Acknowledgement Statement You understand and acknowledge that: The training you are about to take does not cover the entire scope of the program; and that You are responsible for knowing and understanding all handbooks, manuals, alerts, notices and guidance, as well as any other forms of communication that provide further guidance, clarification or instruction on operating the program
Foundations …for Effective Leadership in Child Nutrition Programs
Objectives Describe the policy, purposes, and uniqueness of child nutrition programs(CNP) and their social and economic functions. Identify historical milestones in the evolution of CNPs. Review the philosophical basis for CNPs in the educational setting. Identify CNPs authorized by the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (NSLA) Write a personal philosophy for CNPs. Recognize key CN legislative policy Identify the impact of CNP regulations and policy Identify leadership characteristics Identify the values that have sustained CNP Describe the leadership role of the CN professional as an advocate
Introduction – Where were you When? Consider the following questions. Why does this course begin with a discussion of the history and philosophy of CNPs? Why is it important to know about history and philosophy to form a framework for leadership ? In this lesson you are challenged to think about how an understanding of historical, philosophical, and regulatory perspectives supports a framework for leadership
Understanding the Child Nutrition Program Effective leadership is based on a foundation of understanding Child Nutrition Programs from the history, philosophy, and regulatory points of view. CNPs at all levels of government serve social, economic, and political purposes. Social Purposes: Education and health Economic Purposes: Agriculture, food industry, labor market Political or Public policy: Benefits the nation
The stakeholders Members of the U. S. Congress at the national level; Vendors who manufacture and provide food, supplies, and service; State policy makers who determine its place in the educational organization Decision makers at the local level where CNPs are operated, housed, and administered as a function of the school local community, including the media
What Stakeholders are asking Are the public funds provided from federal and state tax dollars well-managed and serving a necessary purpose
Ultimate Stakeholders The ultimate stakeholders – are the children – and their parents
Effective Leadership in Child Nutrition Programs What is expected of CNP leaders? “Qualified employees are the keys to effective CNPs. … District CN directors/supervisors are leaders that create the CNP vision as integral partners in the education of children” (NFSMI, 1996, p. 1). An understanding of the competencies, knowledge, and skills needed by directors and supervisors is important for their advancement.
The Regulatory Perspective Set the stage for how you must operate the program within the boundaries Established through policy, legislation, and regulations. Provide insights into the politics and public policy aspects of CNPs at the federal, state, and local level. Give you insight into the program requirements explain the administrative and financial framework within which the programs operate and are sustained. Help you see the value of collaboration and partnerships at all levels for Efficient management and achieving program goals.
Major Functions of Child Nutrition Programs. Access to a variety of nutritious and culturally appropriate foods that – Promote growth and development, pleasure in healthy eating, long- term health, and readiness to learn. – Prevent school day hunger and problems in discipline, school attendance, and attention to task. Nutrition education that empowers students to select and enjoy healthy food and physical activity. Screening, assessment, counseling, and referral for nutrition problems and the provision of modified meals for students with special needs
Historical Milestones in the Evolution of Child Nutrition Programs Began in Europe. CNPs had their beginnings in Germany. The children were required to work part-time and also were taught reading, writing, and arithmetic. Along with the work and lessons food was provided. This success with mass feeding in Germany resulted in the development of mass feeding in other countries
The First Wave: Early Programs in the United States The Children’s Aid Society in New York City began the first feeding programs in 1853. Ellen H. Richards initiated school feeding in Boston in 1894. Most of these early programs were motivated by charity. Books by Hunter (1904) and Spargo (1906) initiated public interest in school feeding as both men focused attention on the extent of hunger and the social consequences of hungry children
The Second Wave: The Depression Years The second wave in the development of CNPs was brought on by the Great Depression. Farm surpluses accumulated because people had no money to buy food. Thousands of adults were without jobs. The first federal assistance for school lunch programs was given in 1933
School Lunch Menu Examples MENUS IN AN ITALIAN AREA OF BOSTON Monday: Cabbage Stew and two slices of Italian Bread Tuesday: Lima Beans, Pasta, and two slices of Italian Bread Wednesday: Lentils and two slices of Italian Bread MENUS IN AN IRISH AREA OF BOSTON Monday: 1/3 quart Vegetable, Soup with Meat Stock and two slices of Bread Tuesday: 1/3 quart Pea Soup and two slices of Bread Wednesday: Rice Pudding with Milk and two slices of bread
The Third Wave: World War II, 1940– 1945 World War I and World War II provided evidence of physical deficiencies related to malnutrition in young people called for military service. Many young men called up for the draft were physically unable to fight because of physical conditions related to malnutrition. United States suffered 155,000 casualties as a result of malnutrition.
