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What were the effects of enclosure? L/O – To identify the consequences of enclosure and explain how enclosure led to other changes in farming Starter –

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Presentation on theme: "What were the effects of enclosure? L/O – To identify the consequences of enclosure and explain how enclosure led to other changes in farming Starter –"— Presentation transcript:

1 What were the effects of enclosure? L/O – To identify the consequences of enclosure and explain how enclosure led to other changes in farming Starter – Think back to last lesson. List one benefit of enclosure and one bad point about enclosure

2 Arthur Young – Lover of Farming Biographical Details Biographical Details farmer Born 1741; died Began his career as a farmer in Suffolk enclosure improvements Failed as a farmer. He was too poor to pay for enclosure improvements. 1768writing In 1768, he turned to writing about farming spread the ideas He travelled throughout Britain to spread the ideas of farming improvement first Secretary Board of Agriculture In 1793 he became the first Secretary of the new Board of Agriculture. His main job was to make surveys of farming in each county.

3 Doing History – Source Analysis Take a look at Source A What is Arthur Young saying about the advantages and disadvantages of enclosure? Why would Arthur Young say such different things about the effects of enclosure?

4 How did enclosure lead to an increase in food production? experiment Once land had been enclosed, farmers were able to experiment with new machinery, crops, fertilisers and selective breeding. increase These new methods all help to increase agricultural (food) production.

5 New Machines Jethro Tull seed drill In 1701, Jethro Tull invented the seed drill. This sowed seeds in straight rows and covered up them up with earth afterwards. Before this, seeds had to be sown by hand. more widely used Enclosure led to the seed drill being more widely used in the 19 th century. 1. Why do you think that enclosure led to the seed drill being more widely used?

6 New Machines Ploughs were also improved. Rotherham plough The Rotherham plough invented in 1760 needed fewer horses to pull it. all-iron plough An all-iron plough was developed in the early 1800s. steam plough 1826 the first steam plough was developed threshing machine In 1786, a threshing machine was invented; its use became more common in the 1820s. 2. What effect do you think these new machines had on farm labourers?

7 New Methods of Cultivation four-course rotation unused Bigger farms allowed farmers to use new methods like four-course rotation which stopped fields going unused. specialisation Some areas also tried specialisation. This allowed farmers to concentrate on one type of crop. fertilisers Because farmers had bigger fields, they could also use fertilisers like chemicals or animal manure to improve crop yields.

8 Selective Breeding improve the quality Having larger fenced fields allowed farmers to try and improve the quality of sheep and cattle. best selective breeding They tried to use only the best animals for breeding. This was called selective breeding. Robert Blackwell This was pioneered by Robert Blackwell and the results can be seen in the table: 3. Draw a graph to show the percentage increase in the weight of animals sold at Smithfield between 1710 and 1790

9 Was enclosure good for everybody? who benefited more poor freeholder rich yeoman You are now going to decide who benefited more from enclosure. The family of a poor freeholder or the family of a rich yeoman? statement mark did welldid badly Read each statement and mark on your graphs whether you think the family did well or did badly as a result.

10 The Poor Freeholder Was enclosure good for everybody? 1779 – “As we could not prove our claim to the land, our family lost the land it farmed when the village was enclosed. To make matters worse, we could not even graze our animals on the common land – it was enclosed too!”

11 The Poor Freeholder Was enclosure good for everybody? 1780 – “We were now one of the many landless labourers in the village. At first, there was plenty of work after enclosure, but this soon dried up when fields had been enclosed and roads had been built.”

12 The Poor Freeholder Was enclosure good for everybody? 1785 – “The problem with enclosure was that there was too many people chasing too few jobs in the village. Many left for the city. We decided to stay but when we found work, our wages were low.”

13 The Poor Freeholder Was enclosure good for everybody? 1793 – “Between 1793 and 1815 bread prices rose. Bread was an important part of our diet. This caused distress and greater poverty to our and many other families in the village.”

