Presentation on theme: "Daily “Bell Ringer” Warm Up"— Presentation transcript:
0“The Trust Giants’ Point of View” U.S. History & The Constitution Unit 6 Notes:The Gilded Age“The Trust Giants’ Point of View”U.S. History & The ConstitutionMr. Weathers
1Daily “Bell Ringer” Warm Up 2nd Nine WeeksBell Ringer #7 (11 & 12 Dec)7.) How did Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) affect the rights of African Americans?a.) It declared the doctrine of “separate but equal” constitutional.b.) It forced colleges to admin persons of all races.c.) It established harsh punishment for businesses that discriminated againstAfrican Americans.d.) It forced the South to repeal Jim Crow laws such as the poll taxes & eightbox laws.CORRECT ANSWER: A
2Today’s Lesson Standard / Indicator Standard USHC-4: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the industrial development & the consequences of that development on society & politics during the second half of the nineteenth & the early twentieth centuries.USHC-4.1: Summarize the impact that government policy & the construction of the transcontinental railroads had on the development of the national market & on the culture of Native American peoples.USHC-4.4: Explain the impact of industrial growth and business cycles on farmers, workers, immigrants, labor unions, & the Populist movement & the ways that these groups & the government responded to the economic problems caused by industry & business.
3Railroads Expand West1.) 1870 – 1900: generous federal land policy & completion of transcontinental railroad lines made rapid settlement of the West possible.2.) Railroad linked the Atlantic & Pacific coasts of the U.S. in Allowed for the expansion of settlers, goods, & markets west.3.) By 1884, 5 transcontinentalrailroads crossed the U.S.4.) Railroad companies soldland to farmers to helpraise capital (money) &encourage settlement inthe West.May 10, 1869, with the ceremonial driving of the "Last Spike" at Promontory Summit, Utah
4Railroads Expand West Cont. First Transcontinental R.R. (1869)Transcontinental Railroads by 1900
5Railroads Expand West Cont. 5.) The growth of railroads westward allowed for:- Industries to grow rapidly = keep up with the railroads demand for parts,- Fostered the growth of cities & towns.- Established new markets in the West.
6Settlement of the West6.) Homestead Act (1862): provided 160 acres to heads-of-household thattook their family to settle in the West.7.) Conflict arose between the Native Americans of the Great Plains &settlers that moved west.- Settlers argued that Native Americans had forfeited their rights tothe land because they had not improved it.Homesteaders & Their “Soddy”Kansas Exodusters
7Clashes led to numerous massacres “Indian Wars”- Movement west led to“Indian wars” betweenhomesteaders & NativeAmericans.Clashes led to numerous massacresthroughout the late 1800s.- Among these: Sand Creek, Fetterman & theWounded Knee massacres.
8Plight of the Native Americans 8.) Native American tribes of the Great Plains were relocated to reservationsas territorial conflict between the Indians & settlers increased.9.) Many American sympathizers to the plight of the Native Americanssupported assimilation, which encouraged a minority groups adoption ofthe beliefs & way of life from a dominant culture.Native American Assimilation into American Culture.
10Plight of the Native Americans 10.) U.S. Government passed the Dawes Act in 1887.- Broke up reservations & gave 160 acres to the head of household &80 acres to unmarried adults.- The government sold the remaining land & allowed the NativeAmericans to buy farm implements.11.) Native Americans made nomoney from the landto settlers from the Dawes Act.12.) The near extinction of thebuffalo by white settlersbrought an end to thetraditional lifestyle of theGreat Plains Indians.
11Plight of the Native Americans “Dawes Act” in Action
12Plight of the Native Americans Piles of buffalo hides ready for shipmentto the East, & a “hill” of buffalo skulls.
13Rise of the Populist Party 13.) The late 1800s brought a viscous economic cycle that trapped farmers.- Crop Prices were falling.- Farmers mortgaged their farms to buy more land & produce morecrops = prices fell more.- Banks were foreclosing on mortgages as farmers couldn’tpay back their loans.- Railroads were charging excessive prices for the shipping& storage of crops.
