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The Use Of Physical Restraint & Seclusion in Schools Michael Mahoney, Safe & Healthy Schools Coordinator Oregon Department of Education Office of Learning.

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Presentation on theme: "The Use Of Physical Restraint & Seclusion in Schools Michael Mahoney, Safe & Healthy Schools Coordinator Oregon Department of Education Office of Learning."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Use Of Physical Restraint & Seclusion in Schools Michael Mahoney, Safe & Healthy Schools Coordinator Oregon Department of Education Office of Learning – Student Services All Born (In) 9 th Annual Ed Best Practices & Cross- Disability Inclusion Conference April 5, 2014

2 Disclaimer It is the policy of the State Board of Education and a priority of the Oregon Department of Education that there will be no discrimination or harassment on the grounds of race, color, religion, sex, marital status, sexual orientation, national origin, age or disability in any educational programs, activities or employment. The following presentation is for informational purposes only. It is not designed to provide legal advice.

3 History 76th OREGON LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY, th OREGON LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY, 2011 passed House Bill 2939: chapter 665, Oregon Laws 2011 Resulting in Provision in the Oregon Regulatory Statutes – chapter 665, Oregon Laws 2011, effective January 1, Enacted OARs , -0553, -0556, -0559, -0563, th Oregon Legislative Assembly, th Oregon Legislative Assembly, 2013 passed House Bill 2585 (complaints and annual reporting): House Bill 2753 (Repeal of Sunset): House Bill 2756 (remove “Seclusion Cells”):

4 OAR Definitions Chemical Restraint Mechanical Restraint Physical Restraint Prone Restraint Public Education Program Seclusion Serious Bodily Injury Physical restraint: the restriction of a student’s movements by one or more persons holding them. imminent risk of serious bodily injury 1.The behavior imposes a threat to their safety or the safety of others (imminent risk of serious bodily injury), and less restrictive methods ineffective (OAR ) 2.Other less restrictive methods of controlling the behavior are ineffective. (OAR ) Seclusion: the involuntary confinement of students in rooms: Alone 1) Alone, prevented from leaving. 2) Physically prevented from leaving. (7) ‘Seclusion cell’ means a freestanding, self-contained unit that is used to: Isolate the student from other students; or Physically prevent a student from leaving the unit or cause the student to believe that the student is physically prevented from leaving the unit.

5 OAR Use of Physical Restraint & Seclusion in Public Education Programs Chemical, Mechanical and Prone Restraint prohibited. Chemical, Mechanical and Prone Restraint prohibited. conditions (i.e. only for as long as needed, less restrictive measures not effective,  Physical Restraint & Seclusion used with conditions (i.e. only for as long as needed, less restrictive measures not effective, not be used for discipline or punishment.  Physical Restraint & Seclusion may not be used for discipline or punishment. trained.  Must be implemented by those who are trained. ongoing monitoring.  Requires ongoing monitoring. water and bathroom breaks30 minutes  Requires water and bathroom breaks if occurs for more than 30 minutes; and written authorization for it to continue  Administrator must provide written authorization for it to continue;  Parentnotified.  Parent or guardian must be notified. Time limits and rulesTime limits and rules for seclusion and restraint access to bathroom or water breaks must be established after 30 minutes, along with written justification every 15 minutes after ½ hour. Continuous [visual] monitoringContinuous [visual] monitoring of the situation by staff and administrators. Parents or guardians notified by the end of the school dayParents or guardians of students who are restrained or secluded must be notified by the end of the school day, and in writing within 24 hours.

6 OAR Programs’ Procedures Regarding the Use of … Policies and Procedures must be in place by school district/public education program. Verbal or electronic notification to parent by end of day; and Written notification within 24 hours. Debriefing meeting within two days. Provisions if serious bodily injury or death occurs.  Written documentation of the incident provided within 24 hours. debriefing meeting within two school days  School personnel must meet for a debriefing meeting within two school days to discuss and document the incident; and notes from the meeting must be shared with the parent or guardian  The notes from the meeting must be shared with the parent or guardian.

