41940s -1950sTargeting of Businesses: the closing of gay bars and businesses that promoted social gathering of the gay communityAnti-gay partner laws: sodomy lawsEmployment Rights infringementBlack List: sparked a conservative mindset that promoted fear and aggression towards norm deviationsFBI moral perversion investigation: invasion of privacy and harassmentFederal employment restrictions: Eisenhower dismisses “sexually perverse” federal employeesKinsey Reports: begins open discussion about human sexuality and begins to fight stereotypes including homosexuality.
51960sJose Sarria: Runs for San Francisco city supervisorStonewall Riot: spurs a more forceful stand against discrimination
61970sAPA removes homosexuality from mental illness definitions: begins a change in stereotypes among healthcare professionalsAnita Bryant protest: Florida Orange Juice spokes person fights against gay liberation on the side of moral preservationFlorida bans gay adoptionHarvey Milk: Elected on San Francisco board of supervisors
71980sFirst report of AIDS: starts a national fear that points to gay lifestyle as the catalyst. Turns gay community in to a leper community.AIDS quilt project: brings the effects and importance of AIDS to public view. This helps increase public awareness as well as pushes for government funding and aid.ACT UP group formed: Fights the misconceptions regarding AIDS and fights for AIDS prevention as well as government funded research1990sLos Angeles riotsAmerican Medical Association: opposes treatment of homosexuality as it is not seen as needing a “cure”Employment Non-Discrimination Act defeated in US Senate
8Impact of the LGBT Movement Argument 1: The lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) movement has made many positive strides through the passing of nondiscrimination laws.The first law in the U.S. prohibiting discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation was passed in 1972, in the city of East Lansing, Michigan.The first law prohibiting anti-transgender discrimination was passed in 1975, in Minneapolis, Minnesota.At the local level, sexual orientation discrimination has been banned in more than 200 U.S. cities and counties.Discrimination against transgender people has been banned in over 70 U.S. cities and counties.
11Argument 2: Federal law does not protect LGBT people. EDNA: In 1994, the Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 1994 was in Congress. While this bill received much more support from the civil rights community and other sponsors, it failed to pass by a close vote.May 1998: President Bill Clinton issued Executive Order This order issues protection for LGBT people by prohibiting discrimination in federal civilian employment on the basis of sexual orientation.Because there isn’t federal support, over half of the U.S. population in 2005 (156 million people) can be fired, evicted, or denied places of public accommodation because of sexual orientation.Millions of transgender people also remain vulnerable as well.
12Argument 3: There is increasing growing support among the public concerning the protection of LGBT people.2003 Gallup Poll: Nearly 9 in 10 Americans support nondiscrimination of sexual orientation.A 2002 study by the Human Rights Campaign shows that 3 in 5 respondents support transgender nondiscrimination laws.Polls show that most Americans still oppose homosexuality. In June 2002, a Los Angeles Times poll stated that two out of three respondents believe that sexual relations between two people of the same sex is wrong.“In the 1990 General Social Survey (GSS), 76 percent of respondents said that homosexual relations were ‘always wrong’. In the 2000 GSS, that number decreased 59 percent.”
13Factors that shape views of homosexuality are based on a gender belief system: the assumption that what is not “feminine” must be “masculine” and vice versaSupport for equal job rights for gays and lesbians:1977: 56 percent favored equal job rights2002: 86 percent favored equal job rightsAttitudes regarding the cause of homosexuality:1982: 52 percent of Americans polled thought same-sex attraction was due to upbringing2002: more Americans believed that a person is born homosexual rather than environment causing their sexual orientation (40 percent versus 36 percent)
14Argument 4: Nondiscrimination laws are necessary for the protection of LGBT people. 1997 General Accounting Office Report: Despite 9 states having passed sexual orientation nondiscrimination laws, all continued to report sexual orientation discrimination cases every year.2001: In a statewide survey of lesbian, gay, and bisexual New Yorkers, 54% of respondents had experienced discrimination in employment, housing, or public accommodation since 1996; 8% were fired based on their sexual orientation. 27% of respondents reported being called derogatory names such as “faggot” and “dyke” in the workplace.
