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The Road To Revolution. Actions & Reactions The road to the revolution was paved with a series of actions and reactions by both the English Government.

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Presentation on theme: "The Road To Revolution. Actions & Reactions The road to the revolution was paved with a series of actions and reactions by both the English Government."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Road To Revolution

2 Actions & Reactions The road to the revolution was paved with a series of actions and reactions by both the English Government and the Colonials.

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5 Charles Townshend New Finance Minister of Britain Responsible for passage Townshend Duties of 1767 External taxes on colonial imports –Glass, paint, lead, paper & tea $ raised would pay governors & other British officials, making them independent of colonial legislatures

6 Renewed Colonial Protests John Dickinson’s Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania - 12/1767 –Argued that Parliament had no right to tax commerce for purpose of raising $ –Legality of external tax depended on intent - no tax if elected reps did not vote for it Sam Adams to drafts “circular letter” of protest

7 Circular Letters Condemned taxation w/out rep & threat to self-government - called for resistance Sent to other legislatures VA sent out own circular letter calling for opposition to policies - more radical Brit. Sec. of State threatened colonial legislatures if they endorsed the circular letters

8 Circular Letters cont. Colonial governors dissolved legislatures for not disowning the letter Move resulted in even sharper opposition Sons (& Daughters) of Liberty led new protests & enforced boycotts on British products Growing mob actions divided colonial opinion & led to more troops (1768)

9 Repeal of Townshend Duties April under PM Lord North Hastened by widening boycotts Parl. retains tax on tea to under-score its authority 2nd time in 3 years that colonial pressure led to changes Tea duty was a nagging reminder of Parliamentary power

10 Boston Massacre (3/1770) Boston mobs threatened customs officials - leading to more troops Friction between troops & citizens high March 5 - a mob led by Crispus Attucks confronted Red Coats w/ insults & snowballs Troops fired into the crowd, killing 5 Became a spark for colonial radicals

11 Committees of Correspondence Samuel Adams called for formation of Committees of Correspondence between Mass. towns For exchanging information & planning measures to defend colonial rights Idea eventually spread to other colonies & later served as a link between colonies By colonial leaders linked by C of C’s

12 Tea Act of 1773 Designed to bail out East India Co. Company given monopoly on tea in America - only co. agents could sell tea Taxes reduced as incentive to buy Undercut colonial merchants & made taxed tea competitive w/ smuggled tea C of C’s call for non- violent consumer boycott

13 Boston Tea Party - 12/16/1773 Colonies resisted allowing tea to be unloaded In Boston, 150 men disguised as Mohawk Indians boarded 3 EIC ships Dumped 45 tons of tea in harbor No one hurt & no property damaged except the tea

14 The Coercive (Intolerable) Acts Passed by Parliament in 1774 –Reaction to Boston Tea Party Boston Port Bill closed Boston Harbor to commerce until tea was paid for Mass. Govt. Act suspended the colonial charter of 1691 –All colonial officials appointees of crown –Town meetings forbidden w/out permission of governor

15 Coercive Acts cont. Administration of Justice Act permitted trials of British officials to be held in England or other colonies A new Quartering Act ordered Mass. to provide lodging & food to troops there General Thomas Gage made Gov. of Mass. - gave appearance of military rule

16 Quebec Act of 1774 Passed along w/ Coercive Acts Granted land west of Alleghenies & north of Ohio R. to Quebec To be governed by British officials Special privileges given to Roman Catholic Church

17 Response to Intolerable Acts Pushed colonies toward brink of revolution Repeal became a non-negotiable demand 6 of 27 reasons given in Dec. of Ind. for breaking from England related to I.A.’s Reps from all colonies but GA sent delegates to Phila. in Sept Known as First Continental Congress

18 First Continental Congress 56 delegates - prominent colonial leaders (Adams, Jay, Lee, Washington, etc.) Initially endorsed Suffolk Resolves which declared Intolerable Acts unconstitutional –Originally drafted by Mass. Legislature Formed Continental Association to coordinate boycotts of British goods Committees formed locally to enforce boycotts

19 First Continental Congress cont. Issued Declaration of Rights & Grievances to King George III Declaration demanded repeal of Parliamentary measures that produced their grievances since 1763 –It conceded to Parliament’s right to regulate commerce but not tax, disband assemblies, etc. Addressed King, hoping he would dismiss ministers responsible for Coercive Acts

20 First Continental Congress cont. The delegates at the C.C. agreed to meet again in the Spring of 1775 if the issues had not been solved. As scheduled, the Second Continental Congress met the next year.


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