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4th International Workshop on Law of Electronic Agents ICAIL2005 Bologna, Italy, 10 June 2005 Monica Palmirani & Regis Riveret CIRSFID - University of.

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Presentation on theme: "4th International Workshop on Law of Electronic Agents ICAIL2005 Bologna, Italy, 10 June 2005 Monica Palmirani & Regis Riveret CIRSFID - University of."— Presentation transcript:

1 4th International Workshop on Law of Electronic Agents ICAIL2005 Bologna, Italy, 10 June 2005 Monica Palmirani & Regis Riveret CIRSFID - University of Bologna (Italy) A Multi-agent System for Managing the Normative Consolidation C.I.R.S.F.I.D University of Bologna Research Centre of History of Law, Philosophy and Sociology of Law, Computer Science and Law

2 2 LEA2005 Objective To present a model of normative information system based on a multi-agent technology The aim is:  to manage the legislative consolidation process in a proactive way  to detect inconsistencies in the modification norms  to resolve the modifications linked to uncertain future events To use a logic framework oriented to the legal reasoning in the semantic web meaning

3 3 LEA2005 Outline Part I – Palmirani Introduction of the problem To present a time model for representing the dynamicity of the normative system (not a legislative system) To introduce a model for producing in semi-automatic way legislative document updated respect three temporal axes:  law in force, efficacy, applicability Part II - Riveret To present the logic framework based on the defeasible logic To present the multi-agent architecture

4 4 LEA2005 Introduction of the problem (i) Several legal information systems (LIS) are managing the consolidation of legislative documents because there is a crucial request from the eGovernment and eDemocracy research field [eEurope2002, eEurope2005, Better lawmaking EU initiative, White paper on governance, DEXA2004] On the other hand these LIS face the problem mostly oriented to the document not to the normative system dynamicity [MetaLex-NL, LexDania-DK, LexGo-CH, NormeInRete-IT, RIS-AT, ADELE-FR]

5 5 LEA2005 Introduction of the problem (ii) Furthermore the conditional provisions and other uncertain modification provisions arise some questions about the fitted model and architecture to adopt in order to cope with the consolidation process Several studies [Boella 03-a, Boella 03-b] suggest that we can model a normative systems using a multi-agent schema enabling interaction among agents whose behavior is autonomous, reactive, and proactive

6 6 LEA2005 Updating law corpora For updating law corpora we should fix some criteria: 1. define a taxonomy of modifications 2. apply the modifications in the correct sequence 3. define the behaviors of the normative system in case of modifications It is fundamental to define a time-model for representing the temporal axes:  in force  efficacy  applicability

7 7 LEA2005 1. Taxonomy of modifications Norm Modifications Modification of the text repeal integration Modification of the norm range Modification of the time substitution relocation meaning change derogation extension changes of force changes of efficacy interpretation Normative System Modifications

8 8 LEA2005 1. Taxonomy of modifications (ii) Modification of the time Changes of validity Changes of efficacy a) Limitation of validity invalid norms b) Extension of validity prorogue norms renewal norms a) Limitation of efficacy suspend norms b) Extension of efficacy postpone efficacy retroactivity extra-activity

9 9 LEA2005 2. Correct sequence The correct sequence is determined by:  the sequence of modifications in the time  a set of time-information included in the legislative text  the analysis of the conditional provisions  the analysis of the impacts on the normative system

10 10 LEA2005 Normative chain of the document A Document Time line t0t0 tntn titi t i+1 t n+1 t1t1 t2t2 …. A0A0 A1A1 A2A2 AiAi A i+1 A n-1 AnAn …. M0M0 M1M1 M n-1 …. Set of Modifications f(A j-1, M j-1 ) = A j versioning chain vc(A) =  A n, n = [0, ∞[ normative chain nc(A) = vc(A) +  (vc(M j ))

11 11 LEA2005 Legislative system: a definition LS(t) = {a system of norms N that satisfy at least one membership criterion at a given time t} Legislative system is the synchronic view of the norms [Guastini 1998] LS(t) = {D1(t), D2(t), D3(t),... Dm(t)} m  N, Dm=document t is a fixed time in a discrete representation

12 12 LEA2005 Legislative system at the time t j Document A Time line t0t0 tntn titi t i+1 t n+1 t1t1 t2t2 …. A0A0 A1A1 A2A2 AiAi A i+1 A n-1 AnAn …. Document D …. D0D0 D1D1 DzDz D z+1 DnDn …. Document B …. B0B0 B1B1 BkBk B k+1 B n-1 BnBn …. …………………………

13 13 LEA2005 Normative system: a definition Normative system is a sequence of legislative system in the time [Guastini 1998, Alchourrón 1971] NS = {LS(t1), LS(t2), LS(t3),... LS(tj)} j  N The normative information system is an IS that include:  all the original legislative texts  all the modifications and the versioning chain  or better all the normative chain of all the texts  Normative information system =  nc(D j )

14 14 LEA2005 Normative information system Legal system Temporal line t0t0 tntn titi t i+1 t n+1 t1t1 t2t2 …. LS 0 LS 1 LS 2 LS i LS i+1 LS n-1 LS n …. M0M0 M1M1 MiMi M n-1 …. Set of Modifications engine In forceefficacyapplicable

15 15 LEA2005 Times in the normative provision part of text with a normative meaning is a normative provision It is possible to consider a normative provision also as a logic proposition (true or false) composed by two parts: cause and effect  Cause  Effect  Facts  Consequences if the conditions are verified then some effects are expected "Murder is punished." A true proposition: "If F (you kill), then E (you will be punished)."