15Argument 5: State and local laws remain unstable. Dade County, Florida: Anita Bryant’s “Save Our Children” Campaign: One of the earliest and most infamous groups that repealed Dade County, Florida’s sexual orientation nondiscrimination ordinance. In the 1970s, this led to a series of anti-gay ballot measures, which also swept into the late 1980s and 1990s.There have been over 100 anti-gay ballot initiatives over the past three decades.In some cases, the scope of the backlash went beyond the initial nondiscrimination law that was passed. For example, in 1992, voters in Colorado passed Amendment 2, which repealed all existing state and local anti-discrimination laws.Since then, in 2007, the state of Colorado banned discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity/expression.
16Argument 6: Grassroots organizations and LGBT groups are behind the progress that has been made over the past three decades.In the past ten years, nearly 50 percent of the statewide sexual orientation nondiscrimination laws and 80 percent of statewide transgender nondiscrimination laws were passed. Grassroots organizations and LGBT groups in different states have banned together to make this possible.Transgender activists and allies have worked together to pass laws which make transgender people more visible in society.One positive result of the failure of Congress to pass same sex marriages has resulted in major national LGBT advocacy organizations to become more inclusive of transgender people and supportive of federal nondiscrimination legislation that is transgender-inclusive.
17ReferencesAvery, Alison. (2007) America's Changing Attitudes toward Homosexuality, Civil Unions, and Same-Gender Marriage: Social Work v. 52, no. 1Suffredini, Kara S. (2005). What a Difference a Decade Makes: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual andTransgender Nondiscrimination Law and Policy in the United States. The DiversityFactor, 13(1),(2003). Homosexuality. Contexts, 2(2), 58.VH1 The Sex Revolution Documentary,Social Movement Growth, Domain Expansion, and Framing Processes: The Gay/Lesbian Movement and Violence against Gays and Lesbians as a Social Problem Author(s): Valerie Jenness , Stonewall by Martin Duberman, The World Turned by John D’EmilioThe National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. (2008). [Graph illustration Nondiscrimination Laws Map, July 31, 2008]. Retrieved from
19EqualityAll people should have the same rights and liberties that all citizens of the United States have.GLBT persons are not second class citizens, separate, or segregated people1,049 protections, benefits, and responsibilities extended to married couples under federal law14th Amendment of the US Constitution
20What is Discrimination? States protect married couples in important ways, hospital visitation, right to inherit, medical decisions in an emergency; all these are denied GLBT personsThere are some religions that celebrate or accept GLBT marriages, to have them be classified as illegal or unconstitutional is impinging on their freedom of religion
21GLBT Relationships are Immoral Leviticus 18 & 20 labels homosexuals as abomination and sentences them to the penalty of deathWho else is labeled abomination in the same book?Who else should be sentenced to the penalty of death?
23Arguments against Gay Marriage Repeated studies show that it is love and care that are central to raising childrenChildren of GLBT couples do not have higher incidences of a GLBT lifestyleMajority of convicted sex offenders are heterosexual males*Same sex couples provide a bad environment for raising a childThe child will turn out gayGay people are all pedophiles
24Where are we now? Banned States Legal States Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Michigan Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Virginia WisconsinLegal StatesConnecticutIowaMaine (Effective 09/14/09MassachusettsNew Jersey (as civil union)Rhode IslandVermontWashington (as Domestic partners)
25Under a handglassMany people have concerns about the intense scrutiny given gay marriage and of the consequences of fighting for marriage equalityLanguage and ideology behind the gay marriage issue may be too narrowNuclear Family? To fit in or not to fit inAll GLBT couples as permanent, monogamous, and desiring of a nuclear family structure?Legal recognition for a wide variety of relationships should be available, as well as access to all to government support programs
27ArgumentThe “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” policy is not imperative for national security, operational readiness, and is out-dated. This policy discriminates not only homosexuals but women as well. The U.S. military undermines its credibility by ceasing to cite other foreign militaries when the anecdote no longer conforms to the argument of the United States.
28“Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” Policy States… Don’t Ask: Commanders or appointed inquiry officials shall not as, and members shall not be required to reveal, their sexual orientation.
29Don’t tell: A basis for discharge exists if…”the member has said that he or she is a homosexual or bisexual, or made some other statement that indicates a propensity or intent to engage in homosexual acts…”
30Don’t Pursue: More than a dozen specific investigative limits as laid out in Department of Defense instructions and directives comprise “Don’t Pursue.” It is the most complicated and least understood component of the policy. These investigative limits establish a minimum threshold to start an inquiry and restrict the scope.
