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The development of political parties and The Corn Laws.

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1 The development of political parties and The Corn Laws

2 Where are we now ? Towards democracy 1832 Reform Act (Whigs ) Chartism (Whigs / Tories) 1867 Reform Act (Conservatives) 1884/5 Reform Act (Liberals)

3 Terminology How many can you define ? FiscalDeficit BudgetDirect Taxation TariffIndirect Taxation RevenueSliding scale Import dutiesRaw materials SurplusFree Trade BackbenchersFrontbenchers

4 Terminology How many can you define ? Fiscal Government revenue: taxes Deficit The amount by which there is a shortfall of money. Budget An estimate of income or how much should be spent Direct Taxation Tax paid directly to the government by a person Tariff A tax to be paid on certain imports or exports. Indirect Taxation Not paid directly by the person e.g. final tax on consumer products Revenue Income: especially of an organisation. Sliding scale A scale of fees, tax or wages. Import duties A duty imposed on imports. Raw materials The basic material from which a product is made. Surplus The amount left over when requirements are met. Free Trade international trade left to its natural course without tariffs, quotas, or other restrictions. Backbenchers An MP who does not hold office in Parliament or opposition. Frontbenchers a member of the House of Commons who is a minister in the government or who holds an official position in an opposition party

5 Lesson Objectives To understand what the Corn Laws were To become familiar with some economic terms To learn about the impact of the Corn Laws on the Conservative Party g0&feature=related

6 The Corn Laws Using the booklet answer the following questions: 1.What were the Corn Laws? 2.Why were they introduced? 3.Who benefitted from the Corn Laws and why? 4.Who suffered because of the Corn Laws and why? 5.What was the Conservative dilemma? 6.How did the working and middle classes view the Corn Laws?

7 The Corn Laws Using the booklet answer the following questions: 1.What were the Corn Laws? Protectionist economic policies which placed a limit on how low the price of grain could fall. It was like a tariff on corn. 2.Why were they introduced? Napoleonic wars – meant no imports, goods protected from competition, farming became lucrative and British corn was sold with a great profit. At the end of the war Britain was faced with the prospect of being flooded with cheap grain – Corn Laws introduced – no foreign corn in Britain until domestic corn returned to 80 shillings per quarter – this guaranteed profits for landowners 3.Who benefitted from the Corn Laws and why? Aristocracy and other large landowners Seen as important source of revenue 4.Who suffered because of the Corn Laws and why? The Urban working class had to spend the bulk of their income on corn just to survive. Manufacturers suffered because people had no money left over to spend and they had to lay off workers. Workers then had problems finding employment 5.What was the Conservative dilemma? Corn laws were an obstacle to free trade which would lead to economic growth and prosperity However they were strongly supported by the landed interest 6.How did the working and middle classes view the Corn Laws? Corn Laws represented the political strength of landed elite which continued to dominate Parliament despite industrialisation.

8 What were the Corn laws? Corn laws were protectionist economic policies which placed a limit on how low the price of grain (corn) could fall. This meant that grain producers would not suffer economic hardship or bankruptcy in times of depression and lowered grain prices. It was like having a tariff on corn

9 Why were they introduced? During the Napoleonic Wars, the British blockaded the European continent, hoping to isolate the Napoleonic Empire and bring economic hardship to the French. One result of this blockade was that goods within the British Isles were protected against competition from outside sources. There were no French imports. Farming became extremely lucrative, and farming land was traded at very profitable rates. British corn was grown and sold at home with great profit.

10 Why were they introduced? At the end of the wars Britain was faced with the prospect of being flooded with cheap corn. This would affect the revenue of landowners. So, in 1815 the Corn Law was introduced. This law stated that no foreign corn would be allowed into Britain until domestic corn reached a price of 80 shillings per quarter; this guaranteed profits for landowners. Later on, a sliding scale was introduced which allowed import duty on foreign corn to rise or fall according to the price of British Corn. (For example: corn at 85s duty at 5s; corn at 90s, duty at 3s

11 Who benefited? The beneficiaries of the Corn Laws were the aristocracy and other large landowners who owned the majority of profitable farmland. Landowners had a vested interest in seeing the Corn Laws remain in force. And since the right to vote was not universal, but rather depended on land ownership, voting Members of Parliament had no interest in repealing the Corn Law. They saw it as an important source of revenue. They were not in favour of Free Trade. This is how the laws came to be called ‘class legislation’ Laws passed by a government to favour a specific class ie. Aristocratic land owners.

