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The Road to the Revolution. To set up the booklet Name and Section on the front You will be responsible for Front cover illustration (in color) Table.

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Presentation on theme: "The Road to the Revolution. To set up the booklet Name and Section on the front You will be responsible for Front cover illustration (in color) Table."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Road to the Revolution

2 To set up the booklet Name and Section on the front You will be responsible for Front cover illustration (in color) Table of Contents Taking notes – in class Main idea – on each page Illustration (in color) for each event Book summary – on the back

3 Booklet due Monday, 10/21 total 50 points Front cover illustration (in color) 5 Table of Contents 5 Taking notes – in class Main idea – on each page Illustration (in color) for each event 16 Book summary – on the back 8 16

4 Treaty of Paris, 1763 Situation: England defeats France in the French and Indian War (7 Years War).

5 British gain Canada, all French territory east of the Mississippi R. (except the city of New Orleans), and Florida. Spain gets Louisiana (the land west of the Mississippi River). Treaty of Paris, 1763

6 Problem: England won the war, but went into tremendous debt. (140 million) England controls new land, but has few available soldiers to protect it. Treaty of Paris, 1763

7 Solution: British begin looking for new ways to raise money. They begin to enforce the Navigation Acts, try to end customs graft (corruption) and collect duties (taxes on imported and exported goods, a tariff). See Sugar Act and Trade Laws Boston Customs House Treaty of Paris, 1763

8 Pontiac’s Rebellion, 1763 Situation: After French are forced out of the Ohio Valley, the English take over. Key Player: Pontiac, Ottawa Chief. He probably fought George Washington at Ft. Necessity. Other Indians included the Delaware.

9 Problem: Indians are disgusted with the English traders and are fearful of English settlers. Pontiac’s Rebellion, 1763

10 Every British fort except Detroit and Fort Pitt are destroyed. 500 soldiers and 2000 colonists are killed. Solution: Massive attacks throughout the Great Lakes and the Ohio Valley. Pontiac’s Rebellion, 1763

11 Response: British send in soldiers to relieve the siege of Fort Pitt. Pontiac’s Rebellion, 1763

12 Battle of Bushy Run, 1763 part of Pontiac’s Rebellion Situation: Fort Pitt under siege by Pontiac.

13 Key Players: Pontiac, Ottawa chief and Col. Henry Bouquet, British commander. Problem: British soldiers have been unable to stop Indians and settlers not killed have left the area. Battle of Bushy Run, 1763

14 Solution: Bouquet fights a disciplined, Indian-style battle... Battle of Bushy Run, 1763

15 and defeats Pontiac about 20 miles east of Fort Pitt. Battle of Bushy Run, 1763

16 Response: Indians flee and eventually sign peace treaty. Battle of Bushy Run, 1763

17 Proclamation of 1763 Situation: England has control of new western land. Problem: It is hard and expensive to protect settlers from Indians formerly loyal to France.

18 Solution: No settlement allowed west of the Appalachian Mts. This creates a vast Indian reservation. Colonists angry over potential loss of speculation and settlement opportunities Proclamation of 1763

19 Outcome: Proclamation is ignored as colonists and British investors compete to get land grants. Army unable to keep settlers out. Proclamation of 1763

20 Sugar Act 1764 Problem: British need money to repay war debt. People living in England are heavily taxed. People living in America are not taxed as much. Key Player: George Grenville, British Prime Minister

21 Solution: Use tariffs to raise money (instead of regulating trade) by taxing British sugar, among other things (molasses, wine, silk, indigo, coffee). Sugar Act 1764

22 Response: Colonists boycott items taxed and claim “no taxation without representation” because no colonist served in the English Parliament. Committees of Correspondence keep the colonists in touch with each other. Sugar Act 1764

23 Trade Laws 1764 Situation: Navigation Acts never strictly enforced. Customs officers were corrupt and many Americans smuggled goods to avoid duties.

