Presentation on theme: "EASFAA 2014 Stephen G Brown Fordham Law School. Who Cares !"— Presentation transcript:
EASFAA 2014 Stephen G Brown Fordham Law School
Who Cares !
Joint Committee on Taxation $78.9 billion in forgone tax revenue Or is it financial aid? Need? Winning votes? Good for country ?
Tax Treatment Incentives for current expenses Impact in following year tax due Student loan tax treatment Incentives for saving
Tax Credit Reduces amount owed in taxes Dollar by dollar basis May be refundable or not AOTC LLC
Tax Deduction Reduces taxable income “above the line” or itemized Different impact Standard deduction versus itemizing Tuition and fees - not extended yet for 2014 (S 2260) Student Loan Interest
Tax Exemption Like deduction, they reduce taxable income Fixed dollar amount Personal exemption for parents of students Continues ability to claim “dependents”
Tax Exclusion Like deduction in that taxable income reduced IRC explicitly excludes from income 117c qualified scholarship Educational expenses, etc
Is my Scholarship Taxable? 117c qualified Scholarship Degree candidate Qualified educational expenses Tuition, fees, books, supplies, equipment Not compensation for teaching, research, work
Employer tuition benefits Not only for schools Benefit – often awarded through HR Undergrad no tax implications for education employees Grad no tax if perform teaching or research Taxed above $5,250 May require certain grades Payment may be after completion of the course Waiting period? Commitment after payment? May require courses related to job
Qualified Tuition Reduction Received from eligible education institution Used at eligible education institution Need not be the same Employee or dependant Undergraduate not taxed
The Tuition Exchange tm Consortium of IHEs 600 schools Worked mainly through HR/Benefits office Offers tuition benefits at many institutions Ties to school policies Schools require application Balance of trade Admissions requirements
Tuition and Fees Deduction EXPIRED DECEMBER Not if AOTC or LLC Not if married filing separately MAGI $80,000 ($160,000) $4,000 income deduction Tuition and related expenses paid to institution Not required matriculation
Tuition and Fees… Income from $65k - $80k (130k-160k) Max deduction $2,000 Income below $65k ($130k) Max deduction $4,000 Form 8917 IRC 222 S 2260 may extend to 2015?
Business Deduction for Work Related Expenses Must be working Must itemize or Must file Schedule C or F Must be Qualifying Work Related or maintain or improve skills Required by employer or law to keep job Serve bona fide business purpose Not needed to meet minimum requirements for current job Does not qualify for a new trade or business
Qualifying Work Related Must be Qualifying Work Related or maintain or improve skills Required by employer or law to keep job Serve bona fide business purpose Not needed to meet minimum requirements for current job Does not qualify for a new trade or business
Maintain or Improve skills Refresher Current developments Academic Tuition and Fees Books and Supplies Transportation--Work to school and school to home Travel—Is this session deductible?
American Opportunity Tax Credit TAX CREDIT up to $2,500 (until December 2017 ) MAGI Limits $90,000 single, $180,000 married/joint Up to 40% refundable First 4 years Only 4 years Tuition, fees and books No LLC or T & F deduction Loans used for Qualified expenses count Not Coverdell exemption
American Opportunity credit … 100% of first $2,000 in expenses 25% of next $2,000 Reduction for MAGI $80-90k ($ k) Form 8863 IRC 25A 40% (up to $1000) refundable Renewed under American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012
Lifetime Learning Credit TAX CREDIT of up to $2,000 Cannot be combined With American Opportunity Tax Credit MAGI limits $62,000 (s) $124,000 Married Joint Non Refundable, Unlimited years No matriculation required Tuition and fees and books paid to institution $20% of first $10,000 Reduction at $52 – 62k ($ k) Form 8863
Tax Treatments of Student Loans
Student Loan Interest Deduction Qualified Student Loan Reduce Income by up to $2,500 Enrolled at least half time when borrowed MAGI $75,000 ($150,000) Not from a related person Tuition, fees, housing, books, transportation (COA) Amortize fees ( but not reported on 1098-E) Voluntary interests OK
Student Loan interest… Phaseouts $60-75k ($ k) IRC 221 Directly deductible Line Line A Line EZ
Exclusion of Loan Forgiveness 108(f) School based LRAPS Federal Public Service Loan Forgiveness Program Cancellation of a loan normally a taxable event under 108 If pursuant to a program…
College Savings Incentives
UGMA/UTMA Uniform Gift to Minors Act Uniform Trust for Minors Involves planning Irrevocable Reverts to minor at age of majority Asset? For FAFSA reporting – owned by student Income excluded if transferred directly to institution
Estate/Gift Exclusion Not counted towards estate or annual gift limits Must be paid directly to IHE
Early IRA Distribution penalty Not subject to 10% penalty May be subject to regular taxation Tuition and Fees Books, supplies, equipment Special needs Room and board (if registered at least half time)
Education Savings Bond Interest Phaseouts MAGI $71,100 and $86,100 $106,650 to $136,650 married jointly Series EE issued after 1989 or series I Owner older than 24 at bond issue date Only for DENENDENT for whom you claim exemption on tax return Tuition and fees Form 8515
QTP (529) Plans Section 529 of the Internal Revenue Code “Qualified Tuition Programs” Pre-paid tuition or college savings Allows anyone to set up a plan for beneficiary Sponsored by states in cooperation with investment firms Large selection of investments Accrues tax free and withdrawals federal tax free for at least half time Tuition and fees Room and board Books, computer Special needs
QTP (529) Plans Accrues tax free and withdrawals federal tax free for at least half time Tuition and fees Room and board Books, computer Special needs Transfer to other family member QTP
Coverdell Education Savings Account Section 530 of IRC Many investment options Beneficiary must be under 18 when set up or special needs $2,000 annual limit Accrues tax free Tax free withdrawals for educational expenses Must liquidate at age 30 Contribution limits based on contributor’s MAGI
Coverdell ESA MAGI less than $110,000 ($220,000) MAGI = AGI for most taxpayers Distributions tax free for ADJUSTED Qualified Educational Expenses K-12 and higher education expenses
Repeal of 108(f) ? Renewability of Tuition and Fees deduction Tax on tuition benefits < $5,250?
Have I exhausted you yet? Questions Comments Snide Remarks
Contact Information Stephen Brown Assistant Dean Fordham Law