What is mercantilism? What were the Navigation Acts?
Discussion 1. What is the purpose of government? 2. Do you feel like the government of Denton hears your voice and meets your needs? Texas? U.S.? 3. What does, “No taxation without representation” mean? 4. Consider the loyalist and the patriot—whose side would you have taken and why? 5. What should government do for you today?
The Enlightenment—18 th Century Return to Classical Thinking Order/rationality/secular Greco-Roman Education and Influences Socrates Plato Aristotle Cicero
Fine Arts and Liberal Arts Paintings—West, David… Music—Mozart, Haydn… Architecture—Jefferson, Bullfinch… Science—Franklin, Nature… Philosophy—John Locke and natural law
Deism Philosophy of the natural world and pursuit of knowledge Masonic Infuences Education of Founding Fathers—Franklin, Jefferson, Adams, Washington, Madison, Hamilton…
Society Social classes vs. classless society Republicanism and democracy
French and Indian War England and Iroquois Confederation vs. France and Algonquins and Hurons Issue—supremacy in North America Washington’s leadership Fort Necessity, Fort Duquesne, Fort Pitt Ohio Valley, Canada, Great Lakes, Quebec Final Battle on Plains of Abraham—Montcalm vs. Wolfe—English victory American Experience—guerilla warfare
The Albany Plan of Union When? 1754 Who? Ben Franklin’s idea to unite colonies during French and Indian War Where? Albany, NY What? Colonies would unite in a council with representatives who in turn make decisions and present them to England How? Periodic Council Meetings Why? To present a united front to England (mother country) and to Indians (as an ally or enemy) Fate? Rejected
Causes of The War for American Independence I.French and Indian War (Seven Years War) Effects End of Salutary Neglect Writs of Assistance (1760) More Redcoats in America English debts
II.Proclamation of 1763 Americans could not cross the Appalachians—land was set aside for Native American allies—led by Pontiac
III.British Legislation and Colonial Response Sugar Act, 1764 boycott Quartering Act, 1765 protests Stamp Act Stamp Act Congress and formation of Sons of Liberty Declaratory Acts, 1766 Townsend Acts more boycotts and Committee of Correspondence John Dickinson’s Letters From a Farmer in Pennsylvnia
IV.More Conflicts Repeal of Townsend Acts Boston Massacre, 1770 (Crispus Attucks killed; John Adams defended British; Samuel Adams rebelled; Paul Revere illustrated it)
Gaspee Affair Tea Act of 1773 led to The Boston Tea Party Punishment: Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts: closing of Boston harbor, reduced legislative power, Justice Act, expansion of Quartering Act, Quebec Act)
Enlightenment: Can we “reason” our way out of this dilemma with England?