National School Cafeteria Association Congress debated the role of the lunch program in the community and the need for a permanent program. They asked, “Is it primarily an education program or primarily an agriculture program?”
Partnerships, Collaboration, and Bipartisan Support American Dietetic Association (ADA American Home Economics Association(AHEA) The Farm Bureau The National Congress of Parents and Teachers (PTA), Chief State School Officers and other educational organizations petitioned Congress to make the program permanent. The National School Cafeteria Association and the Food Service Director’s Conference were two existing organizations in the forefront in establishing networks to advocate for permanent legislation
The Fourth Wave: The National School Lunch Act Passed and Implemented, 1946–1950 The bill was signed by President Harry Truman on June 4, 1946. The Act was 60 years old in 2006. It has become the centerpiece of all legislation for CNPs.
The National School Lunch Act, 1946 IT IS DECLARED TO BE THE POLICY OF CONGRESS, AS A MEASURE OF NATIONAL SECURITY…TO SAFEGUARD THE HEALTH AND WELL-BEING OF THE NATION’S CHILDREN…AND TO EXPAND THE MARKET FOR NUTRITIOUS AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES…TO ASSIST STATES IN PROVIDING NONPROFIT SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAMS (NSLA, SECTION
NSLA Provisions Serve nutritious lunches that meet requirements set by USDA including being consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Provide a program that is accessible to all children without discrimination regardless of their ability to pay, handicap, race, or gender including those children with special needs. Schools are required to prepare and implement free and reduced meal policies to carry out this provision. Maintain records and reports to support the use of funds, service of meals, and consistency with meeting free and reduced meal program requirements. Operate a nonprofit program. Comply with safety and sanitation requirements including the establishment of a food safety program. Use USDA commodities effectively. Comply with the competitive foods policy Implement a wellness policy
In return for meeting these requirements, local school districts receive reimbursement for paid, free, and reduced price meals. a guaranteed level of commodity support. technical assistance in the form of training and materials.
Five Important Facts 1.The SLP is permanently authorized; this means that it is the law and is permanent until such time as Congress decides to repeal it. 2. The SLP and other CNPs are entitlement programs. This assures local school districts and/or sponsoring agencies that funds will be available at the level promised for meals served. Rates of reimbursement are established on an annual basis. 3. The amount of funding available to states and local agencies is performance based. Reimbursement is paid on the basis of the number of meals (lunch or breakfasts) served by category: paid, free, or reduced price. 4. Funding for some programs, including the SFSP, must be reauthorized every four years. 5. In some instances, Congress may authorize programs without a provision for required funding. Section 205 of the 2004 Reauthorization Act, Team Nutrition Network, is an example. Congress determines on an annual basis if the programs are funded and, if so, the amount of funds to be provided and for what period. This type of funding is called discretionary funding
Legislation—Social and Economic Purposes What is the economic purpose served by the NSLA and the CNA? What is the economic purpose served by the Supplemental Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) or the CACFP? What is the economic purpose served by the proposal to eliminate the Reduced price category for school lunches and fold it into the free category? Who benefits economically from these proposals?
