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The Age of Jefferson The Jefferson Presidency. Revolution The New President’s Personality – walked to inauguration – ineffective public speaker – modern.

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Presentation on theme: "The Age of Jefferson The Jefferson Presidency. Revolution The New President’s Personality – walked to inauguration – ineffective public speaker – modern."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Age of Jefferson The Jefferson Presidency

2 Revolution The New President’s Personality – walked to inauguration – ineffective public speaker – modern “Renaissance” man Public Education – Limited success during Jefferson administration – women and minorities not given access to education “Republican Mother”

3 Revolution Cont’d Cultural Independence – Noah Webster – Washington Irving – Stories about American life in New World Religion – Skeptical Thinkers Enlightenment deism and universalism Thomas Paine, Thomas Jefferson, Ben Franklin

4 Revolution Cont’d Religion Cont’d – Second Great Awakening Methodists + Presbyterians South grace attained through good deeds Improvements in Technology – Jefferson believed in agrarian society, but also a scientist understood technology was changing society – Industrial Revolution in England slowly came to United States Modern factories Water powered factories

5 Revolution Cont’d Improvements in Technology Cont’d – Cotton Gin With invention “short-staple”, with big seeds, could now be mass produced inland Steamboats Turnpikes

6 Marbury vs. Madison 1803 Reducing Federal Powers – Federalists moved to increase federal powers – Republicans attempted to reduce/forestall – Jefferson moved to repeal the Judiciary Act of 1801 / “midnight appointments” Marbury was a midnight appointment who never got his letter, Madison, refused to send it

7 Marbury vs. Madison 1803 Cont’d Reduce your power to gain more power Federalists had long maintained that the Supreme Court had the authority to nullify acts of Congress Original Judiciary Act of 1789 gave Supreme Court authority to order executive officials to such matters as the delivery of letters Court rules that this act is Unconstitutional Rules that Madison does not have to send the letter (but Marbury has a right to his post) John Marshall was chief Justice establishes precedent that Supreme Court can overturn an act of Congress

8 Louisiana Purchase Napoleon Eyes America – French land was lost east of the Mississippi in 1763 – Secret treaty of San Ildefonso give New Orleans back to French – of New Orleans refuses to allow American ships

9 Louisiana Purchase Cont’d External Factors – Tousssaint L’Ouverture – Jefferson pledges support to French – yellow fever wipes of French forces in New World – In Spring, Napoleon had to deal with a renewed war in Europe

10 Thomas Jefferson's plan in 1805 to build on the Louisiana Purchase by buying West Florida from Spain is lampooned in this cartoon. Induced by the sting of the hornet Napoleon, Jefferson vomits gold coins before a dancing Spanish representative holding maps of East and West Florida and carrying French Minister Charles- Maurice de Talleyrand's instructions in his pocket. West Florida was captured by the United States during the War of 1812, and East Florida was acquired by treaty in 1819 during James Monroe's administration

11 Louisiana Purchase Cont’d Sold! – Jefferson hints might form an alliance with the British – Jefferson offers to buy New Orleans – $15 million Pleased and Embarrassed – unsure that the United States had authority to accept it – Constitution specified treaty-making power

12 Burr Conspiracy Changing party – Burr almost cost Jefferson the Presidency in 1800 – Jefferson held a grudge and Burr was outcast – Federalist North wants to secede from the Union – Hamilton disagrees – Federalists turn to Burr to run for governor of New York – Burr looses election, blames Hamilton

13 Burr Conspiracy Cont’d Burr challenges Hamilton to a duel Hamilton is mortally wounded and dies the next day forced to leave NY to avoid an indictment for murder moved West friends with Wilkinson desire to capture Mexico – Wilkinson turns against Burr – Jefferson orders Burr arrested for treason

14 Burr Conspiracy Cont’d Trial – Jefferson manages the govt’s case from Washington – Chief Justice Marshall defined the charge – Burr freed, political reputation destroyed Symbolic – weak national govt. in a growing empire – ambitious leaders could circumvent normal channels in their search for power – stability questioned

15 Caught up in it Neutral rights – Napoleonic Wars between England and France caused both sides to pass policies prohibiting other nations to trade with the enemy – American ships were constantly raided – British considered worst offender Impressment – British navy – GB passed a law allowing to reclaim navy deserters – British soldiers often did not differentiate between British escapees and American merchants – Chesapeake-Leopard incident

16 Caught up in it Cont’d Embargo – Jefferson-authored legislation passed by Congress – prohibited American ships from leaving the United States for any foreign port – widely evaded, but still caused a depression – Madison wins 1808 election Trade Chess – Madison puts pressure on Britain and France to repeal laws by offering to assist the other if neither relent – Non-Intercourse Act + Macon’s Bill No.2 – France first to withdrawal, Britain is penalized – limited embargo hurts Britain enough to withdraw blockade, but too late