7 OAR Reporting Requirements for the Use of … entity in charge of public education program must complete an annual report The entity in charge of public education program must complete an annual report ; and Make the report available Make the report available to its constituents - the public, public education program, ESD and its component school districts, charter school, parents or guardians. must prepare an annual report detailing the use of physical restraint and seclusion for the previous school year.  School districts and Education Service Districts must prepare an annual report detailing the use of physical restraint and seclusion for the previous school year.  Reporting at local level for & ;  Reporting to the state required beginning with the school year, per OAR (1) Each entity that has jurisdiction over a public education program must prepare and submit to the Superintendent of Public Instruction an annual report detailing the use of physical restraint and seclusion for the preceding school year,…

8 OAR  Training of school personnel in de-escalation techniques and physical restraint is required.  Physical Restraint and Seclusion training programs must be approved and compiled by the Oregon Department of Education ; and  Must meet the standards of the Department of Human Services.  Criteria for the training include the following: 1.Evidence-Based 1.Evidence-Based techniques and skills. 2.PreventionSafe. 2.Prevention-oriented and Safe. De-escalation, Conflict Prevention and Crisis Respo 3.Providing De-escalation, Conflict Prevention and Crisis Response procedures. Positive Behavior Support. 4.Consistent with the philosophy and practices of Positive Behavior Support. DHS 5.Consistent with DHS approved programs.

9 OAR Required Use of Approved Restraint and Seclusion Programs training program approved by the Oregon Department of Education A public education program may only use a training program approved by the Oregon Department of Education.

10 Amendments & New Rules OARs , -0553, -0556, , -0563, & , -0568, -0569, OARs , -0553, -0556, , -0563, & , -0568, -0569, New OARs New OARs: OAR Standards for Seclusion Rooms OAR Use of Seclusion Cells Prohibited OAR Use of Seclusion Cells Prohibited OAR Complaint procedures OAR Complaint procedures Draft OARs – open for Public Comment through November 2013 Draft OARs – open for Public Comment through November 2013

11 HB 2585 Process to submit Complaints Process to submit Complaints regarding the use of Physical Restraint and Seclusion. annual report to the Superintendent of Public Instruction Entities with jurisdiction over a Public Education Program to submit annual report to the Superintendent of Public Instruction detailing the use of Physical Restraint and Seclusion. OAR OAR total number physical restraint (a) The total number of incidents involving physical restraint; seclusion (b) The total number of incidents involving seclusion; seclusions in a locked room (c) The total number of seclusions in a locked room; students placed in physical re (d) The total number of students placed in physical restraint; students placed in seclusion (e) The total number of students placed in seclusion; total number of seclusion rooms descriptioincluding the location of (f) The total number of seclusion rooms available; and a description, including the location of those rooms, designated solely for seclusion those rooms, designated solely for seclusion; total number of incidents that resulted in injuries or dea (g) The total number of incidents that resulted in injuries or death to students or personnel asa result of the use of physical restraint or seclusion; students who were placed in physical restraint or seclusion more than 10 (h) The number of students who were placed in physical restraint or seclusion more than 10 times times in the course of a school year and an explanation of what steps have been taken by the public education program to decrease the use of physical restraint and seclusion for each student; personnel of the public education program (i) The number of incidents in which the personnel of the public education program not trained administering physical restraint or seclusion were not trained; and demographic characteristics of all studen (j) The demographic characteristics of all students upon whom physical restraint or seclusion was imposed, including race, ethnicity, gender, disability status, migrant status, English proficiency, and status as economically disadvantaged, unless the demographic information would reveal personally identifiable information about an individual student.

