlantic ocean.
8B. Other European Explorers. Cabral Sails for PortugalIn 1500, Pedro Alvarez Cabral, sailed southwest across the Atlantic.He sighted land on April 22,which he called the Island of the True Cross.The Island became a possession of Portugal.
9B. Other European Explorers. America’s NamesakeAmerigo Vespucci, an Italian navigator made two voyages to the America’s.Vespucci’s second expedition was financed by Portugal.His second voyage was important because he found a “New world”.Found land that no one thought was out there.Islands
10B. Other European Explorers. Discovery of the Pacific.In 1513,Balboa followed straits across the Isthmus of Panama.He climbed a mountain and became the first European to sight the Pacific.His exploration party found gold and pearls along the coast.
11C. Around the World.Expeditions led by Ferdinand Magellan were the first to sail around the world.
12C. Around the World. Magellan’s Journey Magellan set off from Spain on September 20,1519, with 5 ships and a crew of about 250.On October 21,1520,the fleet entered the eastern end of a dangerous 350 mille strait.On September 6,1522,the Victoria, the surviving ship, leaking, but filled with spices, returned to Spain.
13C. Around the World. The Growth of Mercantilism European nations practiced an economic theory called mercantilism.Governments tried to increase national wealth by selling more goods to other countries.Europeans thought they could grow richer at the expense of another country.
14Strait-A narrow passage of water connecting two large bodies of water.
15Chapter 16 section 2 Europe Expands Overseas HistoryChapter 16 section 2 Europe Expands Overseas
16A. Spain’s Vast EmpireSpain had the world’s largest overseas landholdings during the 1500’s as it began expanding.Expeditions wanted to make contact with the Maya civilizations, when they overheard stories about the immense wealth of the great empires.The Spaniards learned a lot about the riches of the Aztec Empire and others.
17A. Spain’s Vast Empire Cortes Invades Mexico In February 1519, a Spanish conquistador, Hernan Cortes went to present-day Mexico, with 11 ships, 508 soldiers, 100 sailors, and 16 horses.Cortes started connections with many ethnic groups.More than 200,000 natives became his allies.
18A. Spain’s Vast EmpireMoctezuma’s FallMoctezuma wanted to keep Cortes away because they believed he was a god that would rule their land one day.Cortes returned and took the emperor captive and he was later killed during a battle against the Aztecs.By 1521,the Aztec Empire had fallen and Spain’s territory was extended from the Caribbean Sea to the Pacific Ocean.
19A. Spain’ Vast EmpirePizarro and the IncasIn 1531, Francisco Pizarro had set off to present-day Peru and the Incan emperor agreed to meet with him.When Pizarro arrived, he offered an option to the people to accept Christianity and be ruled over by the king of Spain.The emperor refused his offer and Pizarro imprisoned him.As soon as the Incan armies heard of their leader’s death, they retreated and the Incan empire finally collapsed.
20B. Governing Spain’s empire Besides Spain’s conquest of native people, there was an ongoing resistance by Native Americans to the European invaders.Native Americans had fought to protect their religion and resisted conversion to Christianity.Incan revolts erupted in Peru after the death of their emperor.
21B. Governing Spain’s empire Government and the EconomyIn 1524,the Spanish monarchy created the Council of Indies.Viceroys were the principal governors of the American colonies and were divided into provinces.They collected royal taxes, nominated colonial officials, enforced laws, protected the Native Americans , oversaw their conversion to Christianity , and granted their encomiendas( system which a colonist was granted land with its Indian inhabitants).
22B. Governing Spain’s Empire The Colombian ExchangeWhen Columbus had brought back plants and animals that were unknown to Europe and took European plants and animals to the Americas, it was called the Columbian Exchange.Ferdinand and Isabella hope to use the wealth from the Americas as an advantage.His first voyage was in 1492.
23B. Governing Spain’s Empire The Role of MissionariesSpain and most of Europe benefited from the new products and ideas acquired through the Columbian Exchange, but Spain’s Christian missionaries wanted more from the Americas.Missionaries were sent to the Americas establishing churches in which natives were instructed in the Catholic faith and taught a variety of trades.One of the missionaries felt the encomienda system was wrong and later wrote a book about it to make the king of Spain understand that the system needed to be changed.
