2From Empire to Independence The Seven Years War in AmericaThe Imperial Crisis in British North America“Save Your Money & Save Your Country”From Resistance to RebellionDeciding for Independence
3From Empire to Independence Key Topics:The final struggle among G. Britain, France, and natives for control of eastern North AmericaAmerican nationalism in the aftermath of the French- Indian WarGreat Britain’s changing policy towards its North American coloniesThe political assumptions of American RepublicanismThe colonies’ efforts to achieve unity
5The Seven Year’s WarAlso known as the French Indian War from 1754 to 1763.It was the last north America War between Britain & France.The war produced native allies on both sides.The war ended with the French defeat.
6The Seven Years War in North America Cooperation seen among colonial leaders to fight the French and natives for the lands between the Miss River & Appalachian Mts. It also laid the groundwork for conflict between the colonists and the British.
7Albany Conference of 1754Colonial leaders met with the Iroquois Nation to form an alliance but the natives walked out. The conference adopted Ben Franklin’s Albany Plan of Union, which called for colonial unity regarding native affairs, western settlement,commerce and communication. British authorities were against it & colonial assemblies voted against it. Importance- Showed the colonists staring to come together and attempting to form a powerful entity.
8European Territories in 1763 Treaty of Paris ended the war & France gave up all North American claims except New Orleans, which was ceded to Spain.Spain ceded Florida to Britain in exchange for Caribbean Islands.
9European Territories 1763Britain- Territories in North America stretched from Hudson Bay to the Caribbean; from the Atlantic to the Miss River.France- Territory reduced to two small islands.Spain-Cuba, the Philippines, Louisiana and California.
10The Imperial Crisis in British North America, Section 2 How did overwhelming British success in the French-Indian’s War lead to an imperial crisis in British North America?
11Emergence of American Nationalism During the Revolution, differences between colonists & the British emerged:Discipline, name calling, similar experiences, a developing national identity
12Imperial Crisis in North America The Press- Weekly newspapers functioned as am mouthpiece for the gov’t.Peter Zenger Case- was jailed due to criticizing the governor of NY. The issue of debate was freedom of the press.
13Imperial Crisis in North America Peter Zenger Case- Alexander Hamilton argued that freedom of the press was a right citizens. Zenger was eventually acquitted.
14Imperial Crisis in North America Republicanism- The ideas and values that influenced American political behavior during the 18th and 19th centuries.ideas:A just society provided the greatest liberty to citizens.A ruler’s authority should be conditional & not absolute.The power of people to remove a ruler from office.Private ownership of property & representative government.
15The Sugar & Stamp Acts“…there shall be raised, levied, collected, and paid, unto His Majesty, his heirs, and successors, for and upon all white or clay sugars of the produce or manufacture of any colony or plantation in America…”Sugar Act 1764British Parliament
16The Stamp & Sugar ActsPurpose- To raise revenue in the colonies to help pay for the French- Indian War.A tax was placed on imported sugar & regulations for ships became stricter.The movement for nonimportation began in Boston.
17The Stamp Act Crisis-1765Stamp Act1765- Law passed by Parliament to raise $ in America. A tax was placed on any legal documents like paper, licenses, legal documents, publications and playing cards.
18The Stamp Act CrisisThe real issue was not taxes but colonial representation in Parliament.The colonists argued they couldn’t be axed because they were not represented in Parliament.Their rallying cry became, “ NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION !”
19Stamp Act CrisisVirtual Representation- Members of Parliament represent all citizens of the British Empire.Actual Representation- the practice of having elected representatives that reside in your district and represent local interests in Parliament.
20Repeal of the Stamp ActIn 1766, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act after a growing nonimportation movement in the colonies worried British officials.Britain also passed the Declaratory Act which stated Parliament had the authority to make laws for the colonists in all areas.
21“Save Your Money and Save Your Country” How did political and economic problems in Britain contribute to unrest in the colonies?
