4Different Colonial Societies CausesDifferent Colonial SocietiesBritishFrenchPermanent, expanding settlementsHorrible Relationship with IndiansNo real communities, mainly fortsGreat Relationship with Indians
5Not the first war fought over N. America CausesDiffering ReligionsBritish were ProtestantFrench were CatholicNot the first war fought over N. America
61754 The First ClashThe Ohio ValleyBritishFrench
71756 War Is Formally Declared War will become a world warSEVEN YEAR WAR ( )Every major European power becomes involvedWill be a MULTI-FRONT war – very costly to fight
8The Two SidesFrench are fighting with most of the Indians (Algonquian & Mohawk) and later SpainBritain aligns with the Iroquois and the Colonists
9British-American Colonial Tensions ColonialsBritishMethods of Fighting:Indian-style guerilla tactics.March in formation or bayonet charge.Military Organization:Col. militias served under own captains.Br. officers wanted to take charge of colonials.Military Discipline:No mil. deference or protocols observed.Drills & tough discipline.Finances:Resistance to rising taxes.Colonists should pay for their own defense.Demeanor:Casual, non-professionals.Prima Donna Br. officers with servants & tea settings.
10Albany Plan of Union (1754)Ben Franklin representatives from New England, NY, MD, PAAlbany Congress was meant to bolster colonial unity
11Treaty of Paris (1763) Britain Wins the War France --> lost all land in N. AmericaSpain --> got all land west of the Mississippi River, but lost Florida to England.England --> got all French lands in Canada and east of the Mississippi River
13Effects on Britain 1. It increased colonial empire in the Americas. 2. It greatly enlarged England’s debt.3. England felt that a major reorganization of American Empire was necessary
14Effects on the American Colonials 1. It united them against a common enemy for the first time.2. It created a socializing experience for all the colonials who participated.3. It created bitter feelings towards the British that would only intensify.
15Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763) Ottawa Indians opposed British expansionLed by Chief PontiacBegan to attack British forts in Ohio Valley
16Proclamation of 1763 Britain wanted to end Native American fighting Forbade colonists from crossing the Appalachian Mtns.
17Paxton Boys (PA) will react by attacking Native Americas Proclamation of 1763Colonists are FURIOUSPaxton Boys (PA) will react by attacking Native Americas
18Rethinking Their Empire Britain needs to recover its losses from the warDecided to end Salutary Neglect and finally begin to enforce mercantilist policies and will begin to tax colonists
21Debate over Representation Actual vs. Virtual – Colonists wanted Actual, Grenville believed they had virtualColonists willing to pay taxes that applied to WHOLE empireBelieved taxes just on them required representation
22Stamp Act (1765) Tax placed on all printed materials First direct tax placed just on AMERICAN COLONIESIntended to help pay for defense costs
23Virginia Resolves Written by Patrick Henry Rights of the Colonists were violatedEnglishmen had representatives – colonists were denied this“No taxation without representation”
24Stamp Act Congress Met in NYC 9 colonies (no NH, VA, NC, or GA) Wrote Declaration of Rights and Grievances which demanded the tax be repealedCalled for a non-importation of British goods
25Sons of Liberty Secret organization formed by Samuel Adams Would tar and feather and harass tax collectors
26Repeal Violence, boycott, & protests led to the repeal in 1766 Declaratory Act (1766) – declared Parliament had the right to tax the colonists
27Townshend Act (1767)Tax placed on glass, white lead, paper, paint, silk, and teaAlso increased custom (tax) collectors
28Colonial Response1. John Dickinson * Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania. MA Circular Letter * Written by Samuel Adams * Wanted colonies to pressure Parliament to repeal & boycott3. Riots against customs agents: * 4000 British troops sent to Boston & legislature dissolved
29The Boston Massacre (March 5,1770) British troops in Boston are being harassed and fire into the crowd11 civilians are killedLabeled a “massacre”
30Repeal of Townshend Act Act repealed in 1770 because of boycott & violenceOnly remaining tax was on tea
31Committees of Correspondence Formed by Samuel AdamsLetters exchanged & published throughout the coloniesPurpose warn neighboring colonies about incidents with Br. & broaden the resistance movement.
32Tea Act (1773) British East India Co. is going bankrupt Colonists have refused to buy tea since Townshend ActPermitted to sell tea directly to cols. without col. middlemen (cheaper tea)Parliament expected the cols. to eagerly choose the cheaper tea.
33Boston Tea Party (December 1773) Sons of Liberty boarded ships and dumped tea into the harbor
34The Coercive or Intolerable Acts (1774) 1. Port Bill – closed Boston harbor until reparations made2. Government Act – King took direct control over MA3. New Quartering Act – to provide for troops in MA
35The Quebec Act (1774) Intended to give more freedom to Canadians Colonists saw it as a threat
40The British Are ComingApril 1775 General Gage ordered to arrest leaders of “rebellion”Wanted to gain control of gunpowder & weaponsPaul Revere & William Dawes make a midnight ride to warn the Minutemen of marching British soldiers.
41The Shot Heard ’Round the World! Lexington & Concord – April 19,177573 British & 95 Americans killedRevolution has begun
43Philadelphia (May 1775) All 13 colonies present Elect G. Washington head of the armyWrote Olive Branch PetitionShift towards independence:HessiansBurning of Am. TownsBr. promised freedom to slavesOlive Branch Petition