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Titus Livius ab urbe condita continued. Titus Livius (Livy) and Early Roman History The historian Livy ( 59 B.C. – A.D. 17) The historian Livy ( 59 B.C.

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Presentation on theme: "Titus Livius ab urbe condita continued. Titus Livius (Livy) and Early Roman History The historian Livy ( 59 B.C. – A.D. 17) The historian Livy ( 59 B.C."— Presentation transcript:

1 Titus Livius ab urbe condita continued

2 Titus Livius (Livy) and Early Roman History The historian Livy ( 59 B.C. – A.D. 17) The historian Livy ( 59 B.C. – A.D. 17) Work: ab urbe condita ( from the founding of Rome) an enormous history of Rome from its foundation to his own time, contains many traditional stories about early Roman history that are not historical facts Work: ab urbe condita ( from the founding of Rome) an enormous history of Rome from its foundation to his own time, contains many traditional stories about early Roman history that are not historical facts Stories reflect traditional Roman ideals and values, not necessarily those of the early Romans, but rather of later periods and of Livy’s own period. Stories reflect traditional Roman ideals and values, not necessarily those of the early Romans, but rather of later periods and of Livy’s own period. Important: history reflects Roman vision of the past Important: history reflects Roman vision of the past Stories provide many exempla (examples) of exemplary Roman men and women who act according to Roman values, and examples of those who do not. Stories provide many exempla (examples) of exemplary Roman men and women who act according to Roman values, and examples of those who do not.

3 Livy’s prologue “Events before the city was founded or planned, which have been handed down more as pleasing poetic fictions than as reliable records of historical events, I intend neither to affirm nor to refute. To antiquity we grant the indulgence of making the origins of cities more impressive by commingling the human with the divine, and if any people should be permitted to sanctify its inception and reckon the gods as its founders, surely the glory of the Roman people in war such that, when it boasts Mars in particular as its parent and the parent of its founder, the nations of the world would as easily acquiesce in this claim as they do in our rule.” “Events before the city was founded or planned, which have been handed down more as pleasing poetic fictions than as reliable records of historical events, I intend neither to affirm nor to refute. To antiquity we grant the indulgence of making the origins of cities more impressive by commingling the human with the divine, and if any people should be permitted to sanctify its inception and reckon the gods as its founders, surely the glory of the Roman people in war such that, when it boasts Mars in particular as its parent and the parent of its founder, the nations of the world would as easily acquiesce in this claim as they do in our rule.”

4 Themes in Livy’s History Nationalism Nationalism The Roman character The Roman character Roman values; values associated with Roman institutions Roman values; values associated with Roman institutions Transition from Old Rome to present New Rome Transition from Old Rome to present New Rome

5 Nationalism: Rome was on a mission Driven forward by will and character of Roman people, by the will of the gods: Driven forward by will and character of Roman people, by the will of the gods:

6 Preface: Preface: “The subjects to which I would ask my reader to devote his earnest attention are these: the life and morals of the community; the men and the qualities by which through domestic policy and foreign dominion was won and extended.” “The subjects to which I would ask my reader to devote his earnest attention are these: the life and morals of the community; the men and the qualities by which through domestic policy and foreign dominion was won and extended.”

7 From the Old Rome to the New Rome Preface: Preface: “Then as the standard of morality gradually lowers, let him follow the decay of the national character, observing how at first it slowly sinks, then slips downward more and more rapidly, and finally begins to plunge into headlong ruin, until he reaches these days, in which we can bear neither our disease nor their remedies.” “Then as the standard of morality gradually lowers, let him follow the decay of the national character, observing how at first it slowly sinks, then slips downward more and more rapidly, and finally begins to plunge into headlong ruin, until he reaches these days, in which we can bear neither our disease nor their remedies.”

8 Rome’s destiny to rule the world Book 5.48; 49 “A conference took place between Q. Sulpicius, the consular tribune, and Brennus, the Gallic chieftain, and an agreement was arrived at by which 1,000 lbs. of gold was fixed as the ransom of a people destined ere long to rule the world.” “A conference took place between Q. Sulpicius, the consular tribune, and Brennus, the Gallic chieftain, and an agreement was arrived at by which 1,000 lbs. of gold was fixed as the ransom of a people destined ere long to rule the world.” “But gods and men alike prevented the Romans from living as a ransomed people.” “But gods and men alike prevented the Romans from living as a ransomed people.”

