3ContentsThe Act of Union (by Caitlin and Lauren) Robert Emmet (by Ailbhe, Mark and Aiden) Daniel O’Connell (by Rachel Smith and Conor Smith) The Young Irelanders (by Jarlaith and Katie) The Fenians (by Donal, Glory and Emma Colwell) The Famine (by Emma Smith, Shauna and Michelle) Michael Davitt (by Conor Greenan, Elaine and Cónall) Charles Stewart Parnell (by Rachel O’Hanlon and Jade) The Cultural Revival (by Eoin, Robbie and Martyna)
41800 (BY CAITLIN AND LAUREN) ACT OF UNION1800(BY CAITLIN AND LAUREN)
5THE ACT OF UNIONThe Irish Rebellion of brought the issue of Ireland to the attention of the British Cabinet and William Pitt the younger , the British Prime MinisterHe decided that the best solution was a Union.
6THE ACT OF UNION The Act of Union was passed in the summer of 1800. It united the Britain and Ireland to create the U.K.The union came into affect on the 1st of January 1801.
7For the current union flag they combined the English , Scottish and Irish flags together.
10The Act of UnionFor most Irish, there wasn't a noticeable difference, but it meant the Irish government representatives could not pass laws on their own.
11Robert Emmet (by Ailbhe and Aiden) 19th Century IrelandRobert Emmet(by Ailbhe and Aiden)
12Robert Emmet Robert Emmet was born in 1778. He came from a wealthy Protestant family who sympathised with Irish Catholics.Robert was put in jail because of a rebellion against the British in 1803.
13Robert EmmetWhile he was in jail, Emmet wrote a letter to his sweetheart ,Sarah Curran.He then gave it to a prison warden to post.But the warden gave it to the government. That letter nearly cost Sarah her life.
14Robert Emmet Robert and Sarah had dreamed of running away together. However, Robert was found guilty of high treason and he was given the death penalty.A day later, he was hung, drawn and quartered in Thomas Street.
15Daniel O’ Connell 19th Century 6th August 1775-15th May By Rachel Smithand Conor Smith6th August th May
16The LiberatorOften referred to as “ The Liberator” or “ The Emancipator”, Daniel O Connell was an Irish political leader in the first half of the 19th century.
17Personal detailsBorn – 6th August 1775 Caheriveenn, Ireland Died -15th May 1847 [aged 71 ]Genoa, Italy Resting place - Glasnevin Cemetery Dublin, Ireland Political party - Radicals Repeal Association Occupation - Barrister , political activist
18Personal detailsWife - Mary O’Connell [m 1802] Children - Maurice , Ellen , Catherine , Timothy James , Elizabeth , John , Richard & Daniel jnr. Religion – Roman Catholicism
19EARLY LIFEDaniel did well at school and in 1790 his uncle sent him and his brother to study in FranceDaniel experienced the violence of the French Revolution and this gave him a hatred of violence
20MID - LIFEIn 1811 O Connell established the Catholic Board , which campaigned for Catholic Emancipation , that is the opportunity for Irish Catholics to become Members of Parliament.
21AchievementsAs a result of his campaigning, Catholics were allowed to become judges as well as Members of Parliament.O’Connell Street in Dublin is named after Daniel.
23The Young IrelandersThe Young Irelanders - Irish nationalist movement of the 1840s.Begun by a group of Irish journalists who founded and wrote for the Nation newspaper.
24The Young IrelandersThe movement supported the study of Irish history and the revival of the Irish (Gaelic) language as a means of achieving independence.
25The Young IrelandersThe Irish flag was first used as a symbol of the Young Ireland movement.It is not known whether the flag was a gift from France or whether the Young Irelanders had been inspired by the French flag.
26The Battle of Ballingarry The Young Irelanders rebellion took place on the 29th of July 1848 in the village of Ballingarry, South Tipperary.The rebels took hostages but retreated after police reinforcements arrived.The rebellion had failed.
27The Aftermath These Young Irelanders were eventually caught. Seven Young Irelanders were eventually imprisoned on Van Deimans Land [Tasmania].Four of them escaped to America and three were allowed to return to Ireland.
28The Young IrelandersThe rebellion ended the Young Irelanders.
31BlightSeptember a strange disease struck potatoes in fields across Ireland.Nearly half of the potato harvest was destroyed by the strange disease known as “blight”.As a result, there was a lack of food and people began to get sick.
32BlightIn the years after the Famine scientists discovered that the blight was caused by a fungus.The worst period of disease was in 1849 when cholera struck causing many more people to be sick and die.
33Emigration Many people left Ireland. Emigration caused the population to drop by 3 million.
34Emigration People emigrated on coffin ships from Ireland. They were called coffin ships because many people died on them.When people died, the crew threw them overboard.A Coffin Ship
35Workhouses Workhouses were places where the very poor lived Once they entered the workhouse, people had to wear a uniform and were given a very basic diet.
37WorkhousesThe main food they were given was called stirabout, which was similar to a weak oatmeal porridge.Men, women, girls and boys were all forced to stay in different parts of the building.