12 HB 2585 continued (3) Minimum standards for any rooms used by a public education program for seclusion of a student. Standards o The Standards must: health and safety of students and personnel of the public education program and the respect and dignity of students (a) Take into account the health and safety of students and personnel of the public education program and the respect and dignity of students ; and consideration of the size, safety features, lighting and ventilation of the rooms. (b) Include consideration of the size, safety features, lighting and ventilation of the rooms. first apply to the school year SECTION 3. The minimum standards adopted by the State Board of Education for rooms used by a public education program for seclusion of a student, as provided by section 2 (3) of this 2013 Act, first apply to the school year. The State Board of Education may not apply or enforce standards related to rooms used for seclusion until on or after July 1, 2014.

13 Amendments: chapter 665, Oregon Laws 2011 HB 2585 HB 2585 ComplaintsAnnual reporting; Seclusion Room Standards. Effective school year. Complaints process & Annual reporting; Seclusion Room Standards. Effective school year. HB 2753 HB 2753 Repeals Sunset Repeals Sunset of Physical Restraint & Seclusion statutes (section 7, June 2017). Maintains Section 1-6, chapter 665, Oregon Laws 2011 HB 2756 HB 2756 Prohibits Seclusion Cells Prohibits public education programs from purchasing, building, possessing, or using Seclusion Cells. removal of seclusion cells from classrooms July 1, 2013 Directs removal of seclusion cells from classrooms by July 1, removal of seclusion cells from school premises September 1, 2013 Directs removal of seclusion cells from school premises by September 1, that are not seclusion cells July 1, 2014 Allows current seclusion rooms that are not seclusion cells and do not meet all the specific standards, and as long as the size restrictions are safe (i.e. – adjacent walls 7 feet apart), can be used through June 30, Must meet all standards by July 1, 2014.

14 Seclusion Cell

15 Seclusion rooms; OAR must be part of the structural integrity of the room must be no less than 64 square feet; the distance between adjacent walls must be no less than 7 feet across. (a) Any wall that is part of the room used for seclusion must be part of the structural integrity of the room (not free standing cells or portable units attached to the existing wall or floor), and must be no less than 64 square feet; the distance between adjacent walls must be no less than 7 feet across. must not be isolated from school staff (b) The room must not be isolated from school staff of the facility; must be unlocked or equipped with immediate-release locking mechanisms (c) Doors must be unlocked or equipped with immediate-release locking mechanisms; door must open outward and contain a port of shatterproof glass or plastic through which the entire room may be viewed from outsidehalf doors are acceptable direct visual monitoring (d) The door must open outward and contain a port of shatterproof glass or plastic through which the entire room may be viewed from outside; half doors are acceptable options as well where direct visual monitoring can occur. must contain no protruding, exposed, or sharp objects (e) The room must contain no protruding, exposed, or sharp objects; must contain no free standing furniture (f) The room must contain no free standing furniture. Windows must be transparent for both staff and the student to see in/outunbreakable or shatterproof adequate climb-proof screening (g) Windows must be transparent for both staff and the student to see in/out, and made of unbreakable or shatterproof glass or plastic. Non-shatterproof glass must be protected by adequate climb-proof screening; must be no exposed pipes or electrical wiring in the roomElectrical outlets must be permanently capped or coveredmust contain lights secured by tamper-proof screws; (h) There must be no exposed pipes or electrical wiring in the room. Electrical outlets must be permanently capped or covered with a metal shield secured by tamper-proof screws. The room must contain lights which must be recessed or covered with screening, safety glass or unbreakable plastic. Any cover, cap or shield must be secured by tamper-proof screws; room must meet State Fire Marshal fire, safety, and health standards (i) The room must meet State Fire Marshal fire, safety, and health standards. If sprinklers are installed, they must be recessed and/or covered with a cage. If pop-down type, sprinklers must have breakaway strength of less than 80 pounds. In lieu of sprinklers, combined smoke and heat detector must be used with similar protective design or installation; must be ventilated; heating and cooling vents (j) The room must be ventilated; heating and cooling vents must be secure and out of reach; must be designed and equipped in a manner that would not allow a child to climb up a wall (k) The room must be designed and equipped in a manner that would not allow a child to climb up a wall; Walls, floor and ceiling must be solidly and smoothly constructedno rough or jagged portions (l) Walls, floor and ceiling must be solidly and smoothly constructed, to be cleaned easily, and have no rough or jagged portions; and Seclusion cells are prohibited (m) Seclusion cells are prohibited as provided in OAR

