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The Road to Revolution, 1763–1775

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1 The Road to Revolution, 1763–1775
Chapter 7 The Road to Revolution, 1763–1775

2 The Deep Roots of Revolution
Two ideas had taken root in the minds of the American colonists by the mid-18th century: Republicanism: a just society as one in which all citizens willingly subordinate their private, selfish interests to the common good. Both the stability of society and the authority of government depended on the virtue of the citizenry (selflessness, self-sufficiency, and courage, especially its appetite for civic involvement). A republic would be opposed to hierarchical and authoritarian institutions such as aristocracy and monarchy.

3 The Deep Roots of Revolution
The second idea was when a group of British political commentators known as Radical Whigs began to emerge. They feared the threat of liberty posed by the arbitrary power of the monarch and his ministries relative to elected representatives in Parliament. They called the bribing and patronage of the King's ministers - "corruption in a sense of rot or decay”. They warned the citizens to be on guard against corruption and to be eternally vigilant against conspiracies. The Americans had grown accustomed to running their own affairs, and distance weakens authority.

4 The Female Combatants, 1776 Britain is symbolized as
a lady of fashion; her rebellious daughter, America, as an Indian princess. Their shields of Obedience and Liberty seem mutually exclusive standards. Compare this cartoon with the one on p. 151. p114

5 Mercantilism and Colonial Grievances
Britain's empire was acquired in a "fit of absentmindedness;" all except Georgia, of the 13 colonies were haphazardly founded by trading companies, religious groups, or land speculators. Mercantilism: wealth was power and that a country's economic wealth (military and political power also) could be measured by the amount of gold or silver in its treasury. The London government looked at the American colonists as tenants. They were expected to furnish products needed in the mother country From time to time Parliament passed laws to regulate the mercantilist system. The Navigation Laws (1650) were aimed at rival Dutch shippers trying to elbow their way into American carrying trade.

6 Mercantilism and Colonial Grievances
European goods destined for America first had to be landed in Britain, the colonists regularly bought more from Britain than they had sold there, the difference had to be made up of hard cash. Currency issues came to a boil when dire financial need forced many of the colonies to issue paper money, which slowly depreciated. Parliament prohibited the colonial legislatures from printing paper currency and from passing indulgent bankruptcy laws - practices that might harm British merchants. The British crown reserved the right to nullify any legislation passed by the colonial assembles if such laws were at odds with the mercantilism system.

7 Paul Revere, by John Singleton Copley, ca. 1768 T his
painting of the famed silversmith-horseman challenged convention—but reflected the new democratic spirit of the age—by portraying an artisan in working clothes. Note how Copley depicted the serene confidence of the master craftsman and Revere’s quiet pride in his work. p115

8 The Merits and Menace of Mercantilism
the Navigation Laws imposed no intolerable burden mainly because they were only loosely enforced. John Hancock was an example of a wholesale smuggler. Benefits of Mercantilism: London paid liberal bounties to colonial producers of ship parts, over the protests of British competitors. Virginia tobacco planters enjoyed a monopoly in the British market. The protection of British Navy and strong, seasoned redcoats for free. Burdens of Mercantilism: Stifled economic initiative and imposed a rankling dependency on British agents and creditors. Debasing - felt used, kept in a state of perpetual economic adolescence. Revolution broke out, as Theodore Roosevelt, later remarked, because Britain failed to recognize an emerging nation when it saw one.

9 The Stamp Tax Uproar Wining the Seven Years' War brought on a huge debt. Prime Minister George Grenville first aroused the resentment of colonists in 1763 by ordering the British Navy to begin strictly enforcing the Navigation Laws. He also secured from Parliament the so-called Sugar Act of 1764 which raised tax revenue in the colonies for the crown. Resentment was kept burning by the Quartering Act of 1765, which required certain colonies to provide food and quarters from British troops. Stamp Act of 1765 raised revenues to support the new military.

10 The Stamp Tax Uproar The Stamp Act mandated the use of stamped paper or the affixing of stamps, certifying payment of tax; Grenville regarded all these measures as reasonable and just. Both the Sugar and Stamp Acts provided for trying offenders in the hated Admiralty Courts, where juries were not allowed. Angry Americans made a distinction between "legislation" and "taxation“. The principle of no taxation without representation was supremely important, and the colonists clung to it with tenacious consistency.