Program Expansion and Early Industry Support ASFSA (SNA)—A Major Advocate for CNPs ASFSA was organized in 1946, the same year the NSLA was passed. It had two major purposes: – 1. to promote professional growth of school lunch personnel and – 2. to be an advocate for the SLPs at the federal, state, and local level
2014 Position Paper Talking Points Access to child nutrition programs remains a high priority for America’s families in today’s financially challenging environment. Under the new nutrition standards implemented in 2012, school meal programs have experienced increased costs and administrative burdens, while struggling with student acceptance of new menu items and increased plate waste. As a result, 1 million fewer students chose school meals each day. (Source: USDA Fiscal Year 2012 & 2013 data) According to SNA’s 2013 Back to School Trends Report, 47% of school meal programs report that overall revenue declined in the 2012/13 school year. To strengthen child nutrition programs for the future, Child Nutrition Reauthorization 2015 should focus on: promoting a healthy school environment for children; providing reasonable flexibility in the operation of school meal programs; maximizing program efficiency; and ensuring overall sustainability of child nutrition programs
Program Expansion From 1946–1962, Congress appropriated funds on an annual basis for the lunch program based on the number of children enrolled in schools. The first year the appropriation was adequate to pay nine cents for each lunch, regardless of whether it was paid, free, or reduced price
The Fifth Wave: The Transition Years, 1950s The Brown vs. Topeka court case concluded that separate but equal schools were unconstitutional. Sputnik, the rocket launched by Russia, demonstrated an urgent need in America to improve the quality of math and science education. The establishment of McDonalds introduced fast food to young people and eventually provided a ready access to fast food by locating franchises in almost every little town across America.
Personnel and Program Standards Developed Personnel Standards Program Standards
The Sixth Wave: The War on Poverty, 1960s Two changes were made in the NSLA in 1962 – federal food support to schools with high economic need was approved in 1962. It was called the Special Commodity Assistance Program – Section 4 of the NSLA was amended to provide funds to states on the basis of participation in the school lunch program rather than enrollment The second major amendment to the NSLA was also made in 1992. Congress added Section 11 to the NSLA to provide additional support to certain schools that were in low income areas. The appropriation for Section 11 funds was small
The Environment Affects CNPs An understanding of the social environment in the 1960s will help you gain a perspective of the growth and changes that occurred in the 1960s and the 1970s
The CNA of 1966 The CNA was passed in 1966. CNA brought into being the SBP and an expanded concept of nutrition for children from needy families. 1968 the Special Food Service Program, later to become the CACFP, and the SFSP were authorized. 1972, WIC was created. Also provided non-food assistance (equipment funds) to help schools build or equip facilities in order to serve meals. The non-food assistance provision was repealed in the 1980s.
The Late 1960s Action in Washington Nongovernment Groups Lead Congressional Hearings The White House Conference on Food, Nutrition, and Health From School Lunch to CNPs
The Seventh Wave: The Great Society, 1970s In the early part of the 1970s, some remarkable changes were made to Section 11. Extensive hearings were held With these changes in funding and provisions for needy children, school principals no longer had to worry about money running out in the middle of the school year. No longer would it be necessary to stop serving needy children as was often the case before the performance funding was established. These amendments established provisions for serving free meals to all children under certain conditions, later to become known as Provision 2.
The Eighth Wave: The Nation in Turmoil, 1975–1988 Although the programs were expanding in every direction and Congressional support was overwhelming, there were rumblings among the Executive Branch that the CNPs needed to be changed. Discussions of block grants began to raise their ugly heads. The Administration proposed a block grant for the programs which was rejected by Congress
The Troubled Years, 1980–1988 Ronald Reagan became president. Proposals abounded from the White House to transform the program from a nutrition program for all children to a welfare program for the poor. This would be accomplished by eliminating all support for paying children and providing support only for economically needy children. In other words, the Section 4 funds that provide the infrastructure for the school meals programs would have been eliminated.
Impact of Proposals in the 1980s In spite of an aggressive defense by CN advocates, Congress passed amendments that reduced support for the NET Program, reduced all meal reimbursement rates, eliminated the funds for non-food assistance (equipment), and eliminated the Child Nutrition Advisory Council
The National Food Service Management Institute One major addition was made in 1987. For a number of years, ASFSA had envisioned a national training institute for CNPs. In 1987, ASFSA asked Congress to provide funds for a feasibility study to determine the need for such an institute. The feasibility study was funded
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans The first Dietary Guidelines for Americans were published in 1980. These evolved from the work of the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs. They reflected findings from research and hearings in many parts of the U. S. regarding the relationship between nutrition and chronic disease and nutrition for promoting wellness
The Ninth Wave: Triumphs and Challenges, 1990s The 1992 national election brought a change in the White House with great support for issues related to children and health. There was considerable interest in and support for improving the quality of donated foods (commodities), including how the food products would be delivered.