12 Who Suffered? The artificially high corn prices encouraged by the Corn Laws meant that the urban working class had to spend the bulk of their income on corn just to survive. Since they had no income left over for other purchases, they could not afford manufactured goods. So manufacturers suffered, and had to lay off workers. They were under pressure to pay higher wages. These workers had difficulty finding employment, so the economic spiral worsened for everyone involved.

13 The political dimension For Conservatives, who believed in free trade, the Corn Laws presented a dilemma. On the one hand they were an obstacle to the freeing of trade restrictions which would lead to greater economic growth and prosperity. On the other hand, they were strongly supported by the landed interest which made up the great bulk of Tory support. Peel had used his budget to introduce Income Tax (direct taxation), so he could cut duties on imported goods (indirect taxation)

14 The Radical response It was not just the working class that condemned the introduction of the Corn Laws by Liverpool’s government in 1815 For Radical elements within the middle class, this legislation represented the most obvious example of the political strength of the landed elite which, despite industrialisation and the growth of commercial wealth, continued to dominate parliament.

15 Peel Peel had said he wanted to make Britain “a cheap country to live in” and his ability to cut his deficit and have a surplus by 1844 was testament to his financial ability. He knew that public revenue (fiscal) would come from those who could afford to buy certain goods, but he often had to convince his party members, especially those MP`s who held no office (backbenchers).

16 Homework: Terminology How many can you define ? FiscalDeficit BudgetDirect Taxation TariffIndirect Taxation RevenueSliding scale Import dutiesRaw materials SurplusFree Trade BackbenchersFrontbenchers

17 Homework: Peel and the Corn Laws Peel saw the repeal of the Corn Laws as a logical next step and he introduced a Bill to get rid of them in So what factors led him to do this ? Read pages and identify these 5 factors; rank order them and decide which one you think is the most important. Use pages to find out :- 1. Why Peel was forced to resign 2. What role Disraeli played in his downfall 3. Why the repeal of the Corn Laws split the Conservative Party.

18 The Carebears – Jacob Arkell, Sophie, Daniel, Millie The Smurfs – Thomas, Bethany, Jas, Warren The Rugrats – Jacob Atwell, Catherine, Elizabeth The Moomins – Matthew, Shirley, Katie, Charlotte The Flintstones – Fabian, Kieran, Hannah, Rosie

19 How did the repeal of the Corn Laws affect the Conservatives and the Liberals? To reflect on the aftermath of the Corn Laws – in understanding the effect on the Conservative Party and the problems the new Liberal Party faced To start to learn about 2 politicians – their ideas and influences

20 Robert Peel He never marriedHe died in 1850 He got a Double First in Maths & the Classics He was educated at Eton & Cambridge He was upper classHis father was a middle class mill owner He supported Catholic Emancipation in 1829 He wrote the Tamworth Manifesto – a statement of Conservative Party Policy On his death bed he said, “I think I could eat one of Bellamy`s veal pies” He is reputed to have said, “Lies, damn lies and statistics” He had a Lancashire accentHe served as President of the Board of Trade under Lord Liverpool He opposed the extension of the franchise in 1832 He was at the Home Office in the 1820`s He was educated at Harrow and Oxford O`Connell said his smile was like the gleam on the silver plate of a coffin lid

21 Robert Peel He never married (F) married JuliaHe died in 1850 (T) He got a Double First in Maths & the Classics (T) He was educated at Eton & Cambridge (F) He was upper class (F)His father was a middle class mill owner (T) He supported Catholic Emancipation in 1829 (T) disliked the alternative He wrote the Tamworth Manifesto – a statement of Conservative Party Policy (T) On his death bed he said, “I think I could eat one of Bellamy`s veal pies” (F) William Pitt He is reputed to have said, “Lies, damn lies and statistics” (F) Disraeli He had a Lancashire accent (T)He served as President of the Board of Trade under Lord Liverpool (F) He opposed the extension of the franchise in 1832 (T) He was at the Home Office in the 1820`s (T) Home Secretary He was educated at Harrow and Oxford (T) O`Connell said his smile was like the gleam on the silver plate of a coffin lid (T)

22 FEEDBACK Homework: Peel and the Corn Laws Read pages and identify these 5 factors; rank order them and decide which one you think is the most important. 1.Peels gradual conversion (Irish Famine, need to promote manufacturing prosperity) 2.Irish Famine 3.Success of budgetary and tariff reforms (their successes convinced Peel that further reform would stimulate industry) 4.An opportunity to restore confidence in the political system 5.the appeal of the Anti-Corn Law League Use pages to find out :- 1.Why Peel was forced to resign? Peel had been elected in 1841 on a commitment to retain the Corn Laws. Repeal would not only be a breach of aristocratic confidence but also a rejection of the electorates wishes. Not surprisingly a majority of the cabinet opposed Peels policy and he had no alternative but to resign dec What role Disraeli played in his downfall? Put forward a protectionist case which claimed Peel had betrayed confidence of his party and exaggerated the famine. Made personal attacks on Peel. 3. Why did the repeal of the Corn Laws split the Conservative Party? 2/3 of his own Party voted against him, he relied on Whig votes, Peelite faction of Conservatives.

23 Work in pairs to prepare to argue that the Repeal of the Corn Laws was a disaster for the Conservative Party. Now prepare to argue that the repeal was a bonus for the new Liberal Party How could you argue that the Liberal Party was also facing problems? How did the repeal of the Corn Laws affect the Conservatives and the Liberals?

24 Argue that the Repeal of the Corn Laws was a disaster for the Conservative Party. Caused a split between ‘Ultra-Tories’ and Peelites Problems with leadership as Peel accused of treachery and Bentinck lacked ability, Disraeli didn’t have support or party (Jewish and ostentatious style), Lord Derby lack of plan. Altered Parliamentary balance and threw Party Politics into disarray Unable to hold a government – statistics 1857 – 140 Anti-Conservative majority, minority gov. but never lasted long. Forced back to traditional strongholds e.g. countryside, lacked the capitals support. Didn’t appeal to middle classes 1841 – 74 Conservatives did not win a single general election. How did the repeal of the Corn Laws affect the Conservatives and the Liberals?

25 Argue that the repeal was a bonus for the new Liberal Party Whigs, Radicals, Irish and Peelites came together to form new Liberal Party 1841 – 74 Conservatives did not win a single general election. There were some broad areas of agreement such as free trade and support of Liberal and Nationalist governments in Europe Strength of local gov increasing (rank and file) Strength of Non-Conformist organisations Willis’ room meeting 1859 – stability and foundations of Liberal Party Gave Liberals office BUT also started their growth as an identifiable and understood group Encouraged men of ability, experience and talent into Liberal rank e.g. Gladstone Middle-class background and wanted a more active role for government How did the repeal of the Corn Laws affect the Conservatives and the Liberals?

26 Argue that the Liberal Party was also facing problems 1850s still led t0 instability of governments Tensions between leaders – Whig (Conservative) and Radicals clashed, Gladstone (Peel), Palmerston (Whig) commit to alliance (Liberal) Peelites failed to fully commit to alliance Governments continued to collapse after failures of crucial votes in Parliament – looseness of part discipline showed Splits between ‘Old’ and ‘New’ Nation and MPs and Rank and File Potential for a split similar to that suffered by Conservatives Potential splits in ideology, attitude and policy How did the repeal of the Corn Laws affect the Conservatives and the Liberals?

27 The effect on Political Parties Homework Use Section 6, from page 231, to complete this task. Explain why the Conservatives were unable to win elections after Aim to give 3 well explained reasons.

28 Get into groups 3 or 4 Must be a mix of boys and girls Choose your group carefully – who is good at researching? Feeding back? Organising? Get out your homework which was the double bubble on Gladstone and Disraeli and the multi-flow map on Repeal of the Corn Laws

29 Review Use the Flow Map to identify the causes and effects of the repeal of the Corn Laws. Main Event Repeal of Corn Laws Causes Effect

30 How did the Liberal Party develop after 1846? Who were they?What were their views?Areas of conflictAreas of agreement Whigs Peelites Radicals What was the background of most Liberal MP`s? Who were the main supporters of the Liberal Party ? What did Non- Conformists want ?

31 Largest group aristocratic Reform to conserve (slowly) Defended national interests in foreign policy Favourable to religious toleration Between radicals – Palmerston did not want more Parliamentary Reform Reform Free trade Support for Liberal/nationalist movements in Europe Gladstone Aberdeen No effective leader Sir James Graham Favoured a more active role for government in politics No coherent philosophy Supported measures of Russell Policy Thought Whigs were inferior administrators Disagreed with foreign policy Free Trade Big influence in Liberal Party Sympathetic to Chartism Concerned with Factory Reform or religious disabilities Wanted more democracy Criticised Palmerston and Russell over government Opposed aristocratic government Free trade

32 Assessment: Explain the growth of political parties 1832 – 1846.

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