11 The Stamp Tax Uproar The sticking point was between Virtual Representation and Actual Representation. Virtual Representation: All colonists were British subjects, and were virtually represented in Parliament. Laws passed by Parliament would be in the best interests of the empire and of all citizens. Actual Representation: Colonists wanted a number of actual representatives in Parliament, who could directly vote on taxes and other legislation. They hoped this would protect their interests. Actual representation was in reality not a good outcome for America, since the many British members of Parliament could have outvoted the relatively few members that would have come from the colonies. But it didn’t matter since Britain was stubborn and refused any compromise.

12 Protesting the Stamp Act Even common household wares in the 1760s testified to
the colonists’ mounting rage against the Stamp Act. Many people in Britain sympathized with the Americans—and sought to profit from their anger, as this English-made teapot demonstrates. p117

13 Protesting the Stamp Act Even common household wares in the 1760s testified to
the colonists’ mounting rage against the Stamp Act. Many people in Britain sympathized with the Americans—and sought to profit from their anger, as this English-made teapot demonstrates. p117

14 Forced Repeal of the Stamp Act
the assemblage of the Stamp Act Congress came together in NYC; 27 distinguished delegates attended from 9 colonies. They drew up a statement of their rights and grievances and beseeched the King and parliament to repeal; more effective than the Congress was the widespread adoption of non-importation agreements against British goods. Violence accompanied colonial protest, groups of ardent spirits known as the Sons Of Liberty and Daughters Of Liberty took the law into their own hands. When the tax collectors resigned or feared for their safety, the tax could not be collected. Some agents were tarred and feathered, others resigned or fled.

15 Public Punishment for the Excise Man, 1774 T his
popular rendering of the punishment of Commissioner of Customs John Malcomb shows him tarred and feathered and forcibly “paid” with great quantities of tea. From the Liberty Tree in the background dangles the threat of hanging, all for attempting to collect duties in Boston. p118

16 Forced Repeal of the Stamp Act
England was hit hard, because America then bought about one-fourth of British manufacturing, and one-half of British shipping was devoted to the American trade. Parliament repealed the Stamp Act, then they passed the Declaratory Act - It defined the constitutional principle that Britain would not yield the power to tax the colonies; it also stated Britain’s absolute and unqualified sovereignty over its North American colonies.

17 The Townshend Tea Tax and the Boston “Massacre”
Charles Townshend persuaded Parliament in 1767 to pass the Townshend Acts - a light import duty on glass, white lead, paper, paint, and tea. The Americans became rebellious, the English government suspended the legislature of NY in 1767 for failure to comply with the Quartering Act. Colonists found that they could secure smuggled tea at a low price. Liberty-loving colonists, resenting the presence of the red-coated "ruffians," taunted the "bloody backs" mercilessly. March 5, 1770, 60 people taunted redcoats. Nervous and provoked troops opened fire and killed or wounded 11 citizens, an event known as the Boston Massacre; one of the people who died was Crispus Attucks. Only two soldiers were found guilty of manslaughter. The soldiers were released after being branded on the hand.

18 Two Views of the Boston Massacre, 1770 and 1856 Both of these prints of the Boston Massacre were art
as well as propaganda. Paul Revere’s engraving (left) began circulating within three weeks of the event in March 1770, depicting not a clash of brawlers but armed soldiers taking aim at peaceful citizens. Absent also was any evidence of the mulatto ringleader, Crispus Attucks. Revere wanted his print to convince viewers of the indisputable justice of the colonists’ cause. By the mid-1850s, when the chromolithograph (right) circulated, it served a new political purpose. In the era of the abolitionist movement, freedman Crispus Attucks held center place in the print, which portrayed his death as an American martyr in the revolutionary struggle for freedom. p119

19 Two Views of the Boston Massacre, 1770 and 1856 Both of these prints of the Boston Massacre were art
as well as propaganda. Paul Revere’s engraving (left) began circulating within three weeks of the event in March 1770, depicting not a clash of brawlers but armed soldiers taking aim at peaceful citizens. Absent also was any evidence of the mulatto ringleader, Crispus Attucks. Revere wanted his print to convince viewers of the indisputable justice of the colonists’ cause. By the mid-1850s, when the chromolithograph (right) circulated, it served a new political purpose. In the era of the abolitionist movement, freedman Crispus Attucks held center place in the print, which portrayed his death as an American martyr in the revolutionary struggle for freedom. p119

20 The Seditious Committees of Correspondence
Lord North persuaded Parliament to repeal the Townshend revenue duties, but tea was still taxed; flames of discontent still continued to burn. Samuel Adams: master propagandist and engineer of rebellion, he organized in mass the local committees of correspondence. Their chief function was to spread the spirit of resistance by exchanging letters and thus keep alive opposition to British policy. Within a short time every colony established a central committee. They evolved directly into the first miniature American Congresses.