24 Problem: Customs officers cost Britain four times what they collected in taxes Solution: Violators of Navigation Acts to be tried outside the colonies. Burden of proof on the accused. Trade Laws 1764

25 Response: Colonists feel their rights are being violated and that the corrupt officials are given too much power. Outcome: Tremendous hatred of customs office. Trade Laws 1764

26 Quartering Act 1765 Problem: England needs money to pay for colonial defense and colonies not providing much. Solution: A colony could be ordered to provide housing and supplies for British troops.

27 Response: NY sees it as a sneaky tax and refuses to obey. Redcoats clash with colonists and the NY assembly is suspended. Outcome: NY finally complies. Quartering Act expires in 1770 but is renewed in 1774 Quartering Act 1765

28 Stamp Act 1765 Problem: British military presence in America costly,, colonies not paying their “fair share” and come up with a plan to raise money. Solution: The first direct (internal) tax.

29 Legal documents had to be on special stamped (seal impressed) paper. Sticky stamps were required on newspapers, cards, calendars, etc American stamp agents (salesmen) were appointed. Violators could be tried through vice-admiralty courts (no jury). Stamp Act 1765

30 Response: Stamp Agents threatened by the Sons of Liberty. Colonists claim “no taxation without representation.” Stamp Act Congress attracts 9 of 13 colonies. They pledge loyalty to King and a boycott of European goods. Stamp Act 1765

31 Outcome: All stamp agents resign. Colonists refuse to use stamps. Boycott hurts London merchants who urge end to Stamp Act. Stamp Act 1765

32 Repeal of Stamp Act 1766 Problem: Colonists in an uproar over Stamp Act and their boycott has hurt British merchants. Solution: The British decide to repeal (take away) the Stamp Act.

33 Key Players: Grenville: he wants to enforce it. William Pitt: he supports the colonists. Ben Franklin: he explains to Parliament why colonists object to internal taxes, but says they would pay trade (external) taxes. He also warns of rebellion. Repeal of Stamp Act 1766

34 Response: Colonists happy, honor Pitt and King. Boycott dropped. Outcome: To show Parliament’s authority over colonists, the Declaratory Act is passed. It states that they can and will make any law they want. Repeal of Stamp Act 1766

35 The Townshend Act 1767 Problem: Charles Townshend cut British land tax and must get more money from colonies to make it up. Solution: External (import duties) on glass, lead, paper, paint & tea. Allows writs of assistance (broad search warrants) to give authorities more power to catch smugglers

36 Response: Non importation of British goods (begins in Boston and followed by all colonies except NH). Sons and Daughters of Liberty enforce the boycott, often with threats of violence. The Townshend Act 1767

37 Response: VA Resolutions, written by George Mason and presented by GW, support non importation of Townshend items and add slaves and luxury goods to the list. VA governor dissolves House of Burgesses. Defiant Virginians meet in the Raleigh Tavern The Townshend Act 1767

38 Outcome: Trade hurt, Lord North repeals duties except the one on tea. Colonies drop non importation. Trade resumes after Townshend Acts mostly repealed The Townshend Act 1767

39 Non-Importation Agreements

40 The Boston Massacre 1770 Problem: Corrupt customs agents are scared of angry colonists. Solution: Redcoats sent in for protection Problem: Off-duty soldiers take jobs from local townspeople because they work for less money.

41 Response: A fight between working soldiers and townspeople breaks out in front of the Customs House. Cries of “fire” bring out a riotous crowd who throw objects at the soldiers. The Boston Massacre 1770

42 Response cont. Nervous soldiers fire into the crowd killing five, (is this a massacre?) including Crispus Attucks, a black man. The Boston Massacre 1770

43 Outcome: Soldiers withdrawn from town. Great for propaganda (Revere). 8 soldiers tried, John Adams defends them, 6 are acquitted and two branded and released. The Boston Massacre 1770

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46 Paul Revere’s engravingJohn Pufford's illustration Find at least 3 similarities and 3 differences The Boston Massacre 1770

47 Distortions with Paul Revere’s engraving of the Boston Massacre

48 Burning of The Gaspee 1772 Situation: Since the Sugar Act, customs officers were given more and more power. If an illegal cargo was seized, the officer got 1/3 of the value of the ship and cargo. If papers were not filed properly on legal cargo, it too could be seized. Customs agents would trick merchants ( e.g. John Hancock in 1768) to get their ships and cargo.

