Presentation on theme: "Lesson 29 Juristic rules. Comprehensive Juristic Rules The General Objectives of Shari`ah are to realize the interests of people: necessities, needs,"— Presentation transcript:
Lesson 29 Juristic rules
Comprehensive Juristic Rules The General Objectives of Shari`ah are to realize the interests of people: necessities, needs, and welfare.
Necessities: Necessities are the essentials of human life in order to preserve: -faith, -life, -intellect, -property, -honor.
Needs: Needs are what people need to avoid drudgery, and be able to tolerate the hardships of commitments, responsibilities, and the burdens of life.
Welfare: Welfare refers to those aspects that lead to the improvement of the living conditions, appearances of people, and their social relations.
In legislation, these goals follow an order of precedence, i.e. necessity, needs, and lastly welfare.
When examining the issue of necessities, several rules should be taken into account: a) Harm should be eliminated in a legal manner.
b) Harm should not be eliminated by another harm.
c) Individual harm should be tolerated to ward off a public harm.
d) Lesser harm can be tolerated to avoid a more severe one.
e) Repelling harm has precedence over bringing benefits.
f) Necessity knows no laws.
g) Necessity is weighed with its own standard.
Rulings for lifting restrictions in pursuing needs: a) Hardships justify simplification as exemplified by the allowances ordained by Allah, the Almighty, in cases of: travel, illness, compulsion, forgetfulness, ignorance, prevalence of trials, tribulations, and insufficiency.
b) Legislation should lift restriction.
c) Needs are treated like necessities in permitting (some) prohibited things.
The deeds of competent persons: The deeds of competent persons are either: Allah's Right, people's right, a right of both.
Allah's Right is embodied in: acts of worship, Zakah (the poor's due) and other financial obligations, punishments for adultery, larceny and robbery, depriving the killer from inheritance and expiations.
The competent person's right is related to his financial rights over others
What combines the two rights (that of Allah and that of people) are the punishment for slandering a woman with adultery and retaliation for killing.
Ijtihad (independent reasoning) There is no room for Ijtihad (independent reasoning based on religious sources) for what has been ruled by a clear-cut text.
The Mujtahid (qualified scholar) must be: -well-informed in the Arabic language, -knowledgeable of the sciences of the Qur’an, -efficient in the sciences of the Sunnah, and -expert in deducing analogical rulings.
Repealing The gradation of legislation during the Prophet's life-time required the partial or total repeal of some rulings, but after his death (peace be upon him) no repealing of a ruling in Qur’an or Sunnah is accepted.
A ruling text can not be repealed except with another equal or stronger text. The strongest of all is the Qur’an and the Sunnah, Mutawatir, then the Sunnah which is not Mutawatir, and finally analogy.
Evidence from Qur ’ an and Sunnah
The aims of Islamic Legislation: Preserving Faith: Allah says: ﴿وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّى لاَ تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ وَيَكُونَ الدِّينُ للهِ فَإِنِ انتَهَوْا فَلا عُدْوَانَ إِلاَّ عَلَى الظَّالِمِين﴾ [ البقرة : 193]
This means: “And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and worshipping of others along with Allah) and (all and every kind of) worship is for Allah (Alone). But if they cease, let there be no transgression except against Azh-Zhalimun (the polytheists, and wrong-doers).” (Al-Baqarah: 193)
This means: “If you (Muslims of the whole world collectively) do not do so, there will be Fitnah (wars, battles, polytheism, etc.) and oppression on earth, and a great mischief and corruption (appearance of polytheism).” (Al-Anfal: 73)
Preserving the lives of the people: Allah says: ﴿ وَلاَ تَقْتـُلُوا النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللهُ إِلاَّ بِالْحَقِّ ﴾ [ الأنعام : 151]
This means: “And kill not anyone whom Allah has forbidden, except for a just cause (according to Islamic law).” (Al-An`am: 151)
This means: “O you who believe! Intoxicants (all kinds of alcoholic drinks), gambling, AlAnsab, and AlAzlam (arrows for seeking luck or decision) are an abomination of Shaytan's (Satan) handiwork.
So avoid (strictly all) that (abomination) in order that you may be successful.
Shaytan (Satan) wants only to excite enmity and hatred between you with intoxicants (alcoholic drinks) and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah and from As-Salat (the prayer). So, will you not then abstain?” (Al-Ma’idah: )
This means: “And eat up not one another's property unjustly (in any illegal way e.g. stealing, robbing, deceiving, etc.), nor give bribery to the rulers (judges before presenting your cases) that you may knowingly eat up a part of the property of others sinfully.” (Al-Baqarah: 188)
And says: ﴿ وَلاَ تُؤْتُوا السُّفَهَاءَ أَمْواَلَكُمُ الَّتِى جَعَلَ اللهُ لَكُمْ قِيَامًا ﴾ [ النساء : 5]
This means: “And give not unto the foolish your property which Allah has made a means of support for you.” (An-Nisa’: 5)
This means: “O you who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly except it be a trade amongst you, by mutual consent. And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allah is Most Merciful to you.” (An-Nisa’: 29)
This means: “And give unto orphans their property and do not exchange (your) bad things for (their) good ones; and devour not their substance (by adding it) to your substance. Surely, this is a great sin.” (An-Nisa’: 2)
The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), during the Farewell Pilgrimage, said: “Verily your blood and property are as sacred and inviolable as the sanctity of this day of yours, in this month of yours, and in this city of yours. Behold! Have I conveyed this message to you?”
Preserving the honor of the people: Allah says: إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُحِبُّونَ أَن تَشِيعَ الْفَاحِشَةُ فِي الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيم فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالآخِرَةِ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنتُمْ لا تَعْلَمُونَ [ النور : 19]
This means: “Verily, those who like that (the crime of) illegal sexual intercourse should be propagated among those who believe, they will have a painful torment in this world and in the Hereafter. And Allah knows and you know not.” (24, An-Nur: 19)
1.This means: “Verily, those who accuse chaste women, who never even think of anything touching their chastity and are good believers, are cursed in this life and in the Hereafter, and for them will be a great torment.” (24, An-Nur: 23)
This means: “He has chosen you (to convey His Message of Islamic Monotheism to mankind by inviting them to His religion, Islam), and has not laid upon you in religion any restriction.” (22, Al-Hajj: 78)