2 Fugitive Slaves and the Underground Railroad Fugitive Slave ActFugitives not entitled to a trial by jury and couldn’t testify on their own behalf.$10 fee for returning a fugitive slave and $5 if they were freedIf you helped a slave you were liable for a fine of $1,000 and imprisonment for 6 monthsResisting the LawNortherners formed committeesResorted to violenceSent escaped slaves to CanadaPassed the personal liberty laws – forbidding the imprisonment of runaway slaves and guaranteed slaves would have jury trials.Would drag the trials out for 4-5 years so Southerners would have to pay many court costs.
3 Fugitive Slaves and the Underground Railroad Harriet Tubman and the Underground RailroadUnderground RailroadConductors hid fugitives in secret tunnels and false cupboards, provided them with food and clothing and escorted them to the next station.Harriet TubmanShe made 19 trips back to the south and helped over 300 slaves escape to freedom.She was an escaped slaveAbolitionist speaker
4 Fugitive Slaves and the Underground Railroad Uncle Tom’s Cabin1852 published by Harriet Beecher Stowe3,000 copies sold on the first day (100,000 in less than 3 months)About a slave who escaped and one who was beaten to death.Delivered the message that slavery wasn’t just a political contest, but a moral struggle.Northerners increased attacks on slavery and Southerners felt that the book attacked the Southern ways.
5 Tension in Kansas and Nebraska Douglas and Popular SovereigntyDouglas wanted to organize the territory west of Iowa and Missouri into 2 territories (Kansas and Nebraska)Wanted a railroad, but the North and the South argued over where it should start.Wanted the land to be made into states.Believed popular sovereignty should be the way to decided slavery in these states.Laid north of the Missouri Compromise line, so should be closed to slavery.Could enter as one free and one slave (equal) so he wanted to repeal the Missouri Compromise Line.
6 Tension in Kansas and Nebraska The Kansas – Nebraska ActDouglas introduced bill to divide the territories into Kansas and Nebraska.Would repeal the Missouri CompromiseSouth favored this idea, but the North didn’t like it.Became a law in 1854.
7 “Bleeding Kansas”March 1855 Kansas had enough settlers to hold an election for territorial legislature.Thousands of “border ruffians” from slave state Missouri crossed into Kansas armed.“The Sack of Lawrence”Antislavery settlers founded a town named Lawrence.Proslavery grand jury condemned the inhabitants and called the local sheriff to arrest them.They destroyed the town.
8 “Bleeding Kansas” “The Pottawatomie Massacre” John Brown- abolitionist who believed God called him to fight slavery.Heard an untrue rumor that 5 men were killed in Lawrence and he along with followers pulled five men from their beds in the proslavery settlement of Pottawatomie Creek, hacked off their heads, and stabbed them with swords.Triggered many violent events in Kansas (200 were killed)Bleeding Kansas
9 “Bleeding Kansas” Violence in the Senate Senator Charles Sumner delivered a speech attacking verbally his colleagues who supported slavery.Especially Andrew Butler of South Carolina.Butler’s nephew, Congressman Preston Brooks hit Sumner over the head 5 or 6 times with his cane.Sumner had brain damage and didn’t return to the Senate for 3 years.Southerners bought Brooks canes…one even was engraved “Hit him again”Divided even more.