Presentation on theme: "The Road to Revolution 1763 – 1775 Mr. Love. The Deep Roots of Revolution Insurrection of thought usually precedes insurrection of deed. Why? America."— Presentation transcript:
The Deep Roots of Revolution Insurrection of thought usually precedes insurrection of deed. Why? America was a revolutionary force from the day of its discovery. Why? Distance weakens authority; great distance weakens authority greatly. Why?
Mercantilism Basic Belief: Wealth is power Country’s economic wealth (& military /political) can be measured by the amount of gold & silver in its treasury
Mercantile Theory Colonies: Regarded as existing first & foremost to help the mother country. How? Expected to furnish products needed in England & buy English goods. Like What? Discouraged from buying goods from other countries. Why? Colonies were suppose to complement & not compete with English industry. EG) do not make textiles in colonies.
Navigation Laws 1 st laws passed in 1650 Restricted commerce to & from the colonies Goal: Keep money within the empire bolstered British & colonial-merchant marine
Trading Goods Goods sent directly to England where custom duties were collected Some products like tobacco, were shipped to England & not to foreign markets. US had total monopoly on tobacco.
Problems for the Colonies No banks in colonies/ limited currency Bartering – little money in colonies Colonies started printing money & money depreciated Parliament restrained colonies from printing money – Currency Act
Mercantilism Provided profitable markets for English goods Kept gold/silver within the empire Goal: keep colonies economically dependent on England
Merits v. Menace of Mercantilism THE GOOD Laws laxly enforced Guaranteed markets Free military protection THE BAD Economic initiative stifled Exploited by British merchants Debasing to the Americans Generous share of profits
Quote “A wise owner does not disembowel or starve the goose that lays the golden eggs.”
Laws – 1763 & 1764 1763 – Prime Minister Grenville enforced the Navigation Laws taxed the colonies to help deflect 1/3 of the cost of protecting the colonies 1764 – Sugar Act: tariff on imported sugar (indirect tax)
Laws - 1765 Quartering Act provide food & quarters for troops Stamp Act: ( direct tax) – stamped paper or affixed stamp certifying payment colonial cry, “no taxation without representation”
Stamp Act Congress 1765 significance 1. 27 delegates from 9 colonies 2. Asked the king & parliament to repeal the act (ignored in England) 3. Brought together leaders from different colonies 4. Adopted a non-importation agreement against British goods (consumer boycott) 5. Led to violence by the Sons & Daughters of Liberty
Sons & Daughters of Liberty Tarred & feathered violators of nonimportation agreements Burned effigies, ransacked houses, etc. Officials stopped collecting the tax
Why Repeal? 1. Law was openly defied 2. British merchants demanded that parliament repeal it Merchants, manufacturers, & shippers were losing money & jobs 3. Stamp Act repealed 1766
Problems Began 1766 – Declaratory Act Proclaimed that Parliament had the right to “bind” colonies in all cases whatsoever 1767 – Townsend Act: light import tax on glass, paper, & tea (indirect tax- paid at ports) used to pay salaries of Royal Governors Colonial smuggling increased 1768 – British troops sent to Boston (taunted by the colonials)
Boston Massacre March 5, 1770 British troops kill 11 colonists Flames of discontent & resistance fanned by Samuel Adams Organized local Committees of Correspondence Chief function was to spread propaganda Creation of similar committees in all the colonies
British East India Company 1773 – given a monopoly on the American tea business Cheaper tea but still with a tax (all colonists see is the tax) Boston Tea Party resulted
Repressive Acts/ Intolerable Acts 1774 – parliament passed a series of Repressive Acts – (Intolerable Acts) Boston harbor was closed until damages were paid & order restored Restrictions placed on town meetings
Quebec Act Accompanied Intolerable Acts French were guaranteed their Catholic religion No representative assembly or trial by jury Southern boundary extended to the Ohio River
Response: 1 st Continental Congress Philadelphia Intercolonial frictions reduced Declaration of rights issued Appealed to the king & the British people Called for a complete boycott of all British goods: non-importation, non-exportation, & non-consumption Still no genuine drive for independence
The granting of some kind of home rule to the Americans might have prevented rebellion
Troops Sent 1775 – British commander sent troops to Lexington & Concord Goal: seize stores of colonial gunpowder & get Samuel Adams & John Hancock 8 Americans (minutemen) were killed at Lexington 70 British soldiers were killed at Concord “The shot heard round the world” – Emerson – WAR!
British Strengths 1. Larger population 2. Greater monetary wealth 3. Stronger naval power 4. Professional army 5. Hessians 6. American loyalists 7. Indian support
British Weaknesses 1. Irish & French threat 2. Government confused/ inept 3. Whigs supported colonies 4.Military difficulties 5. Britain had to win 6. Problems of distance 7. American geographical expanse
American Strengths 1. Outstanding leadership 2. French aid 3. European officers 4. Fighting defensively 5. Agricultural self- sustaining 6. Superior marksmen 7. Moral advantage
American Weaknesses 1. Badly organized 2. Sectional jealousy 3. Economic difficulties 4. Inflation 5. Desertions 6. Scant military supplies 7. Lack of manufactured goods 8. Unreliable militiamen 9. American profiteers