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Reform, Resistance, Revolution

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1 Reform, Resistance, Revolution
Chapter 5 Reform, Resistance, Revolution Web

2 Imperial Reform Seven Years War was very costly
William Pitt George Grenville National debt nearly doubled during the war Decision to retain troops in North America Expect colonists to pay most, or all, of the cost Proclamation of 1763 Tried to regulate expansion beyond the Appalachians Encouraged settlement elsewhere in North America Designed to keep peace with Indians Caused great resentment among colonists

3 Imperial Reform (cont)
Pontiac’s War, 1763–1764 Response to continued frontier pressure Brought Indians together in unprecedented coalition Peace restored, but tensions remained high Brutality of the Frontier Paxton’s Boys

4 Pontiac’s War and the Proclamation Line of 1763
©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. Pontiac’s War and the Proclamation Line of 1763

5 Imperial Reform (cont)
Sugar Act, 1764 Effort to stop smuggled molasses from West Indies Widely resisted in Colonies Currency Act, 1764 Specie Forbade colonies to issue paper money as legal tender Quartering Act, 1765 Colonies forced to support troops materially Troops to be housed only in public buildings

6 The Stamp Act Crisis Raised revenue for England by imposing tax on printed materials in the colonies First direct tax on colonies Sparked outcries against taxation without representation Gave rise to arguments about “virtual representation” Internal and external taxes Colonists responded with Stamp Act Congress Denounced parliamentary oppression Boston’s Sons of Liberty sparked violent protests

7 Stamp Act Crisis (cont)
Nonimportation agreements adopted to prevent implementation Colonists eventually nullified Stamp Act Repealed by Parliament in 1766 Declaratory Act, 1766 Affirmed Parliament’s authority to pass laws and statutes for the colonies Revenue Act, 1766 Imposed tax on all molasses, British or foreign

8 The Townshend Program New duties imposed on tea, paper, glass, lead, painter’s colors Vice–admiralty courts Goal to raise revenue to pay salaries of the governors and judges in the colonies Colonies’ responses were varied Duties implemented with little direct opposition Circular Letter urged assemblies to oppose the duties Parliament’s denunciation of Circular Letter led to colonial nonimportation agreements Wilkes Crisis

9 The Boston Massacre Resulted from tensions generated by presence of British troops in Boston Common law 5 colonists killed and 6 wounded by British soldiers Soldiers successfully defended by John Adams Marked failure of Britain’s first attempt at military coercion in the colonies

10 Partial Repeal All Townshend duties except one on tea repealed
Colonists blamed each other for failing to get all duties repealed British efforts to crack down on smuggling raised colonial concerns Created committees of correspondence to keep in touch and plan responses to anticipated British assaults on colonial liberties Colonists increasingly determined to resist parliamentary encroachment

11 Internal Cleavages: The Contagion of Liberty
Artisans have increased role in public affairs Farmers protested limited access to land General opposition to large subsidies paid to colonial proprietors and their descendants Regulator movement in the Carolinas, 1765–1771 Sought to provide order on frontier Eliminate government corruption Emergence of early antislavery movement Forced slaveholders onto defensive, even before Revolution Poll tax Phillis Wheatley

12 Feudal Revival: Great Estates of Late Colonial America
©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. Feudal Revival: Great Estates of Late Colonial America

13 The Last Imperial Crisis
Tea Act, 1733 Repealed tea duty in England but retained it in colonies Monopoly control of East India Company Colonists saw as beginning of end of their liberties Opposition forced Boston Tea Party in December destroyed tea worth £11,000 (more than $700,000 in today’s dollars)

14 The Last Imperial Crisis (cont)
Coercive (Intolerable) Acts, 1774 Boston Port Act closed Boston until restitution had been paid Quartering Act allowed soldiers to be housed among civilians Administration of Justice Act allowed British soldiers accused of crimes in colonies to be tried elsewhere Provincial congresses Massachusetts Government Act took away self-government privileges Mandamus

15 The First Continental Congress
All colonies except Georgia represented Agreed unanimously on need for nonimportation against England Affirmed principle of no legislation with representation Petitioned king for redress of their grievances Created the Association to enforce trade sanctions against England

16 Toward War Resistance to Massachusetts Government Act
Formation of Massachusetts Provincial Congress Creation of Militia Stockpiling of arms at Concord British response to Massachusetts resistance Efforts in spring 1775 to destroy stockpiled weapons Battles at Lexington and Concord First battle of Revolution Struggle for control of Boston Battles at Bunker Hill

17 The Improvised War Washington appointed commander of Continental Army
Launched two ill-fated invasions of Canada Colonial objective still to restore government by consent under the Crown Olive Branch Petition Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking up Arms Crown declared colonies in rebellion in August 1775 Congress began acting more like a government by the autumn Assumed royal rather than parliamentary powers

18 War and Legitimacy, 1775–1176 Weak British forces had difficulty gaining ground Colonists took control of Boston in early 1776 Patriots had won control of territory in all colonies by summer Resulted in colonial debate over question of independence Thomas Paine’s Common Sense Spurred fears that England and France planned to divide eastern North America Declaration of Independence, 1776 Detailed self-evident truths justifying independence Indicted George III as tyrant

19 Lexington, Concord, and Boston 1775–1776
©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. Lexington, Concord, and Boston 1775–1776 Web

20 Discussion Questions What was the impact of the British decision to station troops in the colonies? How did the Proclamation of 1763 further aggravate the situation? Discuss the path to the revolution by examining the various acts imposed by Britain on the Colonies in the 1760s. What were the points of view of the colonies and Britain on rights and taxes? Was there enough common ground to avoid war? Examine the Declaration of Independence. What was its purpose then, and is it still significant now?

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