16 OAR Use of Seclusion Cells Prohibited public education program may not A public education program may not : Purchase, build or otherwise take possession of a seclusion cell (a) Purchase, build or otherwise take possession of a seclusion cell; or Use a seclusion cell (b) Use a seclusion cell. July 1, 2013 all seclusion cells are removed from the classrooms (2) No later than July 1, 2013, a public education program … all seclusion cells are removed from the classrooms …. September 1, 2013 (3) No later than September 1, 2013, all seclusion removed from the premises cells are removed from the premises …. prohibited use of seclusion cells effective April 5, (4) …. prohibited use of seclusion cells under this rule is effective and applicable beginning on or after April 5, 2013.

17 OAR Complaint procedures may submit to the Superintendent of Public Instruction a written, signed complaint alleging that a public education program is violating or has violated a provision …. may submit to the Superintendent of Public Instruction a written, signed complaint alleging that a public education program is violating or has violated a provision of ORS (OARs to attempted to seek a remedy… the complaint from the board…overseeing the entity that has jurisdiction over the public education program (1) The complaint…, prior to submitting the complaint to the superintendent, … attempted to seek a remedy… the complaint from the board…overseeing the entity that has jurisdiction over the public education program …submitted: First filing the complaint with the public education entity (a) First filing the complaint with the public education entity; and follow any complaint procedures that the entity has adopted (b) Attempting to follow any complaint procedures that the entity has adopted, including those adopted by school districts pursuant to ORS and OAR shall follow the appeal procedures specified (2) The organization or individual filing the complaint and the Superintendent shall follow the appeal procedures specified in OAR

18 Recent Decision regarding Seclusion in 9 th Circuit August 30, 2013 : Court held... use of isolation room/safe room on an autistic student violated his constitutional rights & teacher and school district were not entitled to qualified immunity. August 30, 2013 : Court held... use of isolation room/safe room on an autistic student violated his constitutional rights & teacher and school district were not entitled to qualified immunity. 4 th Amendment to be free from unreasonable searches and seizures”….”students do not shed their constitutional rights at the schoolhouse door” & “student’s right to be free from excessive force was clearly established since 1990.” 4 th Amendment – “ to be free from unreasonable searches and seizures”….”students do not shed their constitutional rights at the schoolhouse door” & “student’s right to be free from excessive force was clearly established since 1990.” 14 th Amendmen Student’s right to due process “…student locked in the room until he defecated & was made to clean up his own feces as punishment.” 14 th Amendment – Student’s right to due process ; “…student locked in the room until he defecated & was made to clean up his own feces as punishment.” School District Liability: “… district failed to train and supervise the teacher’s use of ‘aversive therapy’… the district knew of and permitted the teachers’ use of the isolation room/safe room over time, and therefore, ratified her conduct….amounting to the ‘deliberate indifference’ standard and thus, the district being the ‘moving force’ behind the constitutional violations.” School District Liability: “… district failed to train and supervise the teacher’s use of ‘aversive therapy’… the district knew of and permitted the teachers’ use of the isolation room/safe room over time, and therefore, ratified her conduct….amounting to the ‘deliberate indifference’ standard and thus, the district being the ‘moving force’ behind the constitutional violations.” “…Schools have a clear duty to protect its students from reasonably anticipated dangers.” “…Schools have a clear duty to protect its students from reasonably anticipated dangers.” Rights.htm#.UkWkDEtx12U.gmail Rights.htm#.UkWkDEtx12U.gmail

19 IDEA Implications Complaint Investigation Violations of the IDEA due to use of restraint and seclusion Change of Placement and Least Restrictive Environment Allegations were substantiated by the State The student was not allowed to participate with any peers during recess for about three months The student was moved from a general education classroom to a separate room away from all peers for about two months. Removing student from classroom so often was inconsistent with the Behavior Intervention Plan The frequent Removals from class denied the student of FAPE. (*Remember – Restraint & Seclusion Statute applies to all students)

