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The Roaring Twenties “The restlessness approached hysteria. The parties were bigger. The pace was faster, the shows were broader, the buildings were higher,

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Presentation on theme: "The Roaring Twenties “The restlessness approached hysteria. The parties were bigger. The pace was faster, the shows were broader, the buildings were higher,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Roaring Twenties “The restlessness approached hysteria. The parties were bigger. The pace was faster, the shows were broader, the buildings were higher, the morals were looser, the liquor was cheaper.” -F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby

2 A Booming Economy Factories more productive Factories more productive Henry Ford, automobile industry Henry Ford, automobile industry Brought mass production to new heights Brought mass production to new heights Put cars on moving assembly lines Put cars on moving assembly lines Manufacture time went from 12 hours to 90 minutes Manufacture time went from 12 hours to 90 minutes Made Model T more affordable Made Model T more affordable Ford also increased wages, gave weekends off, shorter work days Ford also increased wages, gave weekends off, shorter work days

3 Automobile Changes America Stimulated growth in relevant industries Stimulated growth in relevant industries Road construction boomed Road construction boomed U.S. highway system U.S. highway system Helped establish service stations, diners, motels, etc. Helped establish service stations, diners, motels, etc. Altered residential patterns Altered residential patterns Move farther away from city/work Move farther away from city/work Family road trips Family road trips

4 Consumer Revolution New, affordable goods become available to the public New, affordable goods become available to the public Advertising agencies hired psychologists to help appeal to the desires of the consumer Advertising agencies hired psychologists to help appeal to the desires of the consumer Buy on credit or installment payments Buy on credit or installment payments More Americans put money in stocks More Americans put money in stocks Bull market: period of rising stock prices Bull market: period of rising stock prices Many ignore financial risks Many ignore financial risks

5 Cities, Suburbs, and THE Country Immigrants, farmers, minorities head to cities Immigrants, farmers, minorities head to cities Skyscraper technology; cities built “up” Skyscraper technology; cities built “up” Mass transportation/cars = growth of suburbs Mass transportation/cars = growth of suburbs Drained cities of many upper- and middle-class residents Drained cities of many upper- and middle-class residents Farming income declined Farming income declined Did not participate in/couldn’t afford consumerism Did not participate in/couldn’t afford consumerism Growing debt, falling farm prices Growing debt, falling farm prices

6 Politics of the twenties Warren Harding and Calvin CoolidgeWarren Harding and Calvin Coolidge Return to normalcy, conservatism, support businessReturn to normalcy, conservatism, support business Harding’s AdministrationHarding’s Administration Raise protective tariff, encourage American producersRaise protective tariff, encourage American producers European response?European response? Reduce government regulation on businessReduce government regulation on business Laissez-faire: absence of government control over private businessLaissez-faire: absence of government control over private business Spending reduced from $18 bil to $3 bilSpending reduced from $18 bil to $3 bil

7 POLITICS OF THE TWENTIES Harding: nice guy, not too brightHarding: nice guy, not too bright Trusted others to make decisionsTrusted others to make decisions Ohio Gang: close friends of HardingOhio Gang: close friends of Harding Ex: practiced graft, accepted money from criminalsEx: practiced graft, accepted money from criminals Teapot Dome ScandalTeapot Dome Scandal Sec. of the Interior Albert Fall arranged to transfer oil reserves from Navy to Interior Dept.Sec. of the Interior Albert Fall arranged to transfer oil reserves from Navy to Interior Dept. Leased properties to private oilmen for bribesLeased properties to private oilmen for bribes Harding died before scandal was made publicHarding died before scandal was made public Tarnished his legacy, burden inherited by CoolidgeTarnished his legacy, burden inherited by Coolidge

8 POLITICS IN THE TWENTIES Calvin “Silent Cal” CoolidgeCalvin “Silent Cal” Coolidge “The chief business of the American people is business”“The chief business of the American people is business” To add to your notes: Chapter 20, Section 3, Questions 1-4 (pg. 633)To add to your notes: Chapter 20, Section 3, Questions 1-4 (pg. 633)

9 #5: Look at this political cartoon. What does it criticize about Coolidge’s presidency? How can you tell?