14Rise of the Populist Party 14.) The Grange was a farmer createdorganization that pushed railroadreform, including teaching membershow to organize, setting upcooperatives, & sponsored statelegislation to regulate railroads.15.) The Populist Party was created in1892 as the “People’s Party” torepresent farmers & the working class.
15Rise of the Populist Party 16.) Economic & governmental reforms proposed by the populists included:- An increase in the money supply = rise in prices for goods &services.- A graduated income tax & federal loan program.- Election of senators by popular vote & single terms forpresidents /vice pres.- A secret ballot to end vote fraud.- Eight hour workday & restrictions to immigration.
16William Jennings Bryan Rise of the Populist Party17.) The 1896 presidential campaign brought forth the issue of what preciousmetal would back the nation’s money.- Populists aligned themselves with the “silverites” that believed inbi-metallism, which backed money with both silver & gold =stimulate the economy, & the free coinage of silver.- “Gold bugs” supported the backing of dollars only with gold.18.) William Jennings Bryan wasnominated as the Democraticcandidate for the 1896 election& backed by the Populists.William Jennings BryanElection of 1896
17McKinley & the Gold Standard - Republican William McKinleysupported the gold standard.- Strengthen the value of the dollar & big business.
18Election of 189619.) Bryan expressed his support for bimetallism in his “Cross of Gold”speech.20.) Ultimately, Republican William McKinley won the 1896 election & endedthe Populist movement.21.) The two legacies left by the Populists included:- The downtrodden could organize & have political impact.- An agenda of reforms, which carried on into the 20th century.(Progressive Era roots)
19“Cross of Gold” – Williams Jenning Bryan “Having behind us the commercialinterests & the laboring interests & allthe toiling masses, we shall answer theirdemands for a gold standard by sayingto them, you shall not press down uponthe brow of labor this crown of thorns.You shall not crucify mankind upon across of gold.” – William J. Bryan
20Gold Triumphs over Silver 1900 → Gold Standard Act.confirmed the nation’s commitment to the gold standard.A victory for the forces of conservatism.Republicans would dominate politics the next decade
211896 Campaign ButtonsAre you a “silverite” or a “gold bug”?
22Part TwoThe Rise of American Industry(American Industrial Revolution)
23Today’s Lesson Standard / Indicator Standard USHC-4: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the industrial development & the consequences of that development on society & politics during the second half of the nineteenth & the early twentieth centuries.USHC-4.2: Analyze the factors that influenced the economic growth of the United States & its emergence as an industrial power, including the abundance of natural resources; government support & protection in the form of railroad subsidies, tariffs, & labor policies; & the expansion of international markets.USHC-4.3: Evaluate the role of capitalism & its impact on democracy, including the ascent of new industries, the increasing availability of consumer goods & the rising standard of living, the role of entrepreneurs, the rise of business through monopoly & the influence of business ideologies.USHC-4.5: Explain the causes & effects of urbanization in late nineteenth-century America, including the movement from farm to city, the changing immigration patterns, the rise of ethnic neighborhoods, the role of political machines, & the migration of African Americans to the North, Midwest, & West.
24Presidents of the Gilded Age During the Gilded Age, it can be argued that the presidents of theUnited States had less power than the business leaders.James GarfieldChester A. ArthurGrover ClevelandBenjamin Harrison- The policies & actions of the government during the Gilded Age gave large corporations the freedom to do most whatever it wanted, leading to an industrial boom in the U.S.
25Inventors & Inventions Alexander Graham BellSamuel F.B. Morse"Mr. Watson -come here - I want to see you."
26Inventors & Inventions Thomas EdisonGeorge Westinghouse
28The “Robber Barons” (Captains of Industry) Entrepreneurs & Industrialists like Cornelius Vanderbilt, Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller & J.P. Morgan were able to build great fortunes during the Gilded AgeOilJohn D. RockefellerSteelAndrew CarnegieRailroadsCornelius VanderbiltJ.P. MorganBankingThe government created policies to support the industrialistsHigh tariffs led to lower prices for American made goodsThere were very few government regulations on big businessGovernment supported owners over workers in labor disputes
29“History Repeats Itself – The Robber Barons of the Middle Ages & the Robber Barons of To-Day.”