21 Samuel Adams (1722–1803) A second cousin of
John Adams, he contributed a potent pen and tongue to the American Revolution as a political agitator and organizer of rebellion. He was the leading spirit in hosting the Boston Tea Party. A failure in the brewing business, he was sent by Massachusetts to the First Continental Congress of He signed the Declaration of Independence and served in Congress until 1781. p120

22 Tea Brewing in Boston Non-importation was weakening, British East India Company was facing bankruptcy. If it collapsed, the London government would lose heavily in tax revenue. Not a single one of the several thousand chests of tea shipped by the East India Company ever reached the hands of the consignees. December 16, 1773, a hundred Bostonians, disguised as Indians, smashed 342 chests of tea and dumped their contents into the Atlantic. The action was known as the Boston Tea Party. They wanted to make sure that its cheap price did not pose an "invincible temptation" to the people.

23 The Boston Tea Party, December 16, 1773 Crying “Boston harbor a teapot this night,” Sons of Liberty disguised as Indians hurled chests of tea into the sea to protest the tax on tea and to make sure that its cheap price did not prove an “invincible temptation” to the people. p121

24 Parliament Passes the “Intolerable Acts”
a series of “Intolerable Acts” was passed designed to chastise Boston and Massachusetts. Most drastic of all was the Boston Port Act. It closed the tea-stationed harbor until damages were paid and order could be ensured; many of the chartered rights of Massachusetts were swept away. These were also called the Coercive Acts in Britain. The Quebec Act (1774) - The French were guaranteed the right to practice their Catholic religion. They were also permitted to retain many of their old customs and institutions; the boundaries of Quebec extended southward all the way to the Ohio River. This alarmed land speculators in the colonies.

25 Map 7.1 Québec Before and After 1774 Young Alexander Hamilton voiced the fears
of many colonists when he warned that the Quebec Act of 1774 would introduce “priestly tyranny” into Canada, making that country another Spain or Portugal. “Does not your blood run cold,” he asked, “to think that an English Parliament should pass an act for the establishment of arbitrary power and Popery in such a country?” Map 7-1 p123

26 Bloodshed A response to the "Intolerable Acts" was the summoning of the First Continental Congress in It was to meet in Philadelphia to consider ways of redressing colonial grievances. 12 out of 13 colonies (Georgia missing) sent 55 men. John Adams led the argument in drawing up several dignified papers. This included a ringing Declaration Of Rights. This created The Association, which called for a complete boycott of British goods: non-importation, non-exportation, and non-consumption. They sought merely to repeal the offensive legislation and return to the days before the tax. Parliament rejected the Congress's petitions.

27 Lexington and Concord April 1775 – The British Commander in Boston sent a detachment of troops to nearby Lexington and Concord. They were to seize stores of colonial gunpowder and to bag the "rebel" leaders Samuel Adams and John Hancock. Minutemen refused to disperse fast enough and eight were killed – in what might be called the "Lexington Massacre“. The British army marched on to Concord, where they encountered a large colonial minuteman force. After several hours of fighting, the British retreated without finding the weapons or the rebel leaders. British losses on the retreat were more than 300 wounded, with 70 killed.

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29 p130

30 Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette (1757–1834),
by Joseph Boze, 1790 This youthful French officer gave to America not only military service but some $200,000 of his private funds. He returned to France after the American Revolution to play a conspicuous role in the French Revolution. p128

31 The Flutist, by Brazilla Lew This portrait is believed to
be that of an African American fifer in the Revolutionary War. Lew was a veteran of the Seven Years’ War who had marched to Ticonderoga and served in the army a full seven years as frontline soldier, fifer, and drummer. In 1775, at the age of thirty-two, he fought at Bunker Hill as an enlistee in the 27th Massachusetts Regiment. A resident of Chelmsford, Massachusetts, he was said to have taught all twelve of his children to play musical instruments. p129

32 Portrait Traditionally Said to Be That of Abigail
Adams (1744–1818) T he wife of Revolutionary War leader and future president John Adams, she was a prominent Patriot in her own right. She was also among the first Americans to see, however faintly, the implications of revolutionary ideas for changing the status of women. p120

33 A View of the Town of Concord, ca
A View of the Town of Concord, ca Redcoats here drill on the Concord Green, near where colonial militiamen would soon repel their advance on stores of rebel gunpowder. p124


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