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The American Revolution

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1 The American Revolution

2 Bell work What causes people to rebel?
Give an example of when you have rebelled and why? What actions justify overthrowing or changing a government? What, if any, changes do you believe the current government of the U.S should make? Explain your answer.

3 Background information
Mercantilism: Economic theory: all wealth is limited, one nation’s gain is another’s loss, goal is more exports less imports, encourage European powers to develop colonies Colonies exist to make the ‘parent’ country wealthy Navigation Act: series of laws passed by the British Parliament ’s, required all colonial imports and exports to be on British or American ships and may only sail to British or American ports Salutary Neglect: lack of strict enforcement of the law by British and colonial authorities over trade, practiced until 1763 Example: American colonist routinely smuggle cheaper French molasses for the production of rum.

4 The French and Indian War
Map Outcome England gains control of most of North America England’s debt increase Tax colonists to pay for the war

5 The Albany Plan of Union and a famous cartoon..
Benjamin Franklin proposed the first plan to unite the colonies Attempted for defense and to win the Iroquois Nation support

6 Pontiac’s Rebellion and The Proclamation of 1763
Pontiac was Ottawa chief who led a movement to drive colonist east of the Appalachian mountains. Proclamation of 1763: Upsets the colonies! Resistance: Slowly continue to move West

7 Colonial Taxes Main Idea: Colonist’s feel they are being treated unfairly, they have no actual representation in Parliament. Writs of Assistance British begin enforcing general search warrants to search any colonial ship, warehouse, or home Sugar and Molasses Act tax on all foreign sugar, molasses, indigo, coffee, wine, 2. established vice-admiralty courts to enforce British laws and carry out search warrants Currency Act bans all colonial paper money, must use gold or silver coins(shortage in the colonies) Quartering Act-1765-Colonist must pay for housing and feeding British troops in the colonies (over 10,000 redcoats)

8 The Stamp Act(1765) Video questions: Why was the Stamp Act created? What did the Stamp Act tax? Why was this a big deal?

9 Colonial Protest and The Stamp Act Congress(1765)
Slogan: “No Taxation without Representation” 3 Ways of Resistance: Nonimportation Agreement or Boycott of British goods(Daughters of Liberty) Mob action/violence(Loyal Nine, Sons of Liberty) Stamp Act Congress Result: Repeal of the Stamp Act British Response: Declaratory Act: Parliament has the right to make any laws necessary in regard to the American colonies!

10 More Taxes: Townshend Act
1767: Tax all imports to the colonies from Great Britain such as steel, iron, tea, glass, paper. Colonist’s Reaction: Continue boycotting British goods, harass British tax collectors, Sons and Daughters of Liberty Result: British repeal all of the taxes except the one on tea.

11 Primary Source Reading Assignments
1. Unity or Division 1-6 on the back 2. Changing the Hearts and Minds 1 and 2 on the top 1-3 on the bottom 3. The Colonist React to the Stamp Act

12 The Boston Massacre:Two Sides To Every Story
Paul Revere (1770)

13 The Boston Massacre: Two Sides to Every Story
Alonzo Chappel (1868)

14 The Boston Massacre: Two Sides to Every Story
In a small group, analyze all the information and answer the following: Video/Pictures/ Reading Questions 1. What is the message of each of the photos of the Boston Massacre? 2. After viewing all the information, list the inaccuracies of both photos. Which is the most accurate? 3. Who was Crispus Attucks? 4. Was this really a “massacre”? 5. Summarize each side’s story of the event.

15 The Tea Act and The Boston Tea Party
1773-Tea Act: Implements a monopoly by the British East India Company over tea in America Company carry tea in their own ships, use own merchants Colonists refuse to let the tea to enter, protest/attack tax collectors December 16, 1773 The Sons of Liberty, organized by Samuel Adams and John Hancock, board ships in Boston harbor and destroy thousands of pounds of tea

16 Intolerable Acts -1774 British response to Tea Party
1.Closes the Boston port 2.Increases power of the royal governors 3. Justice Act-British officials accused of crimes can be tried in England 4.Expanded the Quartering Act( soldiers can occupy private homes)

17 First Continental Congress
Philadelphia in September 1774, delegates from all the colonies except Georgia 1.Petition King and Parliament over their grievances (deprived of life, liberty and Property) 2.Ban importation of all British goods (The Association) 3. Create colonial militias (minutemen) Agree to meet in May if situation continues

18 Lexington and Concord: The Shot Heard Around the World
British declare Massachusetts in a state of rebellion British General Thomas Gage is sent in disarm the Americans at Concord and arrest colonial leaders(Samuel Adam/John Hancock) April 19, Lexington and Concord video: The Story of US 1. List 3 facts about the colonial militias. 2. Who warns the militias of the British soldiers? 3. List 5 facts about the Battle of Lexington and Battle of Concord.