30Introduction of the “Trusts” - By 1900, a few large corporations, called "trusts", dominated in steel, oil, sugar, meat & farm machinery.- Used "vertical integration" to control each aspect of the production =ensured that the profits made on the finished product were maximized.- Controlled access to the raw materials = prevented opponents from entering the marketplace.- End result - sole producer of a certain manufactured good & no competition in the marketplace to lower prices.John D. Rockefeller& Standard Oil Co.
31Rise of Monopolies- Monopoly = having exclusive control of a commodity or service in a particularmarket, or a control that makes possible the manipulation of prices.
32Rockefeller Political Cartoon “What a Funny Little Government” by Horace TaylorThe Verdict Magazine (Sept 1899)
33Horizontal vs. Vertical Integration Rockefeller (early)Carnegie (& later Rockefeller)
34The Bessemer Process - The Bessemer Process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production ofsteel.- By the late 1880s an immigrant by the nameof Andrew Carnegie used this process to becomea millionaire.
35The Gospel of Wealth - Many believed that those who profited from society owed something in return. This philosophyof giving back to society became known as the“Gospel of Wealth”.- The Captain of Industry who most believed in the Gospel of Wealth was Andrew Carnegie, who gave millions of dollars to numerous charities.
36Finance Capitalists- 1892: Morgan arranged the creation of General Electric through the merger of Edison General Election & Thomson-Houston Electric Company.- 1901: he formed the U.S. Steel Corporation by buying Carnegie Steel from Andrew Carnegie for $487 million & consolidating it with several other steel & iron companies.- U.S. Steel became the first billion-dollar company in the world with $1.4 billion in authorized capital.J.P. Morgan
37Protective Tariffs & Social Darwinism - High import/export Tariffs taxed foreign imports & made it easier for US businesses to sell their products.- Europeans resisted buying US crops becauseof higher prices = farmers suffered.- Economic depressions occurred in 1873 & 1898.- Social Darwinism: belief that life was a battle of survival of the fittest.- Many business leaders adopted this philosophy to their businesspractices.- Many Christians rejected this philosophy as it went against their beliefs.
38Free Enterprise System - The free enterprise system is the economicsystem in which citizens are free to run abusiness the way they want.- The system is based on the laissez-faire theory, meaning a business will succeed or fail & the government will not interfere.The free enterprise system allowed the U.S. to become a world industrial giant in the late 1800s & led to numerous new inventions.
39The Gilded Age - The era was called the Gilded Age because although life in the U.S. lookedbright & shiny, underneath the surface,there was lots of poverty & corruption.Mark Twain’s novel,The Gilded Age
40Rise of industry in the “New South” - During the Gilded Age, the South attempted to modernize & embraceindustrialization.Interior of a southern Textile Mill- Textile manufacturing became the dominant industry in the Southduring this time.
41Interstate Commerce Act (1887) - Created the Interstate Commerce Commission.- In response to Wabash v. Illinois, Congress passed a law that rates must bereasonable & just (fair)- Made it illegal to charge higher rates for shorter hauls (prohibiteddiscriminating against small markets)- Ineffective because there was no enforcement of the law
42Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) - Made it illegal to combine a companyInto a trust or conspire to restraintrade or commerce.- Made monopolies illegal.- The law was ineffective because itwas vague & the courts did notenforce it.
44"One sees his (Uncle Sam's) finish unless good government retakes the ship"
45Part Three- Immigration/migration- Politics- The Labor Movement
46“Rags to Riches” & the “American Dream” - Immigrants came to America with thehope they could become rich &successful if they worked hard enough.- Novelist Horatio Alger wrotestories where the main characterwent from “rags to riches.”- Going from “rags to riches” became known as achieving “The AmericanDream”.
47Migration & Population Shifts - The Post Reconstruction South saw limited job availability in textile mills forAfrican Americans.- The South was in an agricultural depression with crop failures.- Social discrimination – Jim Crow Laws & increasing violence.- Many African Americans movedfrom the rural (country) areas ofthe South to the urban (city) areasof the NE & Midwest U.S.- Usually last hired & first fired.- Used as “strikebreakers” = resentmentby factory workers.- Many African Americans moved tothe West (i.e. Kansas’ “Exodusters”).