The 1994 Election and Challenges The 1994 election created a new Congress with many changes in philosophy. The nation was still concerned with balancing the budget and eliminating the deficit that had accrued in the eighties. The new Speaker of the House of Representatives presented legislation which he called a Contract for America
Impact of the Welfare Reform Act on Child Nutrition The CNPs survived the congressional budget cutting that was proposed—with one exception. The NET Program was changed from permanent to discretionary. This meant that Congress could determine on a year-to-year basis if funds would be appropriated.
Examine Issues Related to NET 1. perception in Congress that NET, Team Nutrition, and possibly NFSMI provide duplicate services 2. NET was a state managed program designed to deliver the nutrition education programs and services to local schools 3. NET Program was not always administered by the CNP 4. the NET Program experienced more difficulty than any other part of the CNP. 5. there was a political issue
The 1994 Reauthorization Act The Healthy Meals for Healthy Americans Act of 1994 (The 1994 Reauthorization Act, PL 103-448) contained amendments to the NSLA and the CNA. Focused on improving the quality of school meals, Removing barriers to participation of needy children in CNPs, and Requesting USDA to take action to strengthen the efficiency of CNPs.
SMI The requirement that school lunches and breakfasts meet the nutrient standards for calories and key nutrients for specific age and grade groups when averaged over a school week
The Tenth Wave: A Bright Future, 1997 and Beyond It was a historic moment when Shirley Watkins, former Child Nutrition Director from Memphis, was appointed USDA Deputy Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services. In this position she had responsibility for administering and directing all the CNPs for USDA.
The William F. Goodling Child Nutrition Reauthorization Act of 1998 Several important provisions of the 1998 Reauthorization Bill that amended the NSLA and the CNA reflected social and economic concerns. These included provisions that 1. Required at least one food safety inspection in participating schools each year. 2. Established a pilot universal SBP to examine the impact of breakfast on student performance. 3. Expanded the Afterschool Care program to support nutritious snacks in after school programs. 4. Authorized the establishment of a single agreement for SLP and SBP and simplified the application process.
The Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004 The provisions contained in the 2004 Reauthorization were grouped by the USDA into three categories: Program Access Healthy School Environment Program Integrity
Historical Milestones: Lessons Learned Effective leadership in CNPs requires directors to know the values/beliefs that have created, expanded, and sustained CNPs through many trials and triumphs. To apply the values/beliefs in leading, managing, and operating CNPs now and in the future.
Summary of Historical Milestones The overview of the historical milestones has covered a hundred years in the history of child nutrition. These historical milestones have emphasized many important concepts.
The Philosophical Perspective How does philosophy relate to values and concepts? What is the source of CNP philosophy?
The Philosophical Framework Emma Smedley: The School Lunch was originally published in 1920 and reprinted in 1930. In this book she described an ideal SLP as one that has specific purposes and characteristics. She identified two specific purposes of the program: – to meet the food requirements of the child, helping to lay a foundation of physical vigor upon which the structure of mental training can be built, and – to serve as an educational factor instilling wise food habits and offering an opportunity for lessons in courtesy and consideration.
Mary de Garmo Bryan: The School Cafeteria Dr. Mary de Garmo Bryan, Professor of Institutional Management, Teacher’s College, Columbia University and a World War I dietitian, was no doubt influenced by what she had observed during her military experience and also by Emma Smedley’s work in Philadelphia schools during the twenties. Dr. Bryan served as president of both the ADA and ASFSA (SNA)
Basic Beliefs Dr. Bryan identified at least 32 basic beliefs that support the four roles. These belief statements are summarized in Managing Child Nutrition Programs: Leadership for Excellence (Martin, 1999)
Beliefs The philosophy and basic beliefs of Smedley and Bryan were not a matter of how the programs were financed, but why they existed and how they were operated. – They existed for the health, education, and well being of children. – They were operated on sound business principles. – They were expected to offer food of the highest quality that was appealing to the customer, and served in a pleasant and safe environment.
