Objectives Content: Analyze primary source accounts of the Homestead Strike. Language: Explain the changes desired by Bryan and T. Roosevelt.
The Progressive Movement Progressive = Change -These changes included: -Breakup of monopolies -Improvement in Working Conditions -Limitations on Child Labor -Rise of Labor Unions -Temperance Movement -Women’s Suffrage
Early Attempts at Reform Unions Workers responded to dangerous conditions by forming Labor Unions. Business owners saw labor unions as unfair because they prevent competition. The largest impact was made by organizing a strike.
Strikes Strikes were often violent and deadly and many people did not support this lawless disorder.
The Homestead Strike In 1892, workers went on strike at Carnegie’s steel plant in Homestead, PA. The strike occurred because of increased hours, decreased wages, and unsafe conditions. Workers barricaded themselves in front of the plant.
The Homestead Strike Frick (Carnegie’s general manager) tried to take the plant back by force. Eventually the PA governor sent in troops.
The Homestead Strike Lives were lost on both sides. The strike was a failure since the strikers were immediately replaced by non-union strikebreakers – new workers that came in to work during the strike.
Politics William Jennings Bryan Ran for President three times Fought for the lower classes and the rights of laborers/farmers Spoke out against political corruption
Theodore Roosevelt Success in Spanish American War gives him celebrity status Vice President and then President of U.S. Believed president was the “steward of the people,” = he could not be bought or manipulated.
Theodore Roosevelt Anti-trust - preventing or controlling trusts or other monopolies, with the intention of promoting competition.
Warm Up List as many details about the photo as you can. What do you think was the purpose of the photographer in taking this picture?
Objectives Content: Defend your position on who was to blame for the tragedy at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory. Language: Explain the importance of Lewis Hine and Samuel Gompers.
In the 1900s, a group of writers began writing stories that exposed government corruption and other problems of American society. These writers were known as muckrakers because they “dug up” the “dirt” about of American society. Muckrakers
Many muckraker stories were printed in magazines and widely read. As the public became informed of these problems, they began to demand REFORM! Ex: The Jungle Pure Food and Drug Act (FDA) and the Meat Inspection Act in 1906
Workplace Reforms Reforms were needed because of these three negative effects of industrialization: 1.Unsafe working conditions 2.Low wages and long hours 3.Child Labor
Unsafe Working Conditions Labor unions were weak. Workers worked for long hours, for low pay, in dangerous environments. The Triangle shirtwaist factory fire of 1911 Safari Montage/See handout This video is upsetting and will talk/show real footage from after the fire. If you wish to be excused, tell me and I will give you an alternate assignment. This was one of the tragic events that led to workplace reforms
Child Labor Young children worked for long hours and low pay in dangerous environments. These children received no education. Lewis Hine used photographs of children working to try to reform (and end) child labor practices. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_tY1gk6J6zc&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_tY1gk6J6zc&feature=related
The Rise of Labor Unions Samuel Gompers began the American Federation of Labor (also called the AFL) It was one of the most powerful Labor Unions The American Federation of Labor (AFL) had 1.6 million members by 1904.
Progressive Movement Workplace Reforms In the end, the Labor Unions had many successes 1.Improved safety conditions 2.Reduced work hours 3.Placed restrictions on Child Labor Expanded Education In 1865 most children attended school for only 4 years By 1914 80% of all children (ages 5-17) were enrolled in school
Objectives Content: Analyze primary sources to explain the Temperance Movement. Language: Write flashcards for the 18 th, 19 th, and 21 st Amendments.
During the Progressive Era, people began to believe that it was government’s job to help solve society’s problems. Many new laws were passed as a result of the progressive movement, including several amendments to the Constitution. Progressive Era Constitutional Changes
Progressive leaders of the time included muckrakers, elected government officials and very often, women.
Progressive Era Amendments 18 th – (1919) Prohibition of Alcoholic Beverages 19 th - (1920) Women’s Suffrage (The right to vote) 21 st – (1933) Repeal of Prohibition Amendment
18 th Amendment “Prohibition” (also known as The Temperance Movement) prohibited: the production, sale, or transportation of alcoholic beverages in the United States.
21 st Amendment Repeal of Prohibition Prohibition amendment was so controversial, that it became one of the central issues of the1932 Presidential election FDR (Franklin Delano Roosevelt) ran and won on a platform which included an end to Prohibition
Objectives Content: Label a timeline showing the order of individuals gaining the right to vote in the U.S. Language: Explain importance of Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
15 th Amendment - 1871 Granted African-American men the right to vote Disappointed many women who thought African-American men and women would be enfranchised together African Americans were split over whether men should get vote before women
Sojourner Truth, 1869 “There is a great stir about colored men getting their rights, but not a word about the colored women … And if colored men get their rights, and not colored women theirs, you see the colored men will be masters over the women, and it will be just as bad as it was before.” Sojourner Truth, 1864
Famous Suffragettes National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) Big leaders in the women’s suffrage movement: Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton Two strategies: Try to win suffrage state by state Try to pass a Constitutional Amendment (but this would need to be ratified by 36 states – or three-fourths)
Anti-suffragists Those who opposed extending the right to vote to women were called anti-suffragists. Many anti’s were women. “O Save Us, Senators, from Ourselves!”
Beliefs of Anti-Suffragists Women were high-strung, irrational, and emotional Women were not smart or educated enough Women should stay at home Women were too physically frail; they would get tired just walking to the polling station Women would become masculine if they voted
Women’s Suffrage Women gained the right to vote with the passage of the 19 th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America. Women gained voting rights and increased educational opportunities http://youtu.be/co6qKVBciAw
Discrimination against Native Americans Native Americans did not receive any citizenship rights in the United States until 1924. This means that they were the last group of people to be given Constitutional rights!