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Jeffersonianism and the Era of Good Feelings

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1 Jeffersonianism and the Era of Good Feelings
Chapter 8

2 Age of Jefferson Elected 1800 Worries Mixed opinion
Recognized need for smooth transition from Federalist to Republican government Stressed importance of acceptance of basic principles of constitutional government Worries Racial tensions Race war, Colonization of Africa Threats to American liberty High taxes, standing armies, and public corruption States needed more power, more responsive to the people Virtue Most virtuous = farmers Least virtuous= merchants/factory owners

3 Jefferson’s Revolution
Wanted to restore liberty and tranquility Republican Ideals Limits central government Erases national debt by convincing Congress to repeal taxes, close foreign embassies, and reduce standing army Also eliminated federal jobs and repeals Whiskey excise tax Balances Federalist Ideals Maintains National bank Continues Hamilton’s debt repayment plan Continues foreign neutrality of Washington and Adams

4 Jefferson and the Judiciary
Judiciary Act of 1801 From 6 to 5 Supreme Court Justices 16 new federal judgeships Adams’ fills with Federalists 1802 Congressional repeal Midnight judges Adams appoints Justice of the Peace and Judges before leaving office Madison does not deliver commissions Marbury v. Madison 1803 Marbury sues John Marshall Madison should have signed BUT Under no legal obligation the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional DOCTRINE OF JUDICAL REVIEW Supreme Court has power over other two branches Impeachment John Pickering, Samuel Chase Jefferson wanted judiciary more responsive to will of the people Outrageous behavior impeached

5 Louisiana Purchase 1803 Threats Napoleon Problem Consequences
Spain cedes territory to France Threatens Jefferson’s vision of an Empire of Liberty 1802 Spanish revoke Pinckney Treaty Sends Monroe and Robert Livingston to negotiate Napoleon Failure in Santo Domingo Refocuses on war in Europe Offers entire LA territory for $15 million Problem Nothing in constitution Jefferson puts aside ideals and claims it as an application of executive power to make treaties Consequences Doubles size of US Removes foreign presence Guarantees expansion of frontier Strengthens Jefferson’s hopes of future based on agriculture Lewis and Clark 1804 Expedition to LA territory Toussaint Charbonneau, Sacajawea Reach Pacific Ocean 1805 Invaluable scientific, cultural, and geographic information

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8 The Gathering Storm Election of 1804 Quids Aaron Burr
Overwhelming wins Federalist dispirited Aaron Burr Yanked from VP Joins “High” (Extreme) Federalists Plans secession of NE Wanted to be Gov. of NY Hamilton Duel Challenges Hamilton at Weehawken 1804 Kills Hamilton New Scheme James Wilkerson Mexico and LA territory Put on Trial Presided over by John Marshall Not guilty for Treason Quids Led by John Randolph Country ideology Believed Jefferson had compromised too much in office Yazoo Scandal 1795 Georgia sold Yazoo tract of land to land companies at fraction of value Legislature was bribed Next legislature cancelled sale Moral Challenge for Jefferson Solution: 1803 Federal Commission awarded 5 million acres (of original 35 million acres) to Yazoo Investors

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10 Suppression of American Trade and Impressment
Americans prospered off of war b/w Britain and France Rule of 1756 Broken Voyage Repackaging in US ports 1805 British declared illegal Orders of Council British order blockade of French ports French respond with seizure of British ships Cancelled out US trade British Impressment Humiliating Impressed ex- Royal Navy Embargo act of 1807 Jefferson’s answer to the Chesapeake- Leopard affair Most controversial legislation of Jefferson’s Prohibited sailing to foreign ports Supposed to only limit exports “peaceable coercion” Consequences Hurts Americans more than British or French Hard on farmers, seaman, merchants Hardest on NE, Mass Positive: merchants focused on manufacturing instead

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12 Writing Workshop Thomas Jefferson’s first term as President was so successful that he overwhelmingly won re-election in His second term, in contrast, was marked by frustration and failure. Discuss the achievements of Jefferson’s first term and the problems that beset his second.

13 James Madison 1808 Madison/ George Clinton= Republican Pinckney/King= Federalist Federalists have modest comeback in Congress Madison Believes liberty rests on virtue of people (farmers) Agricultural prosperity dependent on trade Congress repeals Embargo Act of 1807 with Non- Intercourse Act 1809 Opens trading Except Britain/France Economic Recession 1808, 1810 Leads to election of War hawks Macon’s Bill No. 2 Restored trade with Britain or France if they recognized US neutrality and not trade with enemy Napoleon's deception

14 On the Verge of War Problems Tecumseh and the Prophet
Warhawks called for British explusion from Canada and Spanish from Flordia Warhawks elected to Congress election of 1810 Pro- War Henry Clay, John Calhoun 1809 Treaty of Fort Wayne Indiana Territory Gov. William Henry Harrison Attracts settlers with land Outrages tribes Tecumseh and the Prophet Shawnee chief and brother Unites tribes against whites Meets with Harrison Harrison attacks Shawnee town at Tippecanoe River Consequences Harrison becomes a hero Discredits the prophet Persuades Tecumseh to side with British

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16 Congress votes for war Reasons Unpopular war Justified by
Violation of US neutrality rights Troubles with British on western frontier Unpopular war “Mr. Madison’s War” People not for it Against Southern Federalists Quids NY, NJ, New England (merchants *) For Northern Federalists Southern / Western Farmers Republicans in PA, MD, VA Justified by British impressments British violations of neutral rights British incitement of Indians Economic recession caused by British policy and actions