9 Vergil’s Aeneid book “Now turn your eyes this way to see this race and your Romans. Here Caesar and all of the clan of Iulus will come to the great vault of heaven. This man, this he whom again and again you have heard in the promise of prophecy, Caesar Augustus, son of a god. He shall found once again an era of gold in the land of Latium, throughout the fields that Saturn once ruled. He shall carry his power beyond Garamantes and Indians….” “Now turn your eyes this way to see this race and your Romans. Here Caesar and all of the clan of Iulus will come to the great vault of heaven. This man, this he whom again and again you have heard in the promise of prophecy, Caesar Augustus, son of a god. He shall found once again an era of gold in the land of Latium, throughout the fields that Saturn once ruled. He shall carry his power beyond Garamantes and Indians….”

10 Vergil’s Aeneid Book “You, Roman, remember to govern the peoples with power (these arts shall be yours), to establish the practice of peace, spare the conquered, and beat down th haughty.” “You, Roman, remember to govern the peoples with power (these arts shall be yours), to establish the practice of peace, spare the conquered, and beat down th haughty.”

11 The Roman Character in Livy Has courage, self- restraint, discipline, resilience, frugality, pietas (for the gods, for the pater, magistrate, law) Has courage, self- restraint, discipline, resilience, frugality, pietas (for the gods, for the pater, magistrate, law) Respect for mos maiorum traditions of the ancestors Respect for mos maiorum traditions of the ancestors

12 pietas for the gods and mos maiorum Book (Gallic Invasion 390 BCE) “The Fabian house had an annual sacrifice on the Quirinal, and C. Fabius Dorsuo, wearing his toga…and bearing in his hands the sacred vessels, came down from the Capitol, passed through the middle of the hostile pickets, unmoved by either challenge or threat, and reached the Quirinal. There he duly performed all the solemn rites and returned with the same composed expression and gait, feeling sure of the divine blessing, since not even the fear of death had made him neglect the worship of the gods.” “The Fabian house had an annual sacrifice on the Quirinal, and C. Fabius Dorsuo, wearing his toga…and bearing in his hands the sacred vessels, came down from the Capitol, passed through the middle of the hostile pickets, unmoved by either challenge or threat, and reached the Quirinal. There he duly performed all the solemn rites and returned with the same composed expression and gait, feeling sure of the divine blessing, since not even the fear of death had made him neglect the worship of the gods.”

13 Aeneas’ symbol of pietas

14 The role of religion in Livy Book 1.19 “[Numa} realized that a people whose aggression had formerly been checked by fear of their enemies and by military discipline might become fractious in their new- found idleness. He therefore first aimed to instill in them fear of the gods, an invaluable constraint in the case of an untutored multitude, which in those days was rather primitive...because he could not win them over without some miraculous fiction, he pretended that he met by night with the goddess Egeria: it was at her prompting, he claimed, that he was instituting religious rites that would please the gods most and was assigning a special priest to each of them…” “[Numa} realized that a people whose aggression had formerly been checked by fear of their enemies and by military discipline might become fractious in their new- found idleness. He therefore first aimed to instill in them fear of the gods, an invaluable constraint in the case of an untutored multitude, which in those days was rather primitive...because he could not win them over without some miraculous fiction, he pretended that he met by night with the goddess Egeria: it was at her prompting, he claimed, that he was instituting religious rites that would please the gods most and was assigning a special priest to each of them…”

15 Livy as a source for Political history – Political history – Religious history Religious history Social history Social history

16 Livy as a source for social history Consequences of War, Book 32.7 “ Matrons were wandering about the streets and asking those they met what recent disaster had been reported or what news was there of the army……The next day and several days afterwards, a large crowd, containing more women than men stood at the gates waiting for some one of their friends or for news…” “ Matrons were wandering about the streets and asking those they met what recent disaster had been reported or what news was there of the army……The next day and several days afterwards, a large crowd, containing more women than men stood at the gates waiting for some one of their friends or for news…”

17 Settlement of veterans Book 31.4 “….the question was brought up as to the holdings which were to be assigned to the veteran soldiers who had served with Scipio in Africa. ….appoint ten commissioners for the purpose of measuring and allotting that portion of the Samnite and Apulian territory which had become State domain.” “….the question was brought up as to the holdings which were to be assigned to the veteran soldiers who had served with Scipio in Africa. ….appoint ten commissioners for the purpose of measuring and allotting that portion of the Samnite and Apulian territory which had become State domain.”

