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Roman Republic 3 (110s to 90sBC) Caius Gracchus 154-121BC.

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Presentation on theme: "Roman Republic 3 (110s to 90sBC) Caius Gracchus 154-121BC."— Presentation transcript:

1 Roman Republic 3 (110s to 90sBC) Caius Gracchus 154-121BC

2 CAIUS SEMPRONIUS GRACCHUS –The expansion of Rome had great social dangers for the Republic New wealth –mainly captured by upper class who enlarged land holdings in Italy from small farmers. New slaves –1s of thousands from conquered nations took work opportunities from plebs. Army recruitment –became serious problem as fewer citizens had land to qualification. –Caius, younger Brother of Tiberius Caius, a gifted orator despised Senate for Tiberius’ murder –Born 154BC, 14 yrs after Tiberius, Cornelia raised, clients expectations, Paterfamilias at age of 21 –Began career like T, serving under br-in-law (Scipio Aemelianus) in Numantia, Spain) Rebooted Tiberius’s agrarian reforms (there was already over 75,000 farms parcelled out by the lex sempronia agraria), added more populist causes, but fell by seeking a 3 rd term as Trib of the Plebs –Caius GRACCHUS 1 st tribunate (123BC) passed “pay-back” laws Broke tradition by leaving his military post as a quaestor in Sardinia, and seeking office in Rome –Had been kept away by senate 1) no one deposed from office by the plebs could hold further office –Against Octavius, deposed by brother Tiberius –He wanted to ensure that ignoring popular will would be political suicide 2) Only the plebian council could impose capital punishment –Law against the judges of Tiberius supporters after his death –retroactive 3) put low cap on price of corn –Which was skyrocketing due to locust plague in Africa –To help the poor, or to ensure their later support –Wealthy hated him, plebs love him for it. 4) Equite trials to have pleb (not senate) juries. –Senate were protecting equites in tax abuse trials – buying their future support 5) established colonia providing more public land –for inclusion as public land for urban poor 6) rebooted T’s agrarian commission, limited time soldiers had to serve, provided them equipment etc

3 CAIUS SEMPRONIUS GRACCHUS –The Roman citizenship for the Allies and Equite (knights) politics Non-Roman Italians agitating for Citizenship –as Rome’s allies, they fought for Rome but didn’t get a share of the spoils of wars they fought in). wealthy equites (equestrian) with lucrative taxation contracts in colonies & provinces fleecing them –by collecting the tax PLUS their profit. (while citizens paid no tax) –Caius GRACCHUS 2 nd tribunate (122BC) – he was reelected by default Proposed that allies should be given Roman or latin citizenship. –Senate feared he;d win 1000’s of clients (POWER) another tribune undercut Caius’ pleb support by giving even more to the plebs (e.g. FREE corn) –His influence was lost and his reforms threatened with repeal Decided needed another (3 rd ) term to stop his enemies overturning his reforms Lost his attempt for a 3 rd tribunate –Bribes etc against him, fraud. –New tribunes set about overturning his reforms he launched demonstrations against the new tribs, and a slave of the Consul was killed –Optimates brought charges of treason against him as a result 1 st “Senate ultimate decree” 121BC –Senatus Consultum Ultimum – used in place of the disused office of dictator used as an excuse to massacre 3000 of his supporters Cornered, he had his slave kill him. –First use of the senates ‘ultimate decree’ to attack and destroy political opposition –Apparent OPTIMATE victory, but The Gracchian reforms could not be undone –Too well entrenched now Only the issue of Italian citizenship failed… till 30yrs and a 3 yr war later. –The Lessons of the Grachii?? The power of Mob violence as a political instrument – a feature of the next 100 years –Ex 10c pg 268

4 Roman Republic 3 (110s to 90sBC) Gaius Marius 157-86BC

5 CAIUS MARIUS (157-86BC) Problems of land and army recruitment remained –Land running out for redistribution to retiring soldiers so recruitment a BIG problem 111BC War in Numidia (North Africa) started –Against Jugurtha, nephew of previous king who’d killed his cousins (Rome’s choice) –upset equestrian commercial plans –Marius was a lieutenant of the ineffective commander of the war. Marius – v wealthy Italian businessman with political ambition –A “new man” (novus homo) – outsider (no consuls in his ancestry) began military career under Scipio Aemelianus in Numantia, Spain – like the Gracchi Military tribune at age of 23, –Elected Tribune of the plebians at age of 37, later Praetor, –but couldn’t advance in politics without aristocratic connections so married into the Julii Caesari A VERY noble family but without funds to buy office. married Julius Caesar’s Aunt giving the Julii a wealthy patron and himself noble connections Elected Consul for 107BC (at 50 yrs old) –Campaigning on platform - as the war was stuck, he’d bring it to a rapid victory. Asked to raise his own army for the job Needed to ease recruitment rules to do so, and was given permission Reformed army by recruiting from urban poor (proletarii also called the ‘head-count’) –promised land on retirement (which general would have to get from the senate) –Break with tradition of only landed citizens being recruited Poor citizens became career soldiers –Meant army’s allegiance was to the general (not the state/senate) –Generals had to persuade senate for the land allocation. –Rome’s 1 st PROFESSIONAL army. In 104BC king Jugurtha was captured Thanks to his young officer L C Sulla (peeved at not getting any credit for it) –Marius awarded a “triumph”

6 CAIUS MARIUS (157-86BC) In 109BC (while Marius was fighting Jugurtha in Africa), –the co-consul had legions struggling with Cimbri barbarians in North Italy –In 107 the Teutones joined in. –Romans crushed The commander Caepio (Patrician) refused to help the army led by Maleus, the consul for 105BC (a novus homo). 80000+ casualities –Popular opinion demanded Marius take control as consul until they were defeated 104-100 BC he fought against Germanic tribes –Teutones and Cimbri –getting re-elected as consul 5 more times Despite it being illegal to have consecutive consulships –Recruited from the poor headcount No property quals –Reorganised the way the legions fought in cohorts of stronger, more responsive, more flexible units abandoned 200yrs of tactics (Shows his self confidence that he’d abandon tactics that had conquered most of the known world) Recycling fresh troops in the front rank every few minutes Professional Troops could be asked to carry their own kit (ditch the enormous camp followers) Trained them to walk over italy with 70lb (32kg) packs. MARIUS”S MULES – unmatched fitness Made the army a career (eg promoted from within, generous retirements) made him v popular with his armies, & unpopular with nobility –Till 102BC the Gauls largely avoided Marius So he wanted more consulships in order to get the credit of his army-reforms –In 102 BC they finally decided to invade Italy, but divided into 2 fronts and were defeated by 101BC As it squandered their numeric advantage. –he got his 2 nd Triumph, and awarded a 6 th consulship in 100BC but was losing his popularity. 100BC Saturninus affair led to Marius using ‘his’ army in Rome for political ends –got the Tribune, Saturninus, to push a law through the Plebs assembly for land for his army –Saturninus over-reached & had a rival consul candidate murdered in the forum –Marius backed a senatus consultum ultimatum against Saturninus’ mob with his army –He had a 7 th consulship 10 yrs later but was largely finished politically after 100BC. BAD PRECEDENTS: 1) general’s armies 2) use of Army in Rome as political tool

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