14 The Poor Freeholder Was enclosure good for everybody? 1815 – “The Corn Laws made things even worse. Farmers, hoping to make huge profits, were producing too much wheat. As a result, we lost our jobs.”

15 The Poor Freeholder Was enclosure good for everybody? 1830 – “The threshing machine meant we had to rely on poor relief during the winter. In 1830, we took part in the Swing Riots to try to improve things. They were a complete disaster as nothing changed.”

16 The Poor Freeholder Was enclosure good for everybody? 1846 – “The repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846 led to the price of bread falling. Good news at last!”

17 The Poor Freeholder Was enclosure good for everybody? 1850 – “After 1846, farmers were buying new, more efficient machinery. They needed fewer workers. We were lucky not to lose our jobs, but our wages were cut.”

18 The Poor Freeholder Was enclosure good for everybody? 1875 – “Since the mid-1870s it has become harder to find work. But if you have a job like us things are a little better. Food prices have fallen because of cheap foreign imports. We can buy a wider range of foods than in our father’s time.”

19 The Rich Yeoman Was enclosure good for everybody? 1779 – “We did well when land in the village was enclosed in We were wealthy enough to buy small plots of land from our poorer neighbours who could not afford enclosure. The family farm increased in size.”

20 The Rich Yeoman Was enclosure good for everybody? 1780 – “Enclosing our land meant we could experiment with new technology and new methods of cultivation. The amount of food we produced and the size of the animals we reared increased.”

21 The Rich Yeoman Was enclosure good for everybody? 1785 – “After enclosure there were plenty of labourers to employ. As a result we did not have to pay them high wages.”

22 The Rich Yeoman Was enclosure good for everybody? 1793 – “During the wars with France between we made huge profits. This was because war with France meant cheap European wheat could not be imported.”

23 The Rich Yeoman Was enclosure good for everybody? 1815 – “The Corn Laws of 1815 kept the price of bread high. This was good news for us.”

24 The Rich Yeoman Was enclosure good for everybody? 1829 – “The threshing machine we bought in 1829 was a good idea. It helped us to make more profits as we did not need to employ as many labourers in the winter months.”

25 The Rich Yeoman Was enclosure good for everybody? 1830 – “1830 was a disaster. Our threshing machine was destroyed, our hayricks were burned and some farm buildings were destroyed by the Swing Rioters.”

26 The Rich Yeoman Was enclosure good for everybody? 1846 – “The repeal of the Corn Laws was not the disaster we feared. We did really well. Profits rose and we became even more prosperous.”

27 The Rich Yeoman Was enclosure good for everybody? 1875 – “Since the mid-1870s things have not been so rosy. Farming is in a depression. Bad harvests and diseases, such as foot and mouth, have caused us problems. Cheap foreign competition has driven down prices and has cut our profits.”

28 Now compare the two completed graphs: 4. How well did the family of the poor freeholder do as a result of enclosure? Explain your answer fully. 5. How well did the family of the wealthy yeoman do as a result of enclosure? Give reasons for your decision. Was enclosure good for everybody?

29 6. Could enclosure have been done differently to reduce the poverty and hardship suffered by many villagers? 7. ‘The benefits of increased production were greater than the disadvantages of poverty for some villagers.’ Do you agree or disagree with this view? Explain your answer. Was enclosure good for everybody?

30 Plenary 1. Take a look at Source D 2. What do you think the man in the cartoon is being encouraged to do? message hardship 3. What message do you think the artist wanted to give people about the hardship faced by farm labourers in the period after 1815?

31 Plenary new machines 1.What new machines were developed after enclosure? benefitfertiliser 2.What was the benefit of using fertiliser? selective breeding 3.Explain what selective breeding was benefited 4.Who benefited from enclosure? suffered 5.Who suffered from enclosure? outweigh 6.Did the benefits of enclosure outweigh the disadvantages? Did we meet our learning objective? L/O – To identify the consequences of enclosure and explain how enclosure led to other changes in farming


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