49 Situation cont. Smaller vessels were often seized because the owners did not pay the high fees or take the time to register each small journey. The Gaspee used to chase small vessels up and down the New England coast. Burning of The Gaspee 1772

50 Problem: The Gaspee ran aground in Rhode Island. Response: Angry colonists burned the ship Outcome: English investigators never find out who did it. Burning of The Gaspee 1772

51 Tea Act 1773 Problem: The East India Co. is nearly bankrupt because of a 17 million pound surplus of tea. Solution: British government allows EIC to sell directly to colonists (factory outlet concept) to boost sales.

52 Response: Boston merchants afraid of a monopoly on tea and ask, “what’s next?” They convince citizens that cheaper tea is no deal. They demand the tea be returned to England. Tea Act 1773

53 Outcome: Gov. Hutchinson of MA refuses to back down. Sam Adams leads the Sons of Liberty, disguised as “Mohawks,” to Boston Harbor... Tea Act 1773

54 Outcome cont chests of tea are destroyed. This is known as the Boston Tea Party. 24 million cups of tea $1 million dollars worth Tea Act 1773

55 Intolerable Acts 1774 Problem: Tea destroyed in Boston (and in NY, MD, & NJ). Solution: Coercive Acts

56 1. Boston Harbor closed 2. Trials of British officials moved to England 3. MA govt. put under military control (Gen. Gage). Town meetings must have prior approval 4. Quartering Act (1774) 5. Quebec Act Intolerable Acts 1774

57 Response: 1 st Continental Congress (all but GA) 1. Declaration of Rights and Grievances 2. Continental Association – no trade with England & train soldiers 3. Meet next year (1775) in Philadelphia again if necessary. (2 nd CC) Intolerable Acts 1774

58 4. Rejects Parliament, but swears loyalty to the King Outcome: MA declared in rebellion Intolerable Acts 1774

59 Booklet due Monday, 10/21 total 50 points Front cover illustration (in color) 5 Table of Contents 5 Taking notes – in class Main idea – on each page Illustration (in color) for each event 16 Book summary – on the back 8 16

60 Problem: Colonies acting rebellious Key Player: Edmund Burke, member of Parliament, warns British of the big mistake they’re making. New England Restraining Act 1775

61 Solution: Act forbids New England trade with any country except Britain and forbids use of North Atlantic fishing banks. Later this act is extended to NJ, PA, MD, VA, and SC. New England Restraining Act 1775

62 Response: Patrick Henry (VA) says, “Give me liberty or give me death!” Outcome: Gen. Gage ordered to use force if necessary to see that all Acts are followed. New England Restraining Act 1775

63 Colonial Militia supplies at Concord

64 British march back to Boston

65 Lexington and Concord April 19, 1775 Problem: MA militia (Minutemen) are actively training. Solution: British soldiers sent to capture military supplies at Concord and arrest leaders Sam Adams and John Hancock.

66 Response: Warned by Paul Revere AND OTHERS, Minutemen gather to stop British at Lexington and are fired upon. 8 were killed and 10 wounded. Lexington and Concord April 19, 1775

67 Response: Warned by Paul Revere AND OTHERS, Lexington and Concord April 19, 1775

68 Minutemen gather to stop British at Lexington and are fired upon. 8 were killed and 10 wounded. Lexington and Concord April 19, 1775

69 Outcome: British get to Concord, destroy some supplies, but are attacked on the way back to Boston, “The shot heard ‘round the world” Lexington and Concord April 19, 1775

70 British: 700 engaged, 73 K, 174 W, 26 M Americans: 4,000 engaged, 49 K, 39 W Lexington and Concord April 19, 1775

71 Booklet due Monday, 10/21 total 50 points Front cover illustration (in color) 5 Table of Contents 5 Taking notes – in class Main idea – on each page Illustration (in color) for each event 16 Book summary – on the back 8 16


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