38Soup Kitchens Summer 1847 - the government set up some soup kitchens. By August 1847, 3 million people were being fed each day.
39CrimesA large number of woman/children were charged with begging and stealing food.Cells were usually VERY crowded.There were more crimes as people got fed better in prisons.
40The Famine : The FactsThe Famine (also known as the Gorta Mór) lasted from 1845 to 1849.90,000 evictions occurred during the Famine and over 1 million people died due to fever and starvation.
41Fenians 19th century(by Donal, Glory and Emma Colwell)
42Secret SocietyThe Fenians - a secret revolutionary society organized in 1858 in Ireland and the United States.
43About the FeniansThe Fenians were from Ireland. They were mainly farmers and middle class people.The Fenians were also called the Irish Republic Brotherhood (IRB).
44James StephensIn Ireland the movement was led by James Stephens ( ).In 1863 Stephens founded the newspaper ‘The Irish People’ which promoted Fenian ideals and helped to attract new recruits.
45The Spread of the Fenians The Fenians spread throughout the country.From America, there came promises of money and arms, but little arrived.
46The Fenian RisingIn February 1867, there was an unsuccessful rising in Kerry.In March, other failed risings took place in Cork City, Limerick and Dublin.The largest of these took place in Tallaght where several hundred Fenians were involved.
47EmigrationAs a result, vast numbers of embittered Irish men emigrated to the United States, Australia and South America where they redoubled their agitation against England.
48The Fenian movement.The Fenians movement continued until World War 1, but its influence was largely drawn off into new a organization - Sinn Féin (founded by Arthur Griffith, a former Fenian).
49Michael Davitt (25 March 1846 - 31 May 1906) by Connor Greenan, Elaine and Cónall
50Early Life Davitt was evicted from his home aged 9. He was forced to leave his home in Mayo and move to Great Britain.
51A Bad AccidentWhen he was 11, he lost his right arm in a factory accident.
52Davitt in the FeniansDavitt joined the Irish Republican Brotherhood (Fenians) in 1860s.They tried to start a revolution but it failed badly.
53Davitt in prison Davitt was arrested in London in 1870. He was jailed until 1877 and he then emigrated to America.
54Land LeagueMichael Davitt founded the Land League in Castlebar, Co. Mayo, along with Charles Stewart Parnell on the 16th of August 1879Land League meetings were held every Sunday.
55Aims of the Land League The “Three F’s” i.e. Fair Rent Fixity of Tenure (meaning that a tenant could not be evicted if he had paid the rent) andFree Sale (that Irish owners be able to sell their land to whom they liked for a fair price)
56More RightsIt was mainly through Michael Davitt’s efforts that “the three F’s” were finally granted to the Land League.
58Charles Stewart Parnell 19th CenturyCharles Stewart Parnell(by Rachel O’Hanlon and Jade)(27 June 1846 – 6 October 1891)
59Who was he?A Protestant landlord, Charles Stewart Parnell led the Irish members of the British House of Commons in the fight for an Irish parliament.He failed to win Home Rule, but his work helped Ireland on its journey to freedom.
60Who was he?He joined the Irish Parliamentary Party and became its leader.The members of his party spoke for hours in the House of Commons to keep the British leaders from doing what they wanted.
61Uncrowned KingParnell travelled to America to raise money for the nationalist movement in Ireland.He raised £26,000 and many referred to Parnell as the "Uncrowned King of Ireland".
62Did you know?Parnell’s friend, Joe Biggar MP (for Cavan) made the longest speech EVER in the House of Commons which lasted over 41 hours!Lavey Joe Biggars GFC is named after him.
63DownfallIn 1889, Parnell and his partner, Kitty O’ Shea were involved in a divorce scandal in the newspapers.
64DownfallSome people thought that Parnell had not behaved as he should have.Not long after, he became ill and died (on the 6th of October 1891).
65ParnellParnell brought the whole issue of Home Rule to the attention of those in Britain.He helped to create a political party with members working together as a team.He gained the support of Britain's most important politician at that time William Gladstone
66by Eoin, Robbie and Martyna The Cultural Revivalby Eoin, Robbie and Martyna
67LiteracyThe culture of Ireland underwent a massive change in the 19th century.Irish people could only speak English and speaking Irish was prohibited.
68Literacy This process was started in the 1820’s. Irish nationalists began a “Gaelic Revival”, in the late 19th century.
69The Gaelic LeagueIn 1893 the Gaelic League was established to promote all aspects of Irish culture and dancing.Irish dance was taught by Dance Masters.
70The GAAThe GAA began in 1884.It was founded on Saturday, 1st November, in the Lizzie’s Mayes Hotel, Thurles, Tipperary.
71The Abbey TheatreThe Abbey Theatre was founded in 1904 by William Butler Yeats and Lady Gregory.Yeats encouraged Irish writers to write about Irish life and traditions.
72The Cultural Revival The cultural revival was a partial success. The GAA is still going strong today.The Gaelic League was not as successful in persuading people to speak Irish.