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Progressivism Politics SSUSH13a-f THE MUCKRAKERS.

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Presentation on theme: "Progressivism Politics SSUSH13a-f THE MUCKRAKERS."— Presentation transcript:


2 Progressivism Politics SSUSH13a-f




6 They exposed social problems Name comes from President Roosevelt. He thought they stirred up trouble with sensationalism

7 Ida Tarbell: The History of the Standard Oil Company Combined careful research with sensationalism to transform public opinion against Rockefeller Ida Tarbell in 1904

8 Upton Sinclair: The Jungle (1906) – Wrote about worker exploitation – Public focused on meatpacking industry According to Sinclair workers were accidentally ground in with the meat Roosevelt didn’t believe Sinclair and sent investigators- they couldn’t prove people were ground but were revolted by the conditions

9 Watch: 7:11- 10:01


11 Middle class became concerned with poverty Crossed Party Borders – Republicans: Theodore Roosevelt (1901- 1909) William Howard Taft (1909- 1913) – Democrats Woodrow Wilson (1913- 1917) – 1 st term Came to an end with WWI

12 Political Party Primaries Split in Republican Party Decline of Machine Politics Votes for WomenSocial Laws Protecting Workers Social Work Birth Control Civil RightsEconomic Conservation Business Regulation Lower Tariffs Reformed Banking Income Tax

13 “Progressive” – Believed that changes in society were badly needed – That government was the proper agency for correcting social and economic ills

14 1.Middle Class (largest group) – Concerned with Big Business – Gap between Rich and Poor 2.Women’s Suffrage Supporters 3.Protestant church leaders – Preached the Social Gospel Social Gospel vs. Gospel of Wealth 4.African Americans – Jim Crowe Laws – NAACP

15 Pragmatism What’s “good” or “true” is determined by its results, does the belief get the desired outcome Scientific Method Government should be “managed” like factories William James- Co-founder of Pragmatism

16 Voter Participation Reforms 1.Secret Ballot 2.Direct Primaries

17 Voter Participation Reforms 3.Direct Election of Senators Before- Elected by State Legislatures 1913- 17 th Amendment requires all US Senators to be elected by popular vote


19 4.Initiative, Referendum, Recall Initiative = a method by which voters could compel the legislature to consider a bill Referendum = method allowing citizens to vote on proposed laws printed on ballots Recall = enables voters to remove corrupt/ bad politician by majority vote 5.Social Welfare Issues

20 City Reforms – Utilities were transferred from private ownership to city ownership. 1915- 2/3 of nation’s cities own water systems Electric/ gas/ transportation – Fire, Police Chiefs, etc. elected by popular vote

21 State Reform: TEMPERANCE Urban progressives: Not in favor of temperance but wanted to shut down saloons because they were houses for corrupt bosses Rural progressives: Thought temperance would clean up morals AND politics



24 Gilded Politics Rutherford B. Hayes Ended Reconstruction and opposed restrictions on Chinese immigration James Garfield Compromise President between “half-breeds” and “stalwarts” Assassinated by a stalwart in 1881 Chester A. Arthur Questioned status quo politics

25 Gilded Presidents Grover Cleveland – Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 – Dawes Act Hoped to help Native Americans – Pendleton Act Civil Service Examination (Response to Assassination of President Garfield) William McKinley – Enacted higher tariffs and led country through period of economic prosperity

26 Election of 1896 Significance Urban Dominance Triumph of the values of modern industrial and urban America over the rural ideals of the American of Jefferson and Jackson. Beginning of Modern Politics – McKinley led America out of ISOLATIONISM – Utilization of Mass Media

27 President McKinley Assassinated 1901 Theodore Roosevelt Becomes President

28 The Square Deal for Labor Trust Busting Consumer Protection – Pure Food and Drug Act – Meat Inspection Act

29 Conservation – Forest Reserve Act 1891 150 acres of natural reserve – Newlands Reclamation Act Money from sale of public lands funneled to western irrigation – National Conservation Commission Established after Roosevelt held a conservation meeting at white house



32 William Howard Taft – Secretary of War under Roosevelt – Largely Ineffective Politician

33 Mann Elkins Act of 1910 – Interstate Commerce Act extends over phones, cables, railroads 16 th Amendment – Income Tax



36 Candidates – Taft (Republican) – 23% – Debs (Socialist) – 6% – Roosevelt (Bull Moose Party) – 26% – Wilson (Democrat) – 46% Wilson wins because the Republican Party was split between Taft and Roosevelt



39 Woodrow Wilson – Progressive Democrat – 1 st President with PhD – President of Princeton – Gov. of New Jersey – Cold Personality – Excellent Leader

40 Tariff Reduction – Underwood Tariff (1913) Banking – Federal Reserve Act (1914) Business Regulation – Clayton Antitrust Act – Federal Trade Commission Farm Loan Act – Child Labor Act


42 Watch: 5:50- 7:34

43 Jim Crowe Laws Segregation laws keeping whites and African Americans separate. Plessy vs. Ferguson Homer Plessy (June 7, 1892) 1/8 African American Wanted to sit on white part of train “Separate but Equal” Progressives Weren’t Worried About Civil Rights Shared racism More worried about financial reforms

44 Booker T. Washington Education and jobs 1 st, Civil Rights 2 nd W.E.B. DuBois Civil rights 1 st, Education and Jobs 2 nd

45 Urbanization 1910- 1930: 1 million African Americans move North Moved Because: – Deteriorating race relations in South – Insects destroyed crops in the South – Factory jobs opening because of WWI draft

46 1905- W.E.B. DuBois & Niagara Movement 1908- NAACP Niagara Movement + White Progressives = National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) – Largest civil rights organization 100,000 1911- National Urban League Help Migrating Blacks “Not Alms But Opportunity”


48 1848- Began in Seneca Falls, NY 1890- Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony found National American Women Suffrage Association (NAWSA) 1900- Some states Allowed Women to vote and own property after marriage 1916- Alice Paul transforms NAWSA to National Women’s Party – Focuses Suffrage on Politics rather than Society 1920- 19 th Amendment = Women’s right to vote



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