19 Breed’s and Bunker Hill
May 1775 outside of Boston British land with more troops over the winter German mercenaries “Hessians” British General Thomas Gage attempts to over run fortified American positions British use frontal assault to demonstrate strength Plan back fires over a 1,000 British are killed or wounded before the Americans run out of ammunition

20 Second Continental Congress
May 1775, Philadelphia, PA Divided over next step(New England favors independence, Middle Colonies hesitant) Olive Branch Petition-Plea to King George III to intercede Called on colonial militias to take up arms(declare war) Create the Continental Army Appoints George Washington as commander of the military

21 Thomas Paine’s Common Sense
Published in January of 1776, this document laid out a clear and simple “common sense” argument for complete independence from Great Britain Widely circulated, 120,000 copies in the first three months! Influences the decision for Independence Reading Assignment (10 points)

22 Review: Causes of the Revolution 1763-1776
Event Pontiac’s Rebellion Sugar / Currency Act/ Writs of Assistance Stamp Act Townshend Act Quartering Parliament aids British East India Company Effect Proclamation of 1763 British begin to tax goods and tighten the laws in the colonies Taxed many articles and papers, first direct tax Taxed imported tea, paper, glass, wine, paint, steel, iron Large number of British troops who need to be housed and fed by the colonists Tea monopoly in the colonies Reaction or Result Colonists angry, continue to move west of the Appalachians Smuggling, protest letters to Prime Minister Grenville “no taxation without representation” Boycotts, protests, Sons and Daughters of Liberty, Stamp Act Congress Protests and boycotts Boston Massacre Boston Tea Party

23 Review: Causes of the Revolution 1763-1776
Event Intolerable Acts Lexington, Concord, Bunker Hill Effect First Continental Congress Thomas Paine’s Common Sense Reaction/Result Creation of colonial militias, bans trade with England Declaration of Independence

24 Advantages and Disadvantages: U.S. vs. Great Britain
Washington’s Leadership Volunteer army untrained Large, well trained army War is unpopular at home Spy system Lack of supplies and funds Supplies and Funds Far from home American’s believed in the cause Outnumbered Mercenaries Lack of support from soldiers Defending their home and land Large navy Cautious Generals Hit and Run Tactics Native American allies Alliance with France

25 Bell work Who wrote the Declaration of Independence?
What are 2 key ideas from the document?

26 Declaring Independence……
June 1776 a committee of 5 is assigned by Congress to draft a formal declaration of independence. Thomas Jefferson drafts the document July 4, 1776 approved the document

27 The Document Four main parts
1. Preamble: explains why the document was created 2. Declaration of Natural Rights: Most important and influential All men are created equal All people possess certain basic right(life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness Governments are created to secure these right and receive their power from the people People have the right and duty to alter or abolish governments 3. List of Grievances: complaints against the King and Parliament 4. Resolution of Independence: Declares the colonies as “free and independent states”

28 Assignment In a group of 2 or 3, re-write the Declaration of Natural Rights section of the document. Add or remove anything Due Tomorrow-Tuesday September 24

29 Revolutionary War Project
Task: Alone or in a group of no more than 3, create a scrapbook, power point or video on the American Revolution. Requirements: choose the number of topics you are doing based on the grade you want. All information should be in your own words and each topic should include a picture. Project will be 50 points and due next Tuesday, Oct. 1. Items to include: 1. Cover page: Your names, a picture 2. Timeline of events-1763 to 1783(minimum of ten events of timeline) 3. Key Events (pre-war): French and Indian war, Proclamation of 1763, Stamp Act, Sugar Act, Tea Act, Intolerable Acts, Quartering Act, Boston Tea Party, Boston Massacre, Common Sense, Committee of Correspondence, Sons of Liberty, etc For each event focus on the who, what, where, when, why and importance for the summary of each event. Each one should include a picture 3-C, 4-B, 5-A

30 Revolutionary War Project
4. Key Battles (war events): Lexington/Concord, Trenton, Valley Forge, Saratoga, Yorktown, Etc For each battle focus on the who, what, where, when, why and importance for the summary of each event. Each one should include a picture. 3-C, 4-B, 5-A 5. Key People- Washington, Jefferson, Franklin, Adams, Benedict Arnold, Thomas Paine, Patrick Henry, John Hancock, Samuel Adams, King George III, Lord Cornwallis, etc) 4-C, 5-B, 6-A Explain who they are, what they do and why it is important, include a picture of each. 6. European Involvement- France, Spain. Include what they do and how it helps the Americans ( 1 is all that is required) 7. Role of Women, Native Americans, African-Americans Include what role each group plays in the war and summarize the significance of their contributions to the war. 1-C, 2-B, 3-A 8. Vocabulary/ Maps/ Flags Include one map of battles, one flag with a summary of the meaning, define the following terms: Loyalists, mercenaries, Tories, Patriots, Minutemen, Guerilla Warfare, Boycott, Traitor

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