20 Complaint Procedures (1) …school district must establish a process…prompt resolution of a complaint by a person who resides in the district or by any parent or guardian of a student who attends school in the school district …. process must be in writing and state clearly who…within school district has the responsibility for responding to the complaint. (2) …school district's complaint procedure must specify the time period during which the complaint will be addressed and a final decision issued…. the procedure must establish the time period for each step as well as overall time period for completing... (3) …school district's complaint procedure… distinguish between…complaints that may be appealed under OAR & and other complaints. (4) …school district's complaint procedure may include mediation or other alternative dispute resolution processes. (5) The procedure for hearing and acting on complaints that may be appealed, under OAR & -1941, must include the following: (a) A point at which the decision is final ; (b) A provision for the complainant receiving written notice that the district's decision may be appealed to the State Superintendent of Public Instruction under OAR & -1941; and (c) A written decision that clearly establishes the legal basis for the decision, findings of fact and conclusions of law.

21 Q & As – Laws, OARs, New Bills

22 Best Practices, proposed Federal bills ‘Meaningful Protection’ Provides ‘Meaningful Protection’ [1/29] Defines ‘Seclusion’; student cannot exit Defines ‘Seclusion’; student cannot exit (locked or blocked) [1/32] ‘Less Intrusive Methods Ineffective’ When ‘Less Intrusive Methods Ineffective’ [1/16], and until the ‘Emergency Ends’ Only until the ‘Emergency Ends’ [1/14] Prohibits Mechanical, Prone & Chemical Restraint Prohibits Mechanical, Prone & Chemical Restraint [1/15 & 1/10] Notify the Parents Same Day Notify the Parents Same Day of Incident [1/12] Data Data Collection [1/13]

23 Best Practices continued apply to All Children. Statute/Rules apply to All Children. Debriefing Debriefing – analyze, cause, triggers, plan, positive interventions. Training Required Training Required [1/21] Evidence-Based Practices De-Escalation Training Positive Behavior Supports Prevention Conflict Resolution

24 15 Principles - USDE 1. Prevent the Use De- Escalation training) 1. Prevent the Use of Restraint & Seclusion (De- Escalation training) 2. Never use Mechanical restraint, nor use Drugs or Medications 3.Only Student Poses Imminent Danger of Serious Physical Harm to Self or Othersother Interventions Ineffective 3.Only where Student Poses Imminent Danger of Serious Physical Harm to Self or Others, and other Interventions Ineffective, and should be discontinued when Imminent Danger Dissipates. 4.Policies All Children 4.Policies restricting use for All Children. 5. Students’ RightsDignity 5. Students’ Rights to be treated with Dignity

25 Principles continued 6. Never used as Punishment, Discipline, Coercion, Retaliation, Convenience 7. Never used in Manner that Restricts Breathing 7. Never used in Manner that Restricts Breathing (Prone Restraint) 8. Repeated Use - Triggers ReviewRevise Plan Implement Positive Behavioral Strategies 8. Repeated Use - Triggers Review, Revise Plan, Implement Positive Behavioral Strategies 9. Strategies address Underlying Cause Function 9. Strategies address Underlying Cause or Function/Purpose of Behavior Trained Regularly 10.Teachers/School Personnel Trained Regularly

26 Principles continued Carefully and Continuously Visually Monitored 11. Every incident Carefully and Continuously Visually Monitored Parents should be Informed 12. Parents should be Informed of Policies & applicable Laws Parents Notified 13. Parents Notified as soon as poss i ble each incident Policies Review ed Updated 14. Policies Review ed regularly & Updated as appropriate Documentation in Writing Data Collection (Debriefing) 15. Policies requiring Documentation in Writing and for Data Collection (Debriefing) Oregon is aligned with Federal Proposals, Best Practices, and the 15 Principles. Oregon is aligned with Federal Proposals, Best Practices, and the 15 Principles.