31Policy ContinuedA service member can be investigated and/or administratively discharged only if she/he:States that he or she is lesbian, gay, or bisexualEngages in physical contact with someone of the same sex for the purposes of sexual gratificationMarries, or attempts to marry, someone of the same sex
32InvestigationOnly a service member’s commanding officer may initiate an inquiry into homosexual conduct.In order to begin an inquiry, the commanding officer must receive credible information from a reliable source that a service member has violated the policy.
33History 1981-DoD makes homosexual conduct grounds for discharge 1994-Clinton tries to lift the ban on gays in the militaryCongress threatened to establish the ban as federal law so Clinton delayed the liftSix months later-Clinton and Congress passed the National Defense Authorization Act, commonly referred to as the “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” policy2009-Obama states he will repeal the “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” policy to allow gays in the military
34President Obama States…. Discrimination of any type should be prohibited, even in the military.He will work with military leaders to repeal the current “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” Policy, to allow gays in the military.
35Gender Norms in the Military The “Good Soldier”Heterosexual gender normsStereotypical male qualities: aggressive, violent, unemotionalOpposite of the “Good Soldier”Female qualities: nurturing, sympathetic, relationalWoman threaten the male bonding experience necessary to reinforce male characteristics and produce “good soldiers”
36Gender Norms continued Heterosexual Norms Reinforce Male BondingMost important aspect of male bonding, thus homosexuals are outsidersHyper-masculinity is Primary for CombatPromoted as necessary to produce an effective“good soldier” for combat
37Military ReadinessHomosexuals do not damage morale, discipline, and good order in those countries that have open service.24 nations allow homosexuals to serve in armed forcesNo study has shown any of the 24 nations that allow homosexual soldiers to serve in uniform has suffered a decline in performanceIsrael, Great Britain, Germany, Sweden, Brazil, and Japan experience homosexuals serving openly as a “non-event”
39Former Lieutenant Commander of the British Navy Craig Jones offers this: “There will always be incidents [involving] racial prejudice or gender issues, things experienced by society. But by and large, integration of gay soldiers has been a hugely positive experience--and we're a better organization for it”
40However…As of May 1, 2009, President Obama changed his strategy and now “supports changing Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell in a sensible way that strengthens our armed forces and our national security.”
42Sex, Gender & Bipolarity Sex is defined as the anatomy of a person. The traditional view of sexes have women and men separated, but sex in nature recognizes intersexed and “transsexual” individuals.
43Gender is the appearance and behavior of a person and how they see themselves. Women typically are more accepted to display masculine characteristics than men.
44Sexual Orientation vs. Gender Identity vs. Sexual Identity In regards to sexual orientation, the gender and sex one identifies with is separate from one another. Sexual Orientation is defined as which sex do you find erotically attractive: The same sex (homo), The opposite (hetero) or both (bi)
45Sexual Identity and Gender Identity are not the same thing as gender and sex. For instance, ones sex can be biologically male, yet they their sexual identity is female. This person could wish to physically change their body to match their sexual identity. Gender identity is the way one sees themselves socially, and prefers to relate in social aspects as the opposite sex.
46Definitions/TermsIn the LGBT community, there are ways people define themselves, just like mini communities within a high school: Drag Queen: Female-emulating male, usually campy, often (not always) gay Butch: Masculine-appearing person Femme: Feminine-appearing person Drag King: Male-emulating woman Crossdresser: Polite term for transvestiteHedda LettuceRupaul
47Transsexual: Person whose sexual identity is opposite to their assignment at birth. Not all TS folk undergo ‘sex reassignment surgery’ (SRS), for various reasons, including personal preference. Sexual orientation varies.
48Violence Against The Transgendered Transgendered people are often the victims of violence.85% of Victims are African American or Latino.92% of victims are biological males presenting female traitsMost cases involve extreme violence40% of murders happen in California and Texas
49Transgender MovementMany in the Transgender movement feel that the mainstream GLBT movement is under representing the TransgenderedSome feel that for the sake of assimilation of gays and lesbians the transgender issues are swept under the rug
50There are also some that feel the movement is too fractured With so many acronyms and sub groups, there are a lot of different needs