The Philosophy Imbedded in Law CNPs contribute to national security and the economy. Proper nutrition for the Nation’s children is a matter of highest priority. A relationship exists between nutrition and learning. All children need to have access to nutritionally sound programs and there shall be no discrimination in the service of meals to children. Children, parents, and teachers need to have and apply nutrition knowledge in practice. The way food is prepared and served has a major influence on the child’s acceptance or rejection of food.
Thelma Flanagan Thelma Flanagan, a supervisor of the WPA lunch programs, was the first State Director of School Food Service in the Florida Department of Education. Registered Dietitian. A collaborator. Practiced the art and skill of working with and through community organizations to achieve program goals. She believed that standards for the program and personnel were essential for effective programs. She recognized that it was essential to use sound business principles to manage and operate effective programs. She demonstrated visionary leadership in every aspect of her practice
Flanagan A leader in developing Polices and Standards A leader in Research Proposed minimum educational qualifications for food service directors be no less than a bachelors degree These qualifications would be approved by the state of Florida, Louisiana and Georgia
Flanagan A leader in research Believed that programs had to change to meet the continuing needs of children, education, and society. A wholly tax supported lunch program would teach children that nutrition is important, and would guarantee the availability of nutritionally adequate lunch.
Dr. E. Neige Todhunter A Distinguished Professor at the University of Alabama and Dean of the College of Home Economics Was to the nutrition education and training component of school lunch what Bryan and Medley were to the leadership and management component
Proponent of 4 major concepts essential to successful programs
Louise Sublette An area consultant in the Tennessee Department of Education and former President of ASFSA. She recognized that the site-based, front-line people—the school nutrition assistants or technicians—who face the children daily are the real heroes. They are the ones who make important decisions every day about how food is prepared and served. They are the ones who greet children and have a major influence on how students feel about the food offered and the program. Sublette’s book, I Remember School Lunch, describes her recollections of 45 years in school food service
Sublette Concerned about the lack of recognition and attention given to site based personnel. As President of ASFSA, she was instrumental in establishment of a certification program for site based personnel. 1999 ASFSA implemented a credentialing program
SNS Benefits Benefits of the SNS Credential Provides formal recognition of professional achievement at a national level Provides professional recognition from subordinates, peers and superiors Increases ability to manage a complex food service operation Demonstrates commitment to the school nutrition profession Enhances career opportunities Elevates self-esteem and pride in one’s work Improves credibility with school district administrators and the general public
Value of the Philosophical Perspective What are some words that help bring together this discussion of philosophical perspective words that embrace the values or beliefs related to the program? words that are reflected in beliefs and actions of the leaders profiled? 5 “A-words” that address meeting the school-day nutrition needs of children. – Available, – Accessible – Accountable – Appealing – Acceptable.
Foundation Building School and Community Support for Child Nutrition Programs
Objectives Recognize the importance of community support for CN. Identify strategies for working with stakeholders. Identify why partnerships are critical to effective Child Nutrition Programs(CNP). Recognize effective methods for building partnerships with school and community partners. Examine the influence of the political environment in which CNPs operate. Analyze the many roles of the CN director in building support for child nutrition and health. Identify basic principles of marketing CNPs
Schools as a Community Cornerstone Schools are important; they are major cornerstones of a community. A host of people, including those in real estate, economic development, community development, social welfare, and various business occupations, recognize that schools have a big influence on the well-being of a community and its people. Families often use school quality as a primary criterion when choosing a place to live. Some people are willing to commute long distances to their jobs in order to have their children in a particular school or school district. At the state and national levels, schools and education are often among the key platform components for those seeking political office
Child Nutrition as a Community Program Schools are an ideal place to address health needs of children and adolescents. Since 1918 when the cardinal principles of education were formed, health has been an integral part of the school’s function. From kindergarten through high school, a large portion of the average child’s life is spent in school. In the United States, 97% of children and adolescents are enrolled in school. That adds up to 50 million young people attending 100,000 schools daily. In addition, 6 million adults work as teachers/staff in schools. If we combine students and adults, one-fifth of the U. S. population can be found in schools.
