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Organised Labour in the 19 th century Workers tried to deal with problems that they faced by organising themselves in a number of ways: Friendly societies.

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Presentation on theme: "Organised Labour in the 19 th century Workers tried to deal with problems that they faced by organising themselves in a number of ways: Friendly societies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organised Labour in the 19 th century Workers tried to deal with problems that they faced by organising themselves in a number of ways: Friendly societies The co-operative movement Trade unions

2 Overview: Growth of Labour movement Background: TU’s to 1890 The origins of the Labour Party The Labour movement Labour movement Labour movement has two wings. The industrial wing is represented by the TU’s, while the political wing is represented by the Labour Party. Labour movement developed a unique social and political identity through its socialist ideology and brought about change

3 Describe and account for the development and fluctuating fortunes of TU’s between 1868 and 1914 Organised groups dates back to before industrial Revolution, however industrialisation in the late 18 th /late 19 th century, brought large numbers of workers together e.g. factories Governing classes often reacted with hostility, viewed them as a political threat rather than an economic threat, therefore development was slow

4 Trade Unions to /1800: The Combination Acts made it illegal to form a union, despite this evidence of activity e.g. breaking of new machinery 1824: The combination Acts were repealed, explosion of industrial action 1830’s intense activity, still no vote for working man therefore attempts to form general unions Industrialists like Robert Owen began to articulate ideas of workers

5 1834: Grand National Consolidated Trades Union Based on Owenite principles, half a million members at its peak However failed: due to divisions in leadership, poor communication, vision of a shared community proved to be flawed and sectional interests dominated 1850s-1870s: minority of workers belonging to TU mainly skilled craftsmen. Model Unions saw their role as maintaining pay and conditions and maintain division with other workers e.g. Amalgamated Society of Engineers

6 5 of these Model Unions leaders met regularly and formed the ‘junta’ 1867 Royal Commission of inquiry into Trade Unions: followed outbreak of violence during a strike in Sheffield, Junta gave evidence 1868 First Trade Union Congress: Junta did not attend 1871: trade Unions Act: given status in law and funds protected from dishonest officials

7 1871: The Criminal Law amendment Act: practice of peaceful picketing was outlawed with severe penalties 1871, The TUC Parliamentary Committee: aim was to repeal above act, during 1874 election, TUC pressurised candidates to reveal their views, Unions encouraged workers to support candidates favouring repeal of the act Led to Conservative victory Act replaced, breach of contract now a civil matter rather than a criminal matter- peaceful picketing legalised again By 1874 TU membership had increased to over 1 million

8 New Unionism, Trade unionism changing, becoming more political skilled workers were now admitting semi- skilled workers TU’s now associated with socialism More assertive with increase in numbers State began to take TU’s seriously, industrial unrest now recorded eg Bryant and May strike, dock workers Leaders, younger men with strong ideas e.g. Tom Mann and Ben Tillet


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