10 Social and Cultural Tensions Americans split between urban/ruralAmericans split between urban/rural Urban: consumerism, leisure, open to social change and scienceUrban: consumerism, leisure, open to social change and science Education: mental ability, high levels of math and languageEducation: mental ability, high levels of math and language Modernism: prefer science/secular values over religious ideasModernism: prefer science/secular values over religious ideas Rural: traditional view of science/religion, no consumerism/leisureRural: traditional view of science/religion, no consumerism/leisure Education: three “Rs”: “readin’, ‘ritin’, ‘rithmetic”Education: three “Rs”: “readin’, ‘ritin’, ‘rithmetic” Need to focus on farm workNeed to focus on farm work

11 Religion Many Christians thought Christianity was under attackMany Christians thought Christianity was under attack Fundamentalists: those who reaffirm the basic truths of their religion; Bible = literal truthFundamentalists: those who reaffirm the basic truths of their religion; Bible = literal truth Scopes Trial: Tennessee passed law making it illegal to teach evolutionScopes Trial: Tennessee passed law making it illegal to teach evolution John Scopes arrested for teaching it in his classJohn Scopes arrested for teaching it in his class Lawyers Clarence Darrow vs. William Jennings BryanLawyers Clarence Darrow vs. William Jennings Bryan Scopes found guilty: pay $100 fineScopes found guilty: pay $100 fine

12 Immigration Nativists: people who were anti- immigrantNativists: people who were anti- immigrant Said immigrants took jobs and threatened American cultural traditionsSaid immigrants took jobs and threatened American cultural traditions Red Scare added to nativists’ argumentRed Scare added to nativists’ argument Fear of the spread of communism, socialismFear of the spread of communism, socialism Quota systems, literacy tests, exclusion for many AsiansQuota systems, literacy tests, exclusion for many Asians Rise in Mexican immigrantsRise in Mexican immigrants Major contributions but still discriminatedMajor contributions but still discriminated

13 Crime Revival of the Ku Klux Klan in rural AmericaRevival of the Ku Klux Klan in rural America Targeted minorities and immigrantsTargeted minorities and immigrants At its height: 4-5 million membersAt its height: 4-5 million members Boycotted businesses, terrorized citizensBoycotted businesses, terrorized citizens Prohibition: passed in 1919Prohibition: passed in 1919 Pros: improved individuals, families, societies; less alcohol-related diseasePros: improved individuals, families, societies; less alcohol-related disease Cons: did not deter drinking, increased crimeCons: did not deter drinking, increased crime Homemade alcohol smuggled by bootleggersHomemade alcohol smuggled by bootleggers Organized crime to meet demand for alcoholOrganized crime to meet demand for alcohol Al Capone: gangster who also took part in prostitution, drugs, robbery, murderAl Capone: gangster who also took part in prostitution, drugs, robbery, murdermurder Repeal in 1933Repeal in 1933

14 A New Mass Culture Changing technology and economy allowed for more leisure timeChanging technology and economy allowed for more leisure time Motion pictures provide new form of entertainmentMotion pictures provide new form of entertainment Silent movies: cheaper to attend, don’t need to know EnglishSilent movies: cheaper to attend, don’t need to know English Stars like Charlie ChaplinStars like Charlie ChaplinChaplin Eventually movies with synchronized sound (“talkies”)Eventually movies with synchronized sound (“talkies”) Radio and phonograph became popularRadio and phonograph became popular Spread music, radio broadcasts, news reports across the countrySpread music, radio broadcasts, news reports across the country

15 A new mass culture Newspapers and radios helped boost popularity of sportsNewspapers and radios helped boost popularity of sports Athletes portrayed as celebrities, idolizedAthletes portrayed as celebrities, idolized Charles Lindbergh: first to fly across the Atlantic solo and nonstopCharles Lindbergh: first to fly across the Atlantic solo and nonstopnonstop “New Woman”: more liberated, more equal than before“New Woman”: more liberated, more equal than before Flapper image: short skirts, makeup, hairdo, free spiritFlapper image: short skirts, makeup, hairdo, free spirit Newly won suffrageNewly won suffrage New jobs: sales, management, public officeNew jobs: sales, management, public office Women lived longer, married later, fewer childrenWomen lived longer, married later, fewer children New technology helps with caring for householdNew technology helps with caring for household

16 Art and literature War changed literature/art in America: pessimism, skepticismWar changed literature/art in America: pessimism, skepticism Reproduce real life, highlight abstract stylesReproduce real life, highlight abstract styles 1920s writers = “Lost Generation”1920s writers = “Lost Generation” Fitzgerald, Hemingway, EliotFitzgerald, Hemingway, Eliot Explore reality of American dreamExplore reality of American dream Harlem Renaissance: African-American cultural expressionHarlem Renaissance: African-American cultural expression Jazz Age: highly improvised indigenous American musicJazz Age: highly improvised indigenous American musicJazz AgeJazz Age Began in South, became popular worldwideBegan in South, became popular worldwide Demonstrate richness of African-American cultureDemonstrate richness of African-American culture “New Negro”: artists/writers present pains and joys of black identity in America“New Negro”: artists/writers present pains and joys of black identity in America


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