17 The Age of Jefferson War of 1812

18 General Henry Harrison committed advocate of Western expansion Helped pass Harrison Land Law Jefferson nominates him governor of Indiana territory to administer solution to the “Indian Problem” which offered a choice – become a part of white society – move west of Mississippi – either way, they had to give up their claims

19 General Henry Harrison Cont’d Plan did not seem kind to Natives used trickery, threats, bribes, etc. by 1807 US had extracted lands in E. Michigan, S. Indiana, most of Illinois in the North and lands in Georgia, Tennessee, and Mississippi from Natives

20 Britain had long been allies with Native tribes fur trade potential military allies Battle of Fallen Timbers renewed after Chesapeake-Leopard incident

21 Tecumseh and the Prophet (Tenskawatawa) The Prophet – recovering alcoholic – spoke of visions and corruption of the white world – inspired a religious revival and mobilization – his home at Tippecanoe Creek became a sacred place to Native Tribes to visit and discuss spiritual as well as political unification

22 Tecumseh and the Prophet (Tenskawatawa) Cont’d Tecumseh – The Prophet’s brother, chief of the Shawnees – understood that only through united action could the tribes hope to resist the advance of white civilization – refused to sign the Treaty of Greenville – believed that Harrison and manipulating whites had no title to land – set out to unite all Indians of the Mississippi North and South (Great Lakes to Gulf of Mexico) – With Tecumseh gone, Harrison struck at Tippecanoe (1811) and burned the village – Natives still hungry for battle and would be supplied by British

23 Fever against Europe and Neighbors From Spain – Florida, and parts of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana – Slaves escape – Indian raids – Access to the Gulf of Mexico American Encroachment – 1810 American settlers seized Baton Rouge – Madison annexes the territory Florida became another reason to battle England

24 Fever against Europe and Neighbors Cont’d Rise of War Hawks – Election of 1810 – Pro-War, Pro-Expansion representatives / Henry Clay (Kentucky) John Calhoun (South Carolina) – Madison hoped for peace, but losing control of Congress

25 War Napoleon – British troops spread thin – not eager for another war abroad – USA war declaration ignored at first Early Battles w. Tribes – Canada USA surrender at Detroit USA surrender at Fort Dearborn – At Sea success at first burning British boats in the British Isle post Napoleon blockade

26 War Cont’d Great Lakes successes – Lake Ontario – Lake Erie – Thames – Tecumseh dies – Brigadier General in British army – Southwest Creek Indians – supplied by Spanish – Tecumseh students – Lead raids on white settlers

27 War Cont’d Andrew Jackson – wealthy Tennessee planter – general of state militia – abandon plans to invade Florida to attack Creeks Battle of Horseshoe Bend – slaughtering of men, women and children – Creeks cede most of its land to the United States – Jackson nominated major general in United States Army

28 War Cont’d British Invasion – Central Coast after surrender of Napoleon in 1814, England prepared to invade USA – Landed in Chesapeake Bay and disperse a poorly trained army of American militiamen – British advance to Washington, and burn it! – Madison has to flee – Retaliation for US burning Canadian capital at York (Toronto) – British stopped at Fort McHenry – Star Spangled Banner (Francis Scott Key)

29 War Cont’d British Invasion Cont’d North – US forces repel a large British naval and land attack at Plattsburgh South – New Orleans – Jackson’s troops consisted of Tennesseans, Kentuckians, Creoles, blacks, pirates and regular army troops – US Behind fortifications – British leave 700 dead / 1,400 wounded – US leaves 8 killed, 13 wounded – Peace treaty signed weeks before Battle of New Orleans

30 The End of the Federalists Anger towards early battle failures – unpopular sentiment towards war as it dragged on – in NE, unpopularity was also directed towards Republicans – talk of secession Hartford, Connecticut – small majority against secession – approve seven amendment proposals to US Constitution The “death blow” – Jackson’s victory – Negotiated peace with England – Federalists viewed as cowardly losers

31 The Peace Settlement Ghent, Belgium – Americans abandon request for British to end impressment – British abandon request for Indian buffer state in North West English and United States – contributed to long-term improvement in Anglo-American relations other treaties would follow that would give Americans right to trade freely with England and much British empire Mutual disarmament in Great Lakes (Rush – Bagot Treaty) Eventually, Canadian-American boundary would become the longest “unguarded frontier” in the world

32 The Peace Settlement Cont’d Native Americans and The United States – Treaty required United States to restore lands seized by white Americans in the fighting, but those provisions were never enforced – Tecumseh, dead – British gone – Native alliance, gone

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