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“Repeal… would undermine recruiting and retention, impact leadership at all levels, have adverse effects on the willingness of parents who lend their.

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Presentation on theme: "“Repeal… would undermine recruiting and retention, impact leadership at all levels, have adverse effects on the willingness of parents who lend their."— Presentation transcript:

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2 “Repeal… would undermine recruiting and retention, impact leadership at all levels, have adverse effects on the willingness of parents who lend their sons and daughters to military service, and eventually break the All-Volunteer Force.” — March 2009 statement signed by 1,167 retired admirals and generals “The flag and general officers for the military, 1,167 to date, 51 of them former four-stars, said that this law, if repealed, could indeed break the All-Volunteer Force. They chose that word very carefully. They have a lot of military experience… and they know what they’re talking about.” — Elaine Donnelly, Center for Military Readiness, May 2010

3 No overall negative effects on cohesion, recruiting, retention, harassment, readiness, morale, etc. “As positive reports about DADT repeal emerged in the media, repeal opponents who predicted that open service would compromise readiness have adjusted their forecasts by emphasizing the possibility of long-term damage that will only become apparent in the future rather than identifiable consequences in the short-term.”

4 A single dimension? (Hatemi and colleagues) Two dimensions? (Jost and colleagues) Three dimensions? (Inbar & Lammers, 2012) More than three? (e.g., Truett et al.) Does the way we conceptualize it affect our results? How can and should we measure it? Is there more emphasis on social LC? Why? Does everyone even fall on this continuum? Do conceptions vary by culture?

5 MZ and DZ twins raised together vs. apart MZ twins vs. DZ twins raised together MZ twins raised together vs. apart DZ twins raised together vs. apart “shared environment”

6 Additive genetic Shared environment Unshared environment Adding in spouses can get at: Genotypic assortative mating (overestimates environment, underestimates genetic) Social homogamy (increases MZ and DZ so no effect) Social influence (no effect) What is a heritability coefficient? How do you interpret one?

7 Tesser, A. (1993). The importance of heritability in psychological research: The case of attitudes. Psychological Review, 100(1), doi: / X © 1993 American Psychological Association

8 Tesser, A. (1993). The importance of heritability in psychological research: The case of attitudes. Psychological Review, 100(1), doi: / X © 1993 American Psychological Association

9 Autoregressive Structural equation modeling Best fit

10 What are the different ways that parents could influence political ideology of their children? Hatemi et al., 2009 How do children’s ideologies change over time? How do the effects of genetics, shared environment, and unique environment change over time? Figure 1 What does this suggest about the effects of parents on children’s political attitudes?

11 Effects of genetics and home environment at age 21 Why do the effects of shared environment decrease? Figures 5 and 6 What does this study tell us about how we get our ideologies? Any other comments/issues with this study? What were their samples?

12 What new approaches did this study add? What was the sample for this study? How did they measure political orientation? Table 1 Any other drawbacks of the study?

13 Figure 4 AI: additive genetic, shared, environmental, social homogramy, social influence RC: also genotypic assortative mating and nonadditive genetic effects Parents didn’t seem to affect attitudes other than through genetics Is this consistent with Hatemi et al.? There was shared environmental influence within twins. How could this occur?

14 AI: openness and agreeableness RC: conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness Most of relation between personality and orientation is due to genetics, but not all of the genetic effects are explained by personality How could personality influence PO? What other genetic factors could influence PO?

15 Ideology serves needs for certainty, security, and solidarity (echoes of TMT). What motivates liberals? Ideology comes form orientations toward uncertainty, threat, and conformity (Jost & Amodio, 2012). What does that mean for being conservative vs. liberal? For social class? What are some of the correlates of liberalism/conservatism they report? What effect did 9/11 have on political orientation, according to the authors? How does that mesh with the findings we talked about last week on TMT? Block and Block (2006) nursery school study 632#www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S

16 Zamboni et al. 2009—fMRI while read statements. Conservative statements associated with greater activity in brain region associated with negative affect, withdraw motivation Amodio et al. 2007—liberals more able to deal with response conflict (go/no-go task) and more ACC activity (conflict area) “In sum, these results suggest that a more liberal ideology is associated with stronger motivation to seek out new information and integrate potentially conflicting pieces of information in order to arrive at a relatively complex understanding of reality.” COMMENTS?

17 Oxley et al., Conservatives more arousal in response to threat (GSR, eyeblink) Kanai et al., 2011—liberalism and larger ACC; conservatism and larger amygdala Genetic polymorphisms predictive of voting behavior, attitudes

18 So where do ideologies come from? What is the causal order for these factors? Can the social environment affect genetics? Do these genetic findings suggest that PO is not rational and can’t change? What about moderates?

19 Proposal due in 2 weeks. Questions? Next week: How liberals and conservatives differ


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