16 16 LEA2005 Anatomy of a normative provision So we have three times:  we have the time when the enunciates are included in the “corpora” – date of force  we have the time when the disposition is active for the fact-type – date of efficacy  we have the time when the disposition produce results – date of application usually date of force =date of efficacy= date of application but not always  e.g. retroactive norms

17 17 LEA2005 Toy Example “for all the students that in the year 2003-2004 had a rate >28/30, the University of Bologna will give a special grant for the year 2004-2005” Time of force June 2005 Time of efficacy 2003-2004 Time of applicability 2004-2005

18 18 LEA2005 When a disposition is a modification The period of application of the modification can be:  instantaneously  postponed – in the future  anticipated – retroactivation effect or conditioned to an event  certain  uncertain

19 19 LEA2005 hasCondition hasTime

20 20 LEA2005 Example of conditioned modification L. n. 328 del 8/11/2000 (in force since: 28/11/2000) Art. 30 Repeals..... 2. Since the enter in force of the legislative decree declared in the art. 10, all the provisions about IPAB in the law 17 July 1890, n. 6972 are repealed. Since the enter in force of the legislative decree declared in the article 24, the provisions about the economic incomes in the Law 10 February 1962, n. 66, Law 26 May 1970, n. 381, Law 27 May 1970, n. 382, Law 30 March 1971, n. 118, Law e 11 February 1980, n. 18 and following modifications are repealed.

21 21 LEA2005 3. Some crucial modification types The normative information system should manage:  Conditioned modifications and the related events  The abrogation of abrogation  Retroactive abrogation  Annulment of a modification by the Constitutional Court decision  “Authentic interpretation” that is retroactive for all the normative system  Decree not converted in law  Substitution of textual parts concerning time definition  Modification of modification  Modifications that have cycle effect on the normative system

22 22 LEA2005 Forking model Manage ex-tunc modifications Fork the versioning lines:  One time-line to register what happen after the court decision with effect ex-tunc (retroactive) in the past  On time-line to register what was happened during a period in the alternative-normative system

23 23 LEA2005 Current applications Build in semi-automatic way the law in force  NORMA-SYSTEM project: client/server architecture Norma-Editor: mark-up in XML in semi-automatic way the text Norma-Server: manage all the versioning system  Application in the Italian Court of Cassation: 200.000 legislative texts IR respect three different axes:  Law in force  Efficacy  Applicability

24 24 LEA2005 Future applications Formalise the conditional provisions and modifications in OWL Define a Logic framework based on defeasible logic Define a level of proof Implement a Multi-agent system able to verify the conditions and to make proof URN DTD METADATI

25 25 LEA2005 PART II – Régis Riveret

26 26 LEA2005 Logic Framework for consolidation Non-monotonic reasoning Choice of Defeasible Logic  suitable for legal reasoning  manage incomplete and uncertain facts  linear computability  suitable with the logic layer of the semantic web  Inference engines (DR-Device)

27 27 LEA2005 A theory in Defeasible Logic Facts  Inforce(Law n.50/99) Strict rules  Law(x) → StateRule(x) Defeasible rules  Repealed(x) => ¬Inforce(x) Defeaters  Conditioned prorogation(x) ~> Inforce(x ) Ranking  StateRule > FederalRule

28 28 LEA2005 Time integration by two means Literals labelled by time instants  Inforce(x) :t Persistent and transient rules  Condition :t => p effect :t  Condition :t => trans effect :t

29 29 LEA2005 A toy theory R1: enter_inforce(x) : t => p inforce(x) : t+15 R2: repeal(x) : t => p ¬inforce(x) : t R3: Conditional Prorogation (X): t ~> p inforce(x): t R4: revival(x) : t => p inforce(x) : t R4>R2>R1 Enter_inforce(Law50/99) : 0 Repeal(Law50/99) : tn Revival(Law50/99) : tz Cond. Prorogation (Law50/99) : tn+1 0 tntn tztz R3>R2 t n+1

30 30 LEA2005 Document repository A mod Document repository B A normative system

31 31 LEA2005 Agents ? Active norm + events Proactivity Passive norm Reactivity Unpredictable normative environment + adaptation Autonomy Complex interactions + Collaboration work Sociability Model the complexity

32 32 LEA2005 Node BNode A Legal operator Event agent Normative agent Consolidation agent Proof agent

33 33 LEA2005 thank you for your attention Monica Palmirani - Regis Riveret –

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