Child Nutrition Programs Available Nationwide The National School Lunch Program (SLP) operates in nearly 100,000 public and nonprofit private schools and residential child care institutions. In Fiscal Year 2005 more than 29.6 million students participated each day in the SLP. The School Breakfast Program (SBP), authorized by the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (CNA) was made permanent in 1975. It is available in more than 72,000 schools and institutions. In fiscal year 2005, more than 9.33 million students received breakfast each school day.
Developing Healthy Eating Behaviors: A Community Effort Child nutrition leaders—unlike many groups and agencies concerned with health and nutrition—have the advantage of being part of schools. CN directors not only have the opportunity to work with the school staff and parents, they have the opportunity to work with people and groups in their communities who are interested in the nutritional health of children.
Stakeholders in Child Nutrition Programs You, as a CN professional, are a stakeholder by virtue of your position. In addition, you may also be a stakeholder as a parent or grandparent and you may also be involved in other organizations concerned with the health and well-being of children.
Why be Concerned About Stakeholders A legislator may have an interest at the policy level in passing a law that will have an impact on all of the CNPs in the state or nation. Examples would be mandating breakfast programs in all schools or providing funds to help pay personnel salaries. A student is interested in the school menu each day and time available to be served and eat. A school board member may be interested in how many students are participating in the program, who those students are, and the school’s facility needs. A parent might want to know how the cafeteria handles meals for field trips or how the CNP meets the needs of a child with a special food requirement. The person responsible for the school vending machines may be involved in a plan to get students to buy more food from the vending machines.
Interacting with Stakeholders When identifying stakeholders, we need to think of their proximity and how that influences the way we interact with them. At the national level we may see stakeholders more as organizations, businesses, or agencies. We may or may not know any of the individuals in these groups, but their influence on the CNP is recognized. For example, the School Nutrition Association (SNA) has identified 20 organizations as prominent and powerful allies. The SNA urges its members to find out how these stakeholder organizations are related to CNPs at the state or local level
Child Nutrition Alliances Building Partnerships Professionals who lead and manage CNPs are responsible for providing nutritious meals that affect the ability of children to be successful in the classroom and to learn healthy food behaviors. As a CN professional you are in a position to help shape the daily lifestyle choices of the students in the school. have the opportunity to influence the nutrition environment so that healthy food choices are available through all food outlets in the schools. can help provide sound nutrition education and messages as part of the educational day. can influence nutrition-related policies so they support a healthy school environment. can build alliances that support expanding and maintaining sound nutrition policies and programs
Working with Alliances Let’s explore the value of alliances as an effective strategy for working on nutrition issues. As a new CN director, the task of alliance building maybe new to you. However, you have probably worked with alliances in your community to support causes of mutual interest. Can you think of at least one alliance you have been a part of?
Evolution of Work in Child Nutrition We are still evolving in how we accomplish our nutrition related goals
Child Nutrition Alliances are Necessary These are opportunities that cannot be realized by acting alone. CN alliances or partnerships are needed for the CNP if we are to be successful in helping students form healthy eating habits. Many opportunities exist but few, if any, can be accomplished alone
Variations of Alliances/Partnerships Internally the CN director might network or interact with the school nurse to provide information on the nutrient content of school meals. Teachers and other members of the instructional staff to obtain information on how nutrition is integrated into the curriculum or to provide information on nutrition resources. The coach and health educators to coordinate nutrition and physical activity. The principal’s administrative staff for sharing information that impacts participation.