48“The Proposed Immigrant Dumping Site” Cover of Judge Magazine, 1890 Anti-Immigrant Reaction: Nativism- Nativism: political position demanding favored status for certain established inhabitants of a nation vs. newcomers or immigrants.- Nativists opposed immigration &supported efforts to lower thepolitical or legal status of specificethnic/cultural groups.- Many felt immigrants couldn’t beassimilated & threatened jobs forAmericans.“The Proposed Immigrant Dumping Site”Cover of Judge Magazine, 1890
49Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 - The Chinese Exclusion Act prevented Chinese immigrants from legallycoming to the United States.- It was not repealed until 1943.“The Only One Barred Out”
50Child Labor- The common practice of using child labor in factories during the Gilded Agebrought issues of abuses to light.- Working twelve+ hour days & six day weeks.- Drawing children into the endless cycle of poverty.- Many children simply missed out on their childhood.
531870s Political Machines - Political machines controlled the activities of political parties in the city.- Ward bosses, precinct captains, & the city boss worked to:ensure that their candidates were elected.make sure that city government worked to their advantage.- The “machines” exchanged jobs,housing, citizenship, favors, etc.for immigrants’ political votes & loyalty- Graft, kickbacks, & corruption werethe standard.
541870s Political Machine Organization - Like a pyramid: local precinct workers & captains at the base, ward bosses in the middle, & the city boss at the top- City Boss = Power broker (most were democrats & many were immigrants themselves)William Marcy "Boss" Tweed– “Tweed Ring”“The Brains”Thomas Nast
56Thomas Nast - Political cartoonist for Harper’s Weekly. - He attacked the Tammany Hall (Democratic) political machine that ran New York City in the late 1800s .- He created the Democratic Donkey (he did not like the Democrats), & the Republican Elephant symbols, the Tammany Tiger, & even Santa Claus.Republican ElephantDemocratic DonkeySanta Claus
57Patronage & Civil Service Legislation - Patronage: act of giving government jobs to supporters of the winningparty in an election (Spoils System”).- Reformers pushed for adoption of a merit system (hiring the most qualifiedfor jobs).- The Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883 authorized a bipartisan commissionto make appointments for federal jobs based on performance.- Applicants required to take a civil service examination for government jobs.
58Rise of Early Unions- Free enterprise system = businesses made their own rules.- No government interference = business owners could pay workerswhat they wanted & make them work as long hours.- Industrialization contributed to the development of organized labor becauseit created low-wage, low-skill jobs that made employees easy to replace.- Many Union organizers were blacklisted = impossible for them to get a job.- Businesses locked workers out & refused to pay them.- Workers were forced to sign “yellow dog” contracts saying they would notjoin a union.
59Key Labor Leaders - Eugene V. Debs was the powerful leader of the American Railway Union.- Debs ran for president four times as acandidate for the Socialist Party.- Samuel Gompers was the first leaderof the American Federation of Labor;a union of over 20 trade unions.- He believed unions should stay outof politics & should negotiate ratherthan strike.
60Great Railroad Strike of 1877 - 1877, an economic recession led to some railroads cutting wages, triggering the first nationwide labor strike. It became known as the Great Railroad Strike.- Some workers turned violent & numerous states had to call out their state militias to stop the violence.
61First Union - Knights of Labor - In response to the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, labor organizers formed the first nationwide industrial union – the Knights of Labor.- The Knights called for an eight-hour workday, supported the use ofarbitration & began to organize strikes.
62Haymarket Riot- The Haymarket Riot - disturbance that took place on May 4, 1886, in Chicago,- began as a rally in support of striking workers.- A bomb was thrown during the rally, which started a riot. Eight men were convicted; four were executed. One was a member of the Knights of Labor.
63Homestead Strike (1892)Homestead Strike: workers of Andrew Carnegie’s U.S. Steel went on strike after a tense labor dispute led to a lockout.One of the most violent strikes in U.S. history & a major setback for unions.
64Pullman Strike- The Pullman Strike: a nationwide conflict between labor unions & railroads that occurred near Chicago in 1894.- Organized by Eugene V. Debs afterunion workers were fired.- Shut down the nation’s railroads &threatened the economy.