24C. Spain’s Influence on Colonial Society Spain controlled a vast empire because of all the many conquests and land claims in Americas.Spain sought to impose its traditions and way of life on the people of the Americas by establishing its towns and cities throughout its colonies.They also wanted to blend their culture with the culture of the indigenous populations.
25C. Spain’s Influence on Colonial Society Colonial CitiesMany of the Spanish settlers in the Americas preferred to live in the cities and they grew very quickly.To the Spaniards, colonial cities were centers of the government, religious life, culture, and trade.People who live closer to the main square had higher social status.
26C. Spain’s Influence and Colonial Society Colonial CultureColonial culture was a mixture of Spanish, Native American, and African traditions.The blended culture was reflected in styles for art and architecture, methods of farming, religion and even cooking.The Peninsulares (people born in Spain) had the most power and the ones with the least were Africans and Native Americans.
27D. The Portuguese Colony of Brazil Portugal’s Expansion in BrazilThe Treaty of Tordesillas divided specific areas of the Americas that Spain and Portugal could claim.
28D. The Portuguese Colony of Brazil Portugal’s Expansion in BrazilAs Portuguese continued to settle in to Brazil, it began to grow very slowly.As time passed, settlers started to move into Brazil’s interior to establish farms and plantations.Producing sugar cane was Brazil’s most popular product, but was later replaced by gold when discovered in the 1600’s.
29D. Portugal’s Expansion in Brazil Portuguese Society and CultureEuropean culture dominated class and race divisions in Brazilian society as it did in Spain’s colonies.
30Cherry Blossom World History Period 1 Chapter 16: Europe Expands Overseas Section 3: Dutch, French, & English ColoniesCherry BlossomWorld HistoryPeriod 1
31A. The Dutch Colonies Main Idea: Dutch colonies appeared in the Caribbean, South America, and North America.
32A. The Dutch Colonies Dutch Interest: The Dutch people who lived in the Netherlands had became Europe's strongest naval power.The Dutch had sailed the world’s oceans waging war against Spain and Portugal.The Dutch really wanted to take over Portugal's hold on world commerce.
33A. The Dutch Colonies The Dutch in North America: In 1600’s an English Explorer named Henry Hudson was hired by the Dutch to find a water route through North America to Asia.The Dutch had built trading posts in the area and by 1624, the Dutch had established a colony and named it the New Netherlands.The colony was more interested in profit than religion. This opened the colony to different religions so it attracted more people.Also, Robert Cavelier, known as Sieur de la Salle, sailed down the Mississippi River and claimed the entire river basin of France.
34B. French Settlements in America Main Idea:New France, established by French explorers, attracted fur traders, merchants, and missionaries.
35B. French settlements in the Americas Colonizing New France:In 1663 New France became a province, French troops arrived two years later to protect settlers against the Iroquois.Missionaries had to work their way, west, hoping they could convert Native Americans to Christianity, but the Native Americans rejected their efforts.The French government had a lot of trouble attracting colonist to New France.Some people came but most of them were young men who moved west to become fur trappers.
36B. French Settlements in the Americas French West Indies:French settlements in the Caribbean began in 1625.France possessed 14 islands. Guadalupe and Martinique were its main holdings, and then came Haiti.In 1642 slaves came from Africa to work in the large plantations.Hired workers from France and enslaved Africans occupied the lowest position of the West Indian society.B. French Settlements in the Americas
37C. The English in the North America Main Idea:England established 13 colonies in North America during the 1600’s and 1700’s.
38C. The English in the North America Early English Colonies:In 1607, Jamestown was founded. Jamestown, Virginia was the site of the first successful English colony in North America.Jamestown was named after King James who had faced problems from the beginning. Many settlers died because they lived in swampy infested areas.Plymouth colony, founded in 1620,was the home to a group of people called the Pilgrims.William Bradford helped write the Mayflower Compact, an agreement of cooperation that was to become the foundation of the Plymouth government.
39C. The English in the North America Thirteen Colonies:Thirteen colonies were established in North America.All 13 colonies were agricultural (the production of crops, livestock, and poultry) but geographic conditions fostered different ways of life.Farming in the North was difficult due to the poor soil. Middle Atlantic farms were larger and more diverse, and Southerners used enslaved Africans to grow rice.
