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The Early Years The 1st Presidents And their Administrations.

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Presentation on theme: "The Early Years The 1st Presidents And their Administrations."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Early Years The 1st Presidents And their Administrations


3 1789 Election Results Candidate Party Electoral Votes George Washington Federalist 69 Others Independent 35 John Adams Federalist 34


5 George Washington Mr. President  Elected unanimously elected by the electoral college in 1789  No Federal laws  No Courts  No staff  No treasury  No taxes  With much debt  Weak army

6 Washington creates a Cabinet  Vice President: John Adams  Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson  Sec. of the Treasury: Alexander Hamilton  Secretary of War: Henry Knox  Attorney General Edmund Randolph

7 Congress passes legislation  Judiciary Act of 1789 – Set the number of Supreme Court judges at 6 and established 3 circuit courts and 13 district courts. John Jay is the 1 st Chief Justice.  Revenue laws – necessary to raise income for the government. –A tariff on imported goods –A tonnage duty on goods entering U.S. ports

8 Problems: National Debt Crisis  National debt is 43,000,000  State debt is $22,000,000  Foreign debt is $12,000,000

9 Alexander Hamilton  4 point Financial Program –Full payment of foreign and national debt: sell U.S. bonds –Assumption of state debt: South objects because they had paid most of their debt –An excise(tax) on whiskey –A federal bank opposed by Madison and Jefferson

10 Whiskey Rebellion of 1794  Whiskey is vital to the economy  25% tax set by Alexander Hamilton  West Pennsylvania refuses to pay  George Washington and Hamilton use 15,000 troops to end the rebellion  20 put in prison; 2 charged with treason but pardoned  Asserts the U.S. government ’ s power

11 Federalists vs. Democratic Republicans  Hamilton  Strong federal gov ’ t  Loose interpretation of the constitution  Industrial economy  Urban based society  Gov ’ t aids business  Pro-British  George Washington and John Adams  Jefferson  States ’ rights  Strict interpretation of the constitution  Agrarian economy  Rural based society  Gov ’ t stays out of business  Pushed for the Bill of Rights  Pro French  Madison and Monroe

12 Federalist Features  Rule by the best people; leaders from upper social and economic classes  Hostile to the extension of democracy  A protective tariff  Expand the gov ’ t  Restrictions on free speech and press  Opposes individualism  Society ’ s needs over individual rights  East coast based  Support of the financial and banking leaders

13 Democratic Republican Features  Rule by the informed masses  Supported equality and personal liberty  Friendly towards the extension of democracy  Feared wealth could corrupt American ideals  No special favors for business or manufacturers  Agriculture base over commerce  Rejected industrialization and commerce  Reduce the size of the federal gov ’ t.  Concentration in the south

14 Washington ’ s Farewell Address Served Two Terms  Lists 3 Dangers: –The rise in political factions (parties) –Geographic differences (sectionalism) –European rivalries Stay neutral “ Avoid entangling alliances ”  Printed in the newspaper

15 John Adams  Electoral vote 71-68 against Jefferson –A Federalist President w/a Democratic Republican Vice President  XYZ Affair: “ Millions for defense but not one cent for tribute. ” –French become hostile after US treaty (Jay Treaty) w/Britain –US ships seized by French privateers –Adams sends diplomats to negotiate a treaty—French foreign minister refuses to see them –Agents X,Y, Z meet them demanding money –Result:  Undeclared naval war with France sparks war fever –Adams ’ popularity increases  Alien and Sedition Act: 1.Aliens –expels foreigners declared to be dangerous to the peace and safety of the U.S. 2. Sedition- limits free speech against the government.


17 Election of 1800 The passing of power from one political party to another  Nasty campaign between Adams and Jefferson  Electoral Votes: Jefferson—73; Adams—65; Burr—73  Electoral deadlock between Jefferson and Burr  House votes…  Jefferson elected in the 35 th ballot: Hamilton changes his vote. Leads to the 12 th amendment (President/Vice President on separate ballots)



20 Election of 1800 The passing of power from one political party to another  Adams appoints “ midnight judges ” –Judiciary Act of 1801—sets up regional courts –Adams makes 100s of appointments...all Federalists and shuts Jefferson out of the process  Adams refuses to attend Jefferson ’ s inauguration  The power of change within the system –Decentralizes power –Removes heavy taxes –Downsizes the military –Allows the Bank of the U.S. to continue

21 Jefferson ’ s Administration  Marbury v. Madison –Jefferson gets Congress to repeal Judicial Act of 1801—asks Madison not to deliver the letters of appointment –Marbury (one of the judges) sues and loses –Establishes Judicial Review  Louisiana Purchase France gives up land west of the MI river for 15 million. Doubles the size of the U.S.  Lewis and Clark expedition (St. Louis to Northwest Pacific Ocean)  Other: –Belief in the common man –Repeal of alien and sedition acts

