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©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Chapter 6: Toward.

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Presentation on theme: "©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Chapter 6: Toward."— Presentation transcript:

1 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Chapter 6: Toward the War for American Independence Preview: “Parliament passed the Sugar Act, Stamp Act, and other measures of the early 1760s in hopes of binding the American colonies more closely to the empire. Instead, once-loyal Americans became convinced that their constitutional rights were being violated….With the passage of the harsh Coercive Acts of 1774, a break with Britain was not long in coming.” The Highlights: The Seven Years’ War The Seven Years’ War The Imperial Crisis The Imperial Crisis Toward the Revolution Toward the Revolution

2 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill The Seven Years’ War The Years of Defeat The Years of Defeat –1754: war started with George Washington’s surrender at Fort Necessity to the French –1755: disastrous defeat of British regiments, led by General Braddock, at Fort Duquesne –Most Indian tribes allied with France 6-2

3 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill The Years of Victory The Years of Victory – : British fortunes worsened, but William Pitt began to take personal control over the war –By 1758, the tide began to shift in Britain’s favor – : British capture Quebec and Montreal –Treaty of Paris (1763) ended the war, as well as the French presence in North America 6-3

4 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 6-4

5 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Postwar Expectations Postwar Expectations –Britain’s victory stoked colonial pride and optimism among Americans –English resented American tightfistedness in supplying the armies –Very different expectations for postwar America by the English and the colonists 6-5

6 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill The Imperial Crisis New Troubles on the Frontier New Troubles on the Frontier –Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763) west of Pittsburgh highlighted the problem of Britain’s large western frontier –Proclamation of 1763 prohibited settlement west of the Appalachians 6-6

7 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 6-7

8 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill George Grenville’s New Measures George Grenville’s New Measures –Britain’s national debt doubled, –Colonial merchants had been evading the Molasses Act of 1733 –Grenville, the first lord of the treasury, advocated four policies to raise revenue from the colonies: 1. Sugar Act (1764) 1. Sugar Act (1764) 2. Currency Act (1764) 2. Currency Act (1764) 3. Quartering Act (1765) 3. Quartering Act (1765) 4. Stamp Act (1765) 4. Stamp Act (1765) –Grenville’s policies prompted an incrementally negative reaction by colonials 6-8

9 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill The Beginnings of Colonial Resistance The Beginnings of Colonial Resistance –Significance of John Locke’s beliefs that property ownership and liberty were intertwined –Opposition thinkers, while ignored in England, were revered by colonial leaders –Postwar recession aggravated political tensions caused by Grenville’s measures “The concern for protecting individual liberties was only one of the convictions shaping the colonies’ response to Britain’s new policies. Equally important was their deep suspicion of power itself, a preoccupation that colonials shared with a minority of radical English thinkers”(153). 6-9

10 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Riots and Resolves Riots and Resolves –1765: colonial assemblies passed resolves challenging Parliament’s power to tax the colonies for the sole purpose of raising revenue –Patrick Henry’s resolves in Virginia –Resistance groups, most notably the Sons of Liberty, sprang up across the colonies Repeal of the Stamp Act Repeal of the Stamp Act –Policy repealed by Parliament in 1766 –Continued angst over virtual versus actual representation 6-10

11 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill The Townshend Acts The Townshend Acts –In 1767, the new minister, William Townshend, wanted to limit the power of colonial assemblies –Instituted new tariffs The Resistance Organizes The Resistance Organizes –Efforts by colonial leaders John Dickinson and John Adams helped colonies to unite –1768: Liberty riot in Boston whipped up anti-government fervor –Widespread boycott of British-made goods 6-11

12 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill The International Sons of Liberty The International Sons of Liberty –Colonials follow struggle of Pascal Paoli in fighting for Corsican independence from Genoa The Boston Massacre The Boston Massacre –Increasing tensions between colonists and British troops –March 5, 1770: situation exploded in Boston, with troops firing upon protesters and killing five –All of the Townshend duties repealed except the tax on tea 6-12

13 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 6-13

14 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Resistance Revived Resistance Revived –Repeal of Townshend duties reduced American resistance for two years –Constant tension among Penn, his council, the legislative assembly, and farmers –Gaspee incident provoked renewed tensions in 1772 –Samuel Adams engineered mode of communication: committees of correspondence –1773: Boston Tea Party 6-14

15 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill The Empire Strikes Back The Empire Strikes Back –Coercive, or “Intolerable,” Acts passed by Parliament, 1774 –Colonists began to believe in a conspiracy theory that the British government wanted to reduce their liberties –Quebec Act (1774) –Call for First Continental Congress “The Boston Tea Party proved to British satisfaction that the colonies aimed at independence. Lord North’s assessment was grim: ‘We are now to dispute whether we have, or have not, any authority in that country’” (162). 6-15

16 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Toward the Revolution The First Continental Congress The First Continental Congress –Delegates, while affirming natural rights, tried to stake out a moderate position –Joseph Galloway’s plan for cooperation with Parliament rejected –Decision to cease all trade with Britain until the Coercive Acts were repealed –Began to arm colonial militias 6-16

17 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill The Last Days of the British Empire in America The Last Days of the British Empire in America –Governor of Massachusetts, Thomas Gage, tried to fortify Boston against the growing number of rebels –Royal authority collapsed, The Fighting Begins The Fighting Begins –April 1775: first battles of the American Revolution, Lexington and Concord, Mass. Common Sense Common Sense –Thomas Paine: Americans’ destiny was to be republicans, not monarchists 6-17


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