22Save Your Money & Save Your Country The Townshend Revenue Acts England was suffering from massive unemployment, high prices and national debt. Parliament passed the Revenue Act, which was a revenue measure that placed a tax on lead, glass, paint, paper and tea.Colonial Response- Letters From a Farmer in Pennsylvania.Nonimportation & nonconsumption associations.
23Save Your Money & Save Your Country The Boston Massacre- The problems began in NY with the Sons of Liberty, radicals, clashing with British soldiers.In Boston, the relations between soldiers and colonists continued to decline…. Competition for jobs, protests, taunts, rock throwing.After being attacked by a job of civilians, a British soldier was defended by a larger group of Br. Soldiers and they opened fire upon of a crowd of civilians.Result- The Townshend Act was repealed.
24From Resistance to Rebellion What were the principal events leading to the beginning of armed conflict at Lexington & Concord?
25From Resistance to Rebellion 1773- Parliament passed the Tea Act permitted the East India Company to sell tea through middlemen & not pay a duty tax, thus reducing the retail price. Other tea companies still had to pay the duty.
26From Resistance to Rebellion The Boston Tea Party-When the governor of MA demanded tea ships to be unloaded & the nonimportation agreements broken, colonists dumped tea into Boston Harbor.
27The Boston Tea PartyTea Parties followed in NYC, Annapolis, Charleston
28The Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts) In response to the Boston Tea Party, Parliament passed the Intolerable Acts (1774) which was aimed at weakening Boston radicals & strengthening Britain.A. Boston Port BillB. MA Government ActC. Town meetings ended- no more self-ruleD. Administration of Justice ActE. Quartering ActF. Quebec ActG. General Thomas Gage replaced the governor
29The Intolerable ActsBoston Port Bill- Prohibited the loading or unloading of any ship in Boston Harbor until the damaged tea & property were paid for, including 3 shipsMA Government Act- annulled the MA colonial charter; all colonial officials were under direct control of the King.
30The Intolerable ActsAdministration of Justice Act- Protected British officials from colonial courts, encouraged suppression of colonists and any British official/soldier accused of wrong doing would be tried in Britain.
31The Intolerable ActsQuartering Act- Legalized the housing of troops of colonial public expense in private homes, taverns, abandoned buildingsQuebec Act- Parliament appointed a Governor for Canada and became the authority for the entire region…threatened colonial liberty.
32The Intolerable ActsGeneral Thomas Gage, the infamous British General, took control of Boston and imposed martial law.
33First Continental Congress Philadelphia Meeting of colonial delegates in response to the Intolerable Acts. They endorsed the:Suffolk Resolves
34Lexington & ConcordSeptember 1, General Gage sent British soldiers to Concord to gain control of the militia’s armories. The Ma militia, minutemen, were sent to meet them by the Committee of Safety.
35Lexington & concordMilitiamen met the British at Lexington where shots were fired & 8 Americans were killed. The British marched to Concord where they were outnumbered & attacked by militiamen. The British burned down the armory & marched back to Boston. They were attacked all the way back.
36Lexington & Concord British: Dead- 73, wounded-202 Americans: 95 casualties out of 4,000
37Deciding for Independence The Second Continental CongressOpened on May 10, 1775Wrote the Olive Branch Petition, which asked the king to end hostilities and work to a resolution.Congress resolved to put their colonies in a state of defense.George Washington was nominated as Commander-in –Chief of the Continental Army.
38Deciding for Independence Second Continental Congress- Also passed the Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms, which the men promised to fight than remain under the tight control of the King.
39No Turning BackColonists: 2nd Continental Congress assumed role of new gov’t, they organized an army, declared British ships open to capture and authorized privateering, contacted foreign powers, opened ports to trade with all nationsBritish: King proclaimed the colonies were in rebellion, mobilize more troops
40No Turning BackWe fight not to enslave, but to set a country free, and to make room upon the earth for honest men to live in.Thomas Paine, The Crisis, no. 4, September 11, 1777Thomas Paine wrote, Common Sense, a pamphlet defending the colonists’ break from Britain and how “common sense” the decision was. The publication became the most widely read item in 1776.