22 The Louisiana Purchase

23 Original mission: Purchase of New Orleans and West Florida for $10m Napoleon’s offer Louisiana Territory for $15m/ $202m in 2013 (3 cents an acre/ 40 cents 2013)

24 The Louisiana Purchase Constitutional issues: No authority in Con. To purchase land Negotiations done in secret Accusations by Feds of hypocrisy TJ’s response: Proposed Constitutional amendment DRs ignore it and buy the land

25 Impact of the Louisiana Purchase Doubled size of the Republic Gained access to the Mississippi River Ended (hopefully) possibility of re-invasion by Britain

26 Lewis and Clark  Jefferson wanted to know more about lands west of the Mississippi  Persuades Congress to sponsor an expedition  Mission: –find a route across the Rocky Mts. to the Pacific Ocean –Learn as much as possible

27 Lewis and Clark Purposes: To explore and map new territories To contact the various tribes Scientific survey Lewis Clark

28 The Corps of Discovery Made up of former Army Regulars

29 Lewis and Clark  Instructions: Learn about Native Americans Treat them in a friendly manner Collect plant and animals specimens Chart the geography  Left St. Louis—Spring 1804  Reached Pacific—18 months and 4,000 miles later  Arrived back in St. Louis—September 1806

30 Lewis and Clark  Sacagawea –Wife of a French trapper hired as a guide –Interprets and helps in their survival –Sister to the chief of the Shoshone tribe Aids them in securing horses, supplies, and provides directions over Rockies  Result of their Journey: –Brings back valuable information –Inspires those eager to move westward

31 Lewis and Clark Role of Sacagawea Impact: size of country established treaties signed with tribes new species discovered led to westward expansion

32 The “ Mosquito Fleet ” Create a fleet of smaller gunboats Rationale: –Less costly –Prevents possible tyranny Long Term Impact: less able to defend US against the British

33 Election of 1804 Jefferson vs. Charles Pinckney Decline of the Federalist Party: Less able to attract Western voters Too elitist Geographically locked in with New England Older generation

34 Renewed Problems with Britain (AGAIN!) Renewed impressment of American sailors British harassment of US trade Conflicts with Indians in the West The “Chesapeake-Leopard Incident”

35 The Embargo Act of 1807 Total ban on trade with all countries No support for either France or Britain

36 Reaction to the Embargo Act Smuggling and piracy TJ unpopular Repeal by Congress (Feb. 1807)

37 Jefferson ’ s Legacy PositivePositive –LA Purchase –Lewis and Clark –Increased democratization –Moderation in governing NegativeNegative –“mosquito fleet” –Embargo Act –Attempted impeachment of SC Justice


39 Madison ’ s Administration  War of 1812  The impressment (kidnapping) of U.S. sailors by England  White House (President ’ s Mansion) is burned by the English  Star Spangled Banner written—Francis Scott Key  War in a Stalemate  Battle of New Orleans fought after the war was over. Andrew Jackson becomes a national hero.


41 Virginia Dynasty Thomas Jefferson 1801-1809 James Madison 1809-1817 James Monroe 1817-1825

42 Monroe ’ s Administration  Era of Good Feelings –Nationalism –Lack of strong political party rivalry –Political differences fade  Creates the 2 nd bank of the U.S.  Economic Panic of 1819-too much debt owed to London banks; 1 st economic depression

43 Missouri Compromise of 1820  1818 Missouri petitions for statehood –11 slave states –11 free states Missouri enters the U.S. as a slave state Maine enters the U.S. as a free state Slavery prohibited in the rest of the Louisiana territory North of 36 ’ and 30 ”

44 Missouri Compromise 1820 What was it? A dilemma over admission of Missouri ( a slave state) when there was no Free-State available. Who was it between? Northern and Southern factions in Congress What did it concern? Maintaining the balance between Slave and Free States What was the outcome? The “balance” is maintained

45 "This momentous question, like a fire-bell in the night, awakened and filled me with terror. I considered it at once as the death knell of the Union... my only consolation is to be, that I live not to weep over it."


47  1819 Adams-Onis Treaty with Spain –After Jackson invades West Flordia –U.S. acquires Florida—gives up claims to Spanish Texas  1823 Monroe Doctrine –Europe should stay out of the American continent. No more colonization.  1824 American System of Henry Clay –1. Protective tariffs –2. Federal funds for internal improvements –3. National Bank Monroe ’ s Administration


49 US Population Density 18101820

50 Where are the Federalists, now?

51 Monroe Doctrine


53 The American System Henry Clay 1777 - 1852

54 Political Parties of the early 19 th Century




58 Evolution of Major Political Parties TimeHamiltonJeffersonians 1792 FederalistsDemocratic- Republicans 1820 One party Era of Good Feelings 1825 National Republicans Jacksonian Democrats 1834WhigsDemocrats 1854Republicans

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