18 corn (grain) distribution Book 31.4 “They also distributed to the people with strict impartiality and to the general satisfaction a vast quantity of corn which Scipio had sent from Africa. It was sold at four asses the modius.” “They also distributed to the people with strict impartiality and to the general satisfaction a vast quantity of corn which Scipio had sent from Africa. It was sold at four asses the modius.”

19 On slaves in wartime book 34.6 “Our allies had fallen away from us, we had no reserves from which to make good our losses, no seamen to render our navy effective, and no money in the treasury. We ad to arm the slaves and they were bought from their owners on condition that the purchase money should be paid at the end of the war. … We gave up our slaves to act as rowers ….” “Our allies had fallen away from us, we had no reserves from which to make good our losses, no seamen to render our navy effective, and no money in the treasury. We ad to arm the slaves and they were bought from their owners on condition that the purchase money should be paid at the end of the war. … We gave up our slaves to act as rowers ….”

20 slaves can starve Book “…In this year….the commonwealth was attacked by another much more serious evile: first, dearness of food, owing to the fields remaining uncultivated during the secession, and following on this a famine such as visits a besieged city. It would have led to the perishing of the slaves in any case, and probably the plebeians would have died, had not the consuls provided for the emergency for sending men in various directions to buy corn (grain)…” “…In this year….the commonwealth was attacked by another much more serious evile: first, dearness of food, owing to the fields remaining uncultivated during the secession, and following on this a famine such as visits a besieged city. It would have led to the perishing of the slaves in any case, and probably the plebeians would have died, had not the consuls provided for the emergency for sending men in various directions to buy corn (grain)…”

21 Women and the Oppian Law Book 34.1 “ M. Fundanius and L. Valerius, had brought in a proposal to repeal the Oppian Law. This law had been made on the motion of M. Oppius, a tribune of the plebs, during the consulship of Q. Fabius and Tiberius Sempronius, when the strain of the Punic War was most severely felt. It forbade any woman to have in her possession more than half an ounce of gold, to wear a dress of various colors or to ride in a two-horsed vehicle within a mile of the City or of any Roman town unless she was going to take part in some religious function.” “ M. Fundanius and L. Valerius, had brought in a proposal to repeal the Oppian Law. This law had been made on the motion of M. Oppius, a tribune of the plebs, during the consulship of Q. Fabius and Tiberius Sempronius, when the strain of the Punic War was most severely felt. It forbade any woman to have in her possession more than half an ounce of gold, to wear a dress of various colors or to ride in a two-horsed vehicle within a mile of the City or of any Roman town unless she was going to take part in some religious function.”

22 Debate on Repeal of Oppian Law Book Speech by Marcus Porcius Cato on behalf of the law: 2-4 – conservative patriarchal view of women and their duties Speech by Marcus Porcius Cato on behalf of the law: 2-4 – conservative patriarchal view of women and their duties Speech by L. Valerius in favour of the repeal: 5-7: - lists the accomplishments of women in times of crises. Speech by L. Valerius in favour of the repeal: 5-7: - lists the accomplishments of women in times of crises.

23 Livy and Polybius on Rome’s success Livy: Rome’s rise to greatness was due to the Roman character traits (virtutes) Livy: Rome’s rise to greatness was due to the Roman character traits (virtutes) Polybius: Rome’s rise to dominance was due to its political constitution. Polybius: Rome’s rise to dominance was due to its political constitution. Livy - transition from old Rome to new Rome; shows moral decay of individuals but Rome remains a stable state and not merely a stage in a continuing process of decay (Like Sallust) Livy - transition from old Rome to new Rome; shows moral decay of individuals but Rome remains a stable state and not merely a stage in a continuing process of decay (Like Sallust) Polybius - saw historical process as cyclical Polybius - saw historical process as cyclical


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