Variations of Alliances/Partnerships Externally the CN director might network or interact with the local public health nutritionist to obtain or provide information on childhood obesity or other topics of interest to the CNP. Parent-teacher group to provide information on why changes were made in the school menus. County extension service that may have a Food Stamp grant to deliver nutrition education in the school
Variations of Alliances/Partnerships Cooperation Organizational Partnership: Coalition Long Term Alliances/Partnerships: Collaboration Advantages of Alliances/Partnerships
8 Keys of Successful Alliances/Partnerships 1. Shared Vision 2. Skilled Leadership 3. Process Orientation 4. Diversity 5. Membership driven Agenda 6. Multiple Sectors 7. Accountability 8. Sell the stakeholder on the importance of being involved
6 Initiatives Using Alliances/Partnerships 1. The Local Wellness Policy 2. Healthier US School Challenge 3. Call to Action: Ten keys to promote healthy eating in schools 4. Changing the Scene 5. Action for Healthy Kids 6. CDC’s Healthy Your Key Strategies to Prevent Obesity
The Local Wellness Policy Section 204 for the 2004 Reauthorization Act requires LEAs to establish a local wellness policy and to have the policy in place by the first day of the 06-07 school year.
Healthier US School Challenge USDA’s Food and Nutrition Services (FNS) has established the HealthierUS School Challenge to encourage schools to make changes in their school nutrition environments, improve the quality of the foods served, and provide students with more nutritious, healthy choices. This challenge is based on the premise that schools should be taking the lead in helping students learn to make healthy eating and active lifestyle choices www.letsmove.gov
Call to Action: Ten Keys USDA worked with five medical associations to develop a Call to Action: Ten Keys to Promote Healthy Eating in Schools. The Call to Action is designed to assist each school community in writing its own prescription for change
Changing the Scene: Improving the Child Nutrition Environment A Commitment to Nutrition and Physical Activity Quality School Meals Other Healthy Food Choices Pleasant Eating Experiences Nutrition Education Marketing
Action for Healthy Kids Action for Healthy Kids (AFHK ) is a non-profit organization formed specifically to address the epidemic of overweight, undernourished, and sedentary youth by focusing on changes at school. www.actionforhealthykids.org
The Six Initiatives The six initiatives described have strategies that must engage the community and key stakeholders to accomplish successful outcomes. The criteria for implementing these initiatives demonstrate the essential role of alliances and partnerships in achieving goals. CN directors need essential knowledge and skills to be active and successful in working with alliances to build community support
The Changing Role of the Child Nutrition Director The public is looking to the CNP for positive outcomes. We say, “Our meals are healthy.” They say, “Show me.” We say, “CNPs make a difference in a child’s health.” They ask, “Why has the rate of overweight adolescents tripled?”
Director’s Roles Information expert Resource identifier Leader Motivator and encourager Team builder
Information Expert Participation in the program, Who eats in the school cafeteria, The food and menu offered in the cafeteria, The sale of extra food items that compete with a healthy school meal both within the cafeteria and outside the cafeteria, Factors that influence eating behaviors and choices, Foods that are customer favorites, Ways the cafeteria can be used as a learning laboratory and an extension of the classroom, the level of coordination between the CN staff and the instructional staff, policies that support and maintain a healthy school environment, federal regulations and local policies that guide the program, and how the school internal and external dynamics affect the program.
Identifying Resources for the Alliance Who is the contact in the local school district that can assist in locating various types of funding such as grants or special foundation funding? Is there technical assistance available from the state CNP office? Who has up-coming grant opportunities? Are there grant opportunities through organizations such as the SNA, the Child Nutrition Division of the state agency, or the state agriculture agency? Who in the community has shown an interest in obesity prevention and control that is not part of the alliance? Should the alliance be expanded to include other individuals or organizations in the community? Who is interested in health, both inside and outside the school community? What are the resources available from NFSMI that would help the alliance develop its action plan—resources such as NFSMI’s DVD on Developing a Local Wellness Policy. Materials related to the NFSMI training including downloadable printed materials and an online webcast are available at http://www.nfsmi.org What types of initiatives could be implemented into the existing school day? Who would be responsible for managing the initiatives
Motivation and Encouragement Perhaps it is the director’s role to point out how important the school nutrition environment is to the health, education, and self-esteem of their children. alliance members can help to upgrade the policies and standards in the school that support a healthy learning environment. their involvement will be a catalyst to help children develop healthy lifestyles. meaningful it is to have early diet intervention for children as they grow into adulthood. This may be the time to point out the huge role diet has in our overall health, regardless of age.