17 War of 1812 Problems Focus on Canada Success finally!
Lacked strong navy Largest British force Thought Canada would not be a challenge Focus on Canada Main attack Major losses 1812- surrendered Detroit to British 1812- lose Battle of Queenstown 1812- militia fail to attack Montreal Success finally! Gen. William Henry Harrison retakes Detroit defeats British at Battle of Thames Gen. Perry Destroys British squadron at Put-n-Bay, Lake Erie British offensive Napoleonic wars over Concentrate mainly in north at Lake Champlain Strategy to split NE and south unsucessful

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19 End of the War British attack Chesapeake Southern Campaign
Originally to district from Lake Champlain Most successful Burn Washington, D.C. Attack Baltimore unsuccessful Southern Campaign US Gen. Andrew Jackson Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana Fights Indians/ British Battle of New Orleans 2 weeks after Treaty Most dramatic battle Treaty of Ghent 1814 US delegation Henry Clay Albert Gallatin John Quincy Adams Signed Christmas Eve Restores status quo ante bellum (status before war) Says nothing about grievances before war

20 Meanwhile… Hartford Convention Problem Federalist meet 1814
NE states close to secession Pass resolutions summarizing grievances Abolish 3/5th compromise 2/3 vote to declare war and admit new states 1 term president Only 2 consecutive presidents from same state No more embargos over 60 days Problem Timing disasterous Treaty of Ghent and Jackson’s victory dash hopes of public support Election of 1816 swept by James Monroe Handpicked by Madison 4th VA president Federalists all but finished

21 War’s Legacy United States gains respect from other nations
US accepts Canada as neighbor and part of British empire Federalist party comes to an end Talk of nullification and secession would set a precedent later used in the South Native Americans abandoned by British, give up huge amounts of land US factories built during British blockade, America heading towards industrialism and self- sufficiency Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison become war heroes and future presidents Strong feelings of nationalism American future lies in West, way from Europe

22 Awakening of American Nationalism
New Symbols White House Star-spangled banner Madison’s Nationalism Political consequences of War Eliminated Federalists Convinced Republicans nation was strong embraced Federalist policies Message of Congress 1815 Federal support for internal improvements Tariff protection for new industries from Embargo New National Bank Henry Clay “American System” Protective tariff National bank Internal improvements Tariff of 1816 1st protective tariff Protected US manufacturers from influx of British goods Monroe’s Era of Good Feelings Supported by new generation, new nationalism Take on Federalist ideas Avoided political controversies “paper thin”

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24 John Marshall and Supreme Court 1818
Dartmouth College v. Woodward NH couldn’t turn college into public university Contract for a private corporation couldn’t be altered by a state McCulloch v. Maryland Issue whether MD had the right to tax a branch of the US bank Ruling: Loose interpretation allowed for creation of bank Implied power State could not tax an agency of the federal government Consequences Republicans mad Attack on state sovereignty Against Republican belief that the union was a compact among states Stripped states of power to impose will of people over corporations Panic of 1819 Bank tightens loans Value of money fell Severe economic depression Worst in the west Shook nationalists beliefs changed voter outlook Called for land reform Opposition to National Bank

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26 Missouri Compromise 1820-1821 Controversy over statehood 1819
11 free states, 11 slave Would upset balance of power Important because Would set precedent for slave states in northern part of LA territory Would bring up every issue that would be important for next 40 years Tallmadge Agreement Prohibited further introduction of slaves to MI Children of slaves freed at 25 Threat of Secession leads to compromise Preserve balance of slave/free states Maine admitted as free state Slavery prohibited north of 36 degrees 30 Missouri tries to block free blacks which leads to second compromise: Henry Clay Missouri could not discriminate against citizens of another state Doesn’t define who a citizen is Reinforces Ordinance of that Congress has right to prohibit slavery in territories

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28 Election of James Monroe
Overwhelmingly wins popular vote Voting base comes from younger generation Its said that he was a man of “the highest integrity” according to Thomas Jefferson and couldn’t hold a grudge Optimistic patriotic themes Federalists begin to fade

29 Political Changes Federalist Republican Old Republicans
-Limited Government -Strict interpretation -States rights New Republicans -National Bank -Protective Tariffs - Internal Improvements

30 Foreign Policy under Monroe
Reflected consensus more than conflict Secretary of state John Quincy Adams excellent diplomat Strengthened peace with Britain Treaties Rush-Bagot Treaty 1817 Demilitarizes Great Lakes British American Convention 1818 Restores fishing rights to US Fixes boundary between US and Canada to Rockies Oregon “Free and Open” Spain US seizes West Florida 1812 Gen. Andrew Jackson invades East Florida Burns Seminole villages Spanish scared Adams-Onis Treaty (Transcontinental) 1819 US gets all of Florida and Oregon Territory Gave up Texas New border in west

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32 Monroe Doctrine 1823 Main points Unless US interests involved, US is staying out of European Wars American continents were not subject for future colonization by any European power Any attempt against would be construed as “unfriendly” Excluded Would support revolutionary movements in Europe Use doctrine to claim preeminent position in New World Americans requiring reputation for being aggressive Written by Adams Supposed to be a joint statement with Britain


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