27 Q & As: Best Practices

28 Alternatives to Restraint/Seclusion Key points: Key points: Identify triggers · Identify triggers for students' aggression. Teach students replacement behaviors and address skills deficits · Teach students replacement behaviors and address skills deficits to reduce need for restraint/seclusion. use eye contact, personal details to connect with students. · Encourage educators to use eye contact, personal details to connect with students. Antecedent 1.Determine the Antecedent MHTime of day; Day of the week; Certain subjects; Certain activities or work tasks; Boredom -- too much downtime or MH; Transitions; Certain smells; Certain people being near or absent 2.Replace Challenging Behavior Teach the new behav modeling it Practice what it looks, sounds & feels like specific praise*Teach the new behavior.; Problem- Solve Collaboratively; Imprint the new behavior by modeling it ; & Practice new behavior & skills – what it looks, sounds & feels like; Praise new behavior – specific praise* Consequence 3. Consequence Modification: act/behave differently How are you going to act/behave differently?

29 Connecting with Students Check In/Check Out (CICO) Check In/Check Out (CICO) : First thing in the AM and last thing in the PM. Eye Contact appropriately & be aware of body language, verbal, voice tone. Use Eye Contact appropriately & be aware of body language, verbal, and voice tone. Comment about something personal & positive Comment about something personal & positive, what you like about the student; i.e. “Nice shirt”, “Great haircut.” Use Positive Greetings Use Positive Greetings ; i.e. – “Great to see you today.” high five, fist bump Use a form of touch; i.e. – high five, fist bump …. Specific Praise Use Specific Praise : i.e. – “Great job sitting in your chair and raising your hand to answer a question,” “Thank you for not interrupting and waiting your turn, Way to go!”, “Excellent job on your seat work today: you finished all the problems.” [ SW Positive Discipline Strategies (per HB 2192)]. [ SW Positive Discipline Strategies (per HB 2192)]. PBIS PBIS Collaborative Problem Solving (CPS); Restorative Justice Practices (RJP) Collaborative Problem Solving (CPS); Restorative Justice Practices (RJP)

30 Small Groups de-escalate situations and prevent What are some ways that you de-escalate situations and prevent the need to use physical restraint and seclusion with students? methodologies positively engage students and staff and address discipline What specific methodologies do you use or promote to positively engage students and staff and address discipline?

31 Food for Thought “ I’ve come to the frightening conclusion that I am the decisive element in my environment. It is my personal approach that creates the climate. It is my daily mood that makes the weather. I possess tremendous power to make someone’s life miserable or joyous. I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration. I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal. In all situations, it is my response that decides whether a crisis will be escalated or de- escalated and a person humanized or dehumanized.” “ I’ve come to the frightening conclusion that I am the decisive element in my environment. It is my personal approach that creates the climate. It is my daily mood that makes the weather. I possess tremendous power to make someone’s life miserable or joyous. I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration. I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal. In all situations, it is my response that decides whether a crisis will be escalated or de- escalated and a person humanized or dehumanized.” -Dr. Haim Ginott

32 Resources https://olis.leg.state.or.us/liz/2013R1/Measures/Text/HB2585/Enrolled https://olis.leg.state.or.us/liz/2013R1/Measures/Text/HB2753/Enrolled https://olis.leg.state.or.us/liz/2013R1/Measures/Text/HB2756/Enrolled https://olis.leg.state.or.us/liz/2013R1/Measures/Text/HB2192/Enrolled Jessica Butler (2012). How safe is the schoolhouse?: An analysis of State seclusion and restraint laws and policies. U.S. Department of Education (2012). Restraint and seclusion. Resource Document: Washington, D.C. Riffle, L. (2012). Special Education Connection: LRP Publications. Constitutional-Rights.htm#.UkWkDEtx12U.gmail Constitutional-Rights.htm#.UkWkDEtx12U.gmail

33 For the Good of the Order Final thoughts, comments, questions? Thanks for coming!


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