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-F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby

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1 -F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby
The Roaring Twenties “The restlessness approached hysteria. The parties were bigger. The pace was faster, the shows were broader, the buildings were higher, the morals were looser, the liquor was cheaper.” -F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby

2 A Booming Economy Factories more productive
Henry Ford, automobile industry Brought mass production to new heights Put cars on moving assembly lines Manufacture time went from 12 hours to 90 minutes Made Model T more affordable Ford also increased wages, gave weekends off, shorter work days

3 Automobile Changes America
Stimulated growth in relevant industries Road construction boomed U.S. highway system Helped establish service stations, diners, motels, etc. Altered residential patterns Move farther away from city/work Family road trips

4 Consumer Revolution New, affordable goods become available to the public Advertising agencies hired psychologists to help appeal to the desires of the consumer Buy on credit or installment payments More Americans put money in stocks Bull market: period of rising stock prices Many ignore financial risks

5 Cities, Suburbs, and THE Country
Immigrants, farmers, minorities head to cities Skyscraper technology; cities built “up” Mass transportation/cars = growth of suburbs Drained cities of many upper- and middle-class residents Farming income declined Did not participate in/couldn’t afford consumerism Growing debt, falling farm prices

6 Politics of the twenties
Warren Harding and Calvin Coolidge Return to normalcy, conservatism, support business Harding’s Administration Raise protective tariff, encourage American producers European response? Reduce government regulation on business Laissez-faire: absence of government control over private business Spending reduced from $18 bil to $3 bil

7 POLITICS OF THE TWENTIES
Harding: nice guy, not too bright Trusted others to make decisions Ohio Gang: close friends of Harding Ex: practiced graft, accepted money from criminals Teapot Dome Scandal Sec. of the Interior Albert Fall arranged to transfer oil reserves from Navy to Interior Dept. Leased properties to private oilmen for bribes Harding died before scandal was made public Tarnished his legacy, burden inherited by Coolidge

8 POLITICS IN THE TWENTIES
Calvin “Silent Cal” Coolidge “The chief business of the American people is business” To add to your notes: Chapter 20, Section 3 , Questions 1-4 (pg. 633)

9 #5: Look at this political cartoon
#5: Look at this political cartoon. What does it criticize about Coolidge’s presidency? How can you tell?

10 Social and Cultural Tensions
Americans split between urban/rural Urban: consumerism, leisure, open to social change and science Education: mental ability, high levels of math and language Modernism: prefer science/secular values over religious ideas Rural: traditional view of science/religion, no consumerism/leisure Education: three “Rs”: “readin’, ‘ritin’, ‘rithmetic” Need to focus on farm work

11 Religion Many Christians thought Christianity was under attack
Fundamentalists: those who reaffirm the basic truths of their religion; Bible = literal truth Scopes Trial: Tennessee passed law making it illegal to teach evolution John Scopes arrested for teaching it in his class Lawyers Clarence Darrow vs. William Jennings Bryan Scopes found guilty: pay $100 fine

12 Immigration Nativists: people who were anti- immigrant
Said immigrants took jobs and threatened American cultural traditions Red Scare added to nativists’ argument Fear of the spread of communism, socialism Quota systems, literacy tests, exclusion for many Asians Rise in Mexican immigrants Major contributions but still discriminated

13 Crime Revival of the Ku Klux Klan in rural America
Targeted minorities and immigrants At its height: 4-5 million members Boycotted businesses, terrorized citizens Prohibition: passed in 1919 Pros: improved individuals, families, societies; less alcohol-related disease Cons: did not deter drinking, increased crime Homemade alcohol smuggled by bootleggers Organized crime to meet demand for alcohol Al Capone: gangster who also took part in prostitution, drugs, robbery, murder Repeal in 1933

14 A New Mass Culture Changing technology and economy allowed for more leisure time Motion pictures provide new form of entertainment Silent movies: cheaper to attend, don’t need to know English Stars like Charlie Chaplin Eventually movies with synchronized sound (“talkies”) Radio and phonograph became popular Spread music, radio broadcasts, news reports across the country

15 A new mass culture Newspapers and radios helped boost popularity of sports Athletes portrayed as celebrities, idolized Charles Lindbergh: first to fly across the Atlantic solo and nonstop “New Woman”: more liberated, more equal than before Flapper image: short skirts, makeup, hairdo, free spirit Newly won suffrage New jobs: sales, management, public office Women lived longer, married later, fewer children New technology helps with caring for household

16 Art and literature War changed literature/art in America: pessimism, skepticism Reproduce real life, highlight abstract styles 1920s writers = “Lost Generation” Fitzgerald, Hemingway, Eliot Explore reality of American dream Harlem Renaissance: African-American cultural expression Jazz Age: highly improvised indigenous American music Began in South, became popular worldwide Demonstrate richness of African-American culture “New Negro”: artists/writers present pains and joys of black identity in America


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