40D. Native Americans Main Idea: European colonizers had a huge impact on the Native American way of life.
41D. Native Americans Sharing Land: European nations followed different policies toward native North Americans, according to each country’s aims.They were very tolerant of each other, and they didn’t have a strong interest in converting Native Americans to their religion Protestantism.English settlers who colonized Plymouth lived in peace with local Native Americans for many decades.
42D. Native Americans King Phillip’s War: As more colonists arrived, the demand for land grew, so the colonies spread west taking more and more land from the Native Americans.As a result, more conflicts arose between the groups. Native Americans were concerned about losing their freedom and way of life.Native Americans raided the frontier. The colonist fought back, attacking their villages.
43E. The Commercial Revolution Main Idea:Expanding markets changed the economy of Europe forever.
44E. The Commercial Revolution Rising prices:As increasing amounts of Spanish gold and silver arrived in other countries, prices for goods rose quickly in those countries too. This sharp increase in the price of goods is called inflation.The silver and gold left Spain when Spaniards purchased these cheaper foreign goods. Then the Spanish war caused even more money to leave SpainGold and silver that left from Americas came to Spain causing an increase prices of goods.E. The Commercial Revolution
45E. The Commercial Revolution Overseas Investments:Overseas trade as well as the expansion(the state or quality of expanding) of European empires in the Americas led to the growth of capitalism, the investment of money for profit.Many of European investors heard great stories of great wealth in America. They invested their money in overseas companies & business enterprises.Their was one type of company called, joint-stock company, where the cost and profits are shared by many investors were they really didn’t have a risk of losing money.E. The Commercial RevolutionInvestment:The investing of money or capital in order to gain profitable returns, as interest, income, or appreciation in value
46IroquoisA member of a North American Indian confederacy, the Five Nations, comprising the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayuga's, and Seneca's, and later the Tuscarora's.
47InflationThe rate at which the general level of prices for goods and services is rising, and, subsequently, purchasing power is falling.
48✮∃zQ∩!v∃l ✮ World History Chapter 16: Europe expands over seas. Section 4: Africa and the Atlantic slave trade.✮∃zQ∩!v∃l ✮World History
49A. European exploration in Africa Slavery in AfricaSlavery existed in Africa as early as 1000.Many African societies considered slavery a form of punishment for criminals and prisoners.The children of slaves were automatically born slavery was not hereditary.
50A. European exploration in Africa The Portuguese in AfricaPortuguese sailors began exploring the western coast of AfricaThere were looking for a route to India and the rest of Asia.These slaves were sold to Portuguese by Africa rules.
51B. The Atlantic slave trade Plantation laborersAfrican slavery labor attracted the attention first of Spain and then of other European nations.These countries saw that Portuguese used enslaved people to work their plantations off the African coast.By the 1520’s, small numbers of slaves had been sent from Africa to the Caribbean.
52B. The Atlantic slave trade Competing for TradeBy 1640, the Dutch were the main supplier of enslaved Africans to the Spanish plantations in the Caribbean.England and France began to establish colonies on the smaller Caribbean islandsLike Spain, they wanted a cheap source of labor for their plantations.
53B. The Atlantic slave trade The Demand of Slaves IncreaseThe demand for Africa slaves led to more commercial activity along Africa’s Gold Coast.By the late 1600’s, a well-developed network for buying and selling slaves existed in Africa’s inland regions as well as on its western Gold Coast.About 10
54C. Triangle trade routes Journey to AmericaThe slave trade from west Africa was one part of a system known as triangle trade.On the first leg of this triangle, European ships carried manufacturer goods such as guns and cotton cloth to Africa's west coast.The last leg of this route included carrying rum, tobacco, and cotton from the plantations.
55C. Triangle trade routes the middle passageThe estimates for the number of slaves arriving in the Americas do not account for the number of slaves.The middle passage in which hundreds of enslaved men, women, and children were packed onto one ship in a single voyage.One enslaved African, oluadah equiano described the conditions below deck
56C. Triangle trade routes Impact of the slave trade on western Africa.Population statistics for western Africa can only be estimated during the period from the 1400’s to the 1800’s.The population from this part of Africa may been 25 million.Plantations owners in the Americas were primarily interested in strong, healthy males as slaves because of the hard work required of them.