Team Building A successful CN director understands the importance of being inclusive of partners who influence our customers. One CN director has stated that her job is to operate a financially solid program and that this is a full time job. The director also said that additional time was spent providing training to CNP
Who Should Be Involved in Building Alliances? The work of alliance building in CNPs belongs not only to the CN director, but to anyone who has interest in the health and academic success of each child that comes through the school door
Think about your own work style. Do you enjoy working alone and communicating only with other nutrition professionals about nutrition issues? Or are you linked into your community through solid relationships with parents, business and industry leaders, health related staff, and a wide range of school related staff?
The Political Environment for Child Nutrition Programs The CNPs operate in a political environment. Laws and policies are made at the state, national, and even at the local level by elected or appointed representatives. These laws and policies set the parameters for how CNPs must operate
Child Nutrition in the Public Arena Why are public policy and politics so pervasive in CNPs? A look at some of the ways in which child nutrition fits into the public arena will help answer the question. See page 52 of Participant Guide
Child Nutrition Operates in a Political Environment Being political in child nutrition is both a responsibility and an opportunity. CN directors have the responsibility to be knowledgeable in all aspects of the program. to be accountable to all the stakeholders. for giving accurate and complete information to the public, including the media. to be an advocate for the program.
Politics as an Opportunity CN professionals have an opportunity to make others aware of the important role the CNP plays in the health and education of students. Since CN professionals work in a complex political system, they can work within the system to be positive change agents. What are some ways the CN director helps create awareness and make change?
Marketing Child Nutrition Programs Why is it necessary to market the CNP?
Use of Social Marketing in Child Nutrition We need to look at marketing as a broader concept—a concept that includes all communication with customers or those who have influence on CNPs, public relations, merchandising, advertising, and promotion
Social Marketing: Definition and Goals The objective of social marketing is to benefit target individuals or groups, not the marketer. It is not fund raising, or trying to get someone elected, or trying to get people to cast votes in a particular way. The basic means of achieving improved welfare is through influencing behaviors—in most cases to bring about a change in behavior. If you are a social marketer, you are trying to change behavior, not get someone to buy a particular product or service. The target audience is the primary focus in the social marketing process. This means that the customer is in the center of social marketing.
The Relationship Between Change Theory and Marketing Stage 1: Precontemplation The marketer must create an awareness within the customer, an interest in the need for change, and a desire to change values. show customers that they can improve their own lives.
The Relationship Between Change Theory and Marketing Stage 2: Contemplation The marketer must persuade, motivate, and get customers to think and understand that the action you want from them is good for them.
Marketing Stage 3: Action The marketer must create action. get customers to both think they can do this act and actually act. encourage the customer to move ahead and try the action.
Marketing Stage 4: Maintenance The marketer must help the customer maintain the change, get the customer to see the benefits and rewards of the action, and repeat the behavior.
Child Nutrition Policies The Hot Button issues presented for your information in this lesson will affect the outcome of the CNP in your school district or school. The two Hot Buttons in Lesson Four are CN Policies, and Pouring Rights Contracts
Food & Nutrition Program Staff Carmen Ocanas-Lerma Food & Nutrition Program Director (956)984-6124 firstname.lastname@example.org Kim L. Keller Food & Nutrition Program Specialist (956) 984-6121 email@example.com Gilberto Requena Food & Nutrition Program Specialist (956) 984-6108 firstname.lastname@example.org Iris S. Perez Food & Nutrition Program Specialist (956) 984-6102 email@example.com
New Directors Seminar This service (or product) is provided through the Texas Department of Agriculture's school nutrition education, and outreach program funded by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. In accordance with Federal Law and U.S. Department of Agriculture policy, this institution is prohibited from discriminating on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability. To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Director, Office of Adjudication, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, D.C. 20250-9410 or call toll free (866) 632-9992 (Voice). Individuals who are hearing impaired or have speech disabilities may contact USDA through the Federal Relay Service at (800) 877-8339; or (800) 845-6136 (Spanish). USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer” (USDA, 2011).