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Chapter 5 The American Revolution: From Elite Protest to Popular Revolt, 1763–1783.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 The American Revolution: From Elite Protest to Popular Revolt, 1763–1783."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 The American Revolution: From Elite Protest to Popular Revolt, 1763–1783

2 Moment of Decision: Commitment and Sacrifice © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

3 Structure of Colonial Society 1760s an optimistic post-war period Striking ethnic and racial diversity 60% of population under twenty-one years old Relatively high per capita GDP © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

4 Structure of Colonial Society Wealth unevenly distributed –South has richest individuals but also 90% of non-free colonial population –Middle colonies –New England lagged behind because of lack of export products © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

5 Breakdown of Political Trust 1760—George III ascended throne –Despite limited ability, wanted to take more active role in government –Upset Whigs by ignoring their role –High turnover among top ministers © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

6 Breakdown of Political Trust Hard for Parliament to get adequate information on colonies Parliamentary sovereignty –English officials assumed that Parliament must have ultimate authority © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

7 Breakdown of Political Trust © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

8 No Taxation Without Representation: The American Perspective Colonists tried to reserve internal colonial authority for their own legislatures Colonists assumed their legislatures equal in some ways to Parliament Americans not represented at all in Parliament © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

9 No Taxation Without Representation: The American Perspective British officials espoused “virtual representation” Colonists insisted only colonial assemblies should represent Americans © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

10 Ideas About Power and Virtue John Locke and “Commonwealthmen" shaped colonial political thought –Rebellion against arbitrary government justified –Power must be countered by virtue –Bad government reflects sin and corruption © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 Ideas About Power and Virtue Colonists saw British officials as sinful and corrupt Newspapers ensured wide dissemination of political confrontations © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

12 Eroding the Bonds of Empire Large debt and army left in America from Seven Years’ War Colonists doubted the army’s value Pontiac’s War –Exposed the British army’s weakness –Revealed the desperate situation of Native Americans after withdrawal of French –Frontier racism: Paxton Boys © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 Eroding the Bonds of Empire: Proclamation of 1763 Colonists determined to settle trans- Appalachian West Proclamation of 1763 banned settlement in trans-Appalachian West Colonists saw post-war army as there to enforce proclamation © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

14 Paying Off the National Debt Prime Minister George Grenville attempted to reduce England’s war debt Revenue Act of 1764 (the Sugar Act) Merchants and gentry protested; most colonists ignored the act © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

15 James Otis, Jr. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

16 Colonial Products and Trade © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

17 Popular Protest 1765—Stamp Act required colonists to purchase stamps to validate documents Patrick Henry and the Virginia Resolves united the gentry and the mass of the population in protest Stamp Act Congress petitioned the king and Parliament for repeal Sons of Liberty protests included riots, mob violence, and boycotts © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

18 Popular Protest © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

19 Popular Protest © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

20 Failed Attempts to Save the Empire 1766—Rockingham’s ministry favored repeal of Stamp Act Repeal tied to Declaratory Act of 1766 –Parliament sovereign over America “in all cases whatsoever” Controversy estranged colonists from English officials © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

21 Fueling the Crisis: The Townshend Duties Charles Townshend: chancellor of the exchequer 1767—Townshend Duties taxed American imports of paper, lead, glass, and tea American Board of Customs Commissioners created to collect duties © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

22 Fueling the Crisis: Response to the Townshend Duties Sons of Liberty organized boycott of English goods Circular letter from Massachusetts House of Representatives urged protest Ninety-two Massachusetts representatives defied government order to rescind letter © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

23 Fatal Show of Force English government moved 4,000 troops to Boston Troops clashed with Boston’s population March 5, 1770—English soldiers fired on civilian crowd, killed five Americans –Incident labeled the “Boston Massacre” –Victims seen as martyrs –Paul Revere engraving a best seller Townsend Duties repealed 1770, except tea © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

24 Fatal Show of Force © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

25 Last Days of Imperial Rule, 1770–1773 Customs collectors antagonized colonists, even wealthy members of the elite such as John Hancock Radicals like Samuel Adams protested tea tax as violation of American rights Committees of correspondence built up alternative political structure © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

26 The Final Provocation: The Boston Tea Party 1773—Parliament passed Tea Act –Designed to help the East India Company by making the sale of its tea cheaper in America Americans interpreted this as a subtle ploy to get them to consume taxed tea December 1773—Boston protestors dumped the tea into the harbor © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

27 The Final Provocation: The Boston Tea Party © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

28 The Final Provocation: The Coercive Acts Port of Boston closed until tea paid for Massachusetts government restructured –Upper house made appointive body –Town meetings permitted only once a year Accused officials to be tried in England, not America Army authorized to quarter troops wherever needed © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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30 Steps Toward Independence September 1774—First Continental Congress in response to Coercive Acts Congress commended “Suffolk Resolves” urging forcible resistance Intercolonial “Association” halted commerce with Britain until Coercive Acts repealed © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

31 Shots Heard Around the World April 19, 1775—skirmish breaks out in Lexington, Massachusetts Fighting spreads along road between Lexington, Concord, and Boston English retreat to Boston with heavy losses June 17, 1775—colonists inflict heavy losses on British in Battle of Bunker Hill © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

32 Beginning “The World Over Again”: Early War Effort British colonial governments collapsed Second Continental Congress—action and inaction –June 1775—Congress appointed George Washington commander-in-chief –Congress issued paper money to pay war debts –Debated whether to declare independence © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

33 Beginning “The World Over Again”: Early War Effort British actions that made compromise unlikely: –December 1775 Prohibitory Act—British blockaded colonists’ trade –German mercenaries hired to put down rebellion –Virginia Governor Dunmore urged slaves to take up arms against their masters © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

34 Beginning “The World Over Again”: Decision for Independence January 1776—Thomas Paine’s Common Sense –Convinced ordinary colonists to sever ties with Britain –Europe, not England, “is the parent country of America” © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

35 Beginning “The World Over Again”: Decision for Independence © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

36 Beginning “The World Over Again”: Decision for Independence Jefferson wrote Declaration of Independence Acceptance –July 2, 1776—Independence voted by Congress –July 4—Declaration of Independence issued © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

37 Beginning “The World Over Again”: Decision for Independence © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

38 Fighting for Independence British confident of victory –Larger population, more resources –Naval supremacy Britain’s tasks: –Supply troops an ocean away in hostile territory –Crush the popular spirit of independence British underestimated Americans’ commitment to their political ideology © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

39 The American Revolution, 1775–1781 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

40 Building a Professional Army Washington rejected guerrilla warfare strategy Continental army to be a fighting force and symbol of the republican cause Militia’s role: compel support for Revolution © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

41 Building a Professional Army African Americans in the Revolution –New England militias attracted slaves with promises of emancipation –Southern slaves more likely to side with British © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

42 Testing the American Will General Howe replaced General Gage for British Summer 1776—fighting shifted to New York American army routed on Long Island New York City captured Washington forced to retreat through New Jersey British thought rebels would soon capitulate © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

43 “Times That Try Men’s Souls” General Howe issued pardon for all who swear loyalty to Britain –3,000 accepted December 25, 1776—Washington captured 900 Hessians in Trenton January 3, 1777—Washington captured Princeton © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

44 “Times That Try Men’s Souls” Victories rekindled wartime patriotism British consolidated forces; left much of New Jersey in patriot control © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

45 Victory in a Year of Defeat British strategy –Cut off New England from other colonies –Lure Continental army into decisive battle The plan for cutting off New England –Burgoyne’s army moved in from Canada –Howe’s army moved up from New York –They met in Albany © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

46 Victory in a Year of Defeat Burgoyne defeated at Saratoga Howe took Philadelphia instead Washington’s army wintered at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

47 The French Alliance French helped colonists to get back at Britain for defeat in Seven Years’ War Effects of Battle of Saratoga –Convinced France that colonists were serious enough to become formal allies –British sued for peace to prevent Franco- American alliance © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

48 The French Alliance British offered repeal of all laws since 1763, respect for colonial taxation rights February 1778—Alliance with France concluded © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

49 Spain’s Contribution to American Independence © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

50 The Final Campaign British believed Loyalists stronger in southern colonies, so fighting shifted there Spring 1780—English captured Savannah and Charleston August 1780—American army routed at Camden, South Carolina Continental army rallied under Nathaniel Greene © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

51 The Final Campaign 1781—Cornwallis moved British into Virginia October 19, 1781—Cornwallis surrendered to Washington’s combined French and American forces © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

52 Major Battles of the American Revolution © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

53 The Loyalist Dilemma More than 100,000 Loyalists left U.S. at war’s end Loyalists shared basic ideology with Patriots Loyalists saw rebellion as endangering “life, liberty, and property” Loyalists treated poorly by both sides –British never fully trusted Loyalists –Patriots seized property; imprison, execute some Loyalists © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

54 Loyalist Strongholds © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

55 Winning the Peace American negotiators were John Jay, Benjamin Franklin, and John Adams They played France against England to get best terms © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

56 Winning the Peace Peace Treaty of 1783 –U.S. independence recognized –U.S. gets all territory east of Mississippi River, between Canada and Florida –U.S. secures fishing rights in North Atlantic –U.S. will help British merchants and Loyalists collect debts © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

57 Preserving Independence The American Revolution began construction of new form of government Question